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(Nos. I to IV,— 1870.) 
(With thirteen plates.) 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such 
communications shall be long intermitted $ and it will die away, if they shall 
entirely cease." 

^<£y4 * MU o ^m W M - Jones. 



of the Journal ', Part 7, Ms. I. to IV., for 1870. 
No. I. 

No. II. 

No. III. 


Translations from the Tarikh i Firiiz Shahi. — By the late 
Major A. R. Fuller, Director of Public Instruction, 
Panjab, - - - - - 1 

Eejoinder to Mr. Beames. — By F. S. Growse, Esq., M. A., 

B. C. S., - - - - 52 

Note on a Circle of Stones in the District of Yusufzai. — By 

Colonel Sir A. Phayre, (with a plate), - - 58 

A Covenant of 'Ali, fourth Caliph of Baghdad. — By J. Avdall, 

Esq., M. A. S., - - - 60 

Memorandum on and Tentative Reading of the Sue Vihar 
Inscription from near Bhawalpur. — By E. C. Bayley, 
Esq., C. S. I., C. S., (with two plates), - 65 

Notes on Old Delhi.— By J. D. Tremlett, Esq., M. A., C. S., 70 
Notes on Archaeological Remains at Shah ki Dheri, and the 

site of Taxila. — By J. G. Delmerick, Esq., - 89 

Kashmiri Test words. — By W. J. Elmslie, Esq., M. D., - 95 
Gondi Words and Phrases. — By Rev. James Dawson, - 108 

Notes on Sanscrit Inscriptions from Mathura. — By Babit 

Ra'jendrala'la Mitra, (with four plates), - - 117 

Contribution towards Vernacular Lexicography. — By Babu 

Prata'paohandra Ghosha, B. A., - - 131 

Extracts from letters addressed by the Rev. T. Foulkes, 
Chaplain of Vepery, to the Chief Secretary to Govern- 
ment, Fort St. George, dated 29th May, and 26th June, 
1869, regarding three sets of Copper Sasanams dis- 
covered in the Yizagapatam District, - - 153 

iv Contents. 


Notes on the Antiquities of the Nalti, the Assia, and the 
Mahabinayaka Hills of Cuttack. — By Babu Chandra- 
sekhara Banurjt, Deputy Magistrate, Jajpur, - 158 

Additional Gondi Vocabulary. — By Rev. James Dawson, 

Chindwara, C. P., - - - 172 

The Yastu Yaga and its bearings upon Tree and Serpent 
Worship in India. — By Babu Prat apach and ra Ghosha, 
B. A., - - - - - 199 

Extracts from my Diary regarding the Bonhara Temple 
near Omerpore, Behar, and other Antiquities of the 
place. — By Babu Eashbihari Bose, Sub-Divisional 
Officer, Banka, Bhagulpur, - - 232 

No. IV. 

The Funeral Ceremonies of the Ancient Hindus. — By Babu 

Ea'jendralala Mitra, - - - - 241 

Notes on Kashmiri Hermits. — By Lieut.-Col. D. J.F. Newall, 

E. A., - - - - 265 

Facsimiles of Autographs of Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Prince 
Dara Shikoh, with notes on the Literary character, and 
the Capture and Death of Dara Shikoh. — By H. Bloch- 
mann, Esq., M. A., Calcutta Madrasah, (with a plate), - 271 

Notes on Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hiigli 
District. — By H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A., Calcutta 
Madrasah, (with five plates), - - 279 

Index, ------ 305 


Plate I. (p. 58). View of a Stonehenge near Sung Buttee 

(Eusufzye District). 
„ II. (p. 68). Inscription found at Sue Vihar near Bha- 

„ III. (p. 69). The Tower at Sue Vihar. 

( IY ) 

„ to (p. 130). Mathura Inscriptions. 

„ VIII. (p. 300). The Interior of the Mosque of Panduah. 
,, IX. The niche of ditto ditto. 
,, X. The Basalt Pillars of ditto ditto. 

,, XL View of the Tower of Panduah. 
,, XII. Entrance to the Tower of ditto. 

„ XIII. (p. 271). Facsimiles of Autographs of Jahangir, 
Shahjahan and Prince Dara Shikoh. 

in Part 1 '., Journal, for 1870. 

Page 52, 
























































14, after ' corruption of the Sanscrit,' supply 
9, Raddhati read Paddhati. 
6, Azardirachta read Azaddirachta. 

34, for ^ii«r read ^"*q«f. 

„ for SRHJ^JWHt; read ^^"^jTrT. 
25, for ygsj read ^T. 
SI, for Brahman (dead) read twice born dead. 

,, for or read nor. 
32, /or Brahman read twice-born. 

35, for Sudra read a Suclra. 
37, for month read a month. 

34, for fvffj^S read fvpTQ^S. 
9, for Vaidya read Vaisya. 

39, for ^jfa^eft: read ^fwT^\i 
11-14, for award read reward. 

35, for ^3<T read ^r<T. 

28, for to look read when looking. 

21, for ^t: read itm: 

22, for fT^f^rrr read f^fe^T. 





No. I.— 1870. 

Translations from the TdrikJi i Firuz Shahi, by the late Major 
A. R. Fuller, Director of Public Instruction, Panjdb. 

(Communicated by T. W. H. Tolbort, Usq., G. S.J 
[Continued from No. IV. of Tent I., for 1869.] 

[Edit. Bibl. Indica, p. 282.]* When Sultan 'Alauddin had witnessed 
four consecutive revolts, commencing with that in Gujrat which was 
raised by the new converts to Islam, up to that of Haji Maula, he awoke 
from his slumber of apathy and oblivion, and recovered from his various 
insane fancies. While using his utmost exertions in the prosecution of 
the siege of Rantambhur, he held privy councils both by day and night, 
to which were convoked Malik Hamiduddin, and Malik A'azzuddin, the 
sons of 'Ala Dabir, and Malik 'Ainulmulk of Multan, every one of 
whom was an Xcaf and a Buzurjmihr in soundness of judgment, as well 
as some other sage advisers. With these he held consultations and 
conferences, as to the cause of the revolts, in order that when their 
origins and causes had been correctly ascertained, they might be 
altogether removed, so that hereafter no revolt might possibly occur 

After several days and nights' deliberation, the conclusion arrived 
at by these councillors was, that the cause of the revolts was comprised 

# The foot notes and passages iu [ ] are additions made by the Editor of this 

2 Translations from the Tdrtkh i Ftruz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

in four things ; first, the king's disregard as to the affairs of the 
nation, whether they are prosperous or adverse ; secondly, wine, 
for people are in the habit of having parties for the purpose of wine- 
drinking, when they disclose their most secret thoughts to each other, 
make confederates and hatch conspiracies; thirdly, the friendship, 
amity, relationship, and constant intercourse existing among the 
Maliks and Amirs, and their close connexion with one another ; 
so that if any accident befals one of them, a hundred others on account 
of their connexion, relationship, and attachment to him, become his 
confederates; and fourthly, wealth, by reason of which the ideas of 
treason and disaffection enter their brains, and disloyalty and ingrati- 
tude come to a head ; for, were people destitute of wealth, every one 
would attend to his own business and employment, without giving 
heed to conspiracies and rebellions; and were no means at their 
disposal, such ideas would never enter the minds of poor and 
impoverished folks. 

Some time after Haji Mania's revolt, Sultan 'Alauddin succeeded 
with immense toil and difficulty in capturing the fort of Rantambhur, 
whereupon he put Rai Hamir Deo, and the new converts, who had 
fled from the Grujrat insurrection and taken shelter with him, to 
death. Rantambhur, together with the surrounding country, was given 
to Ulugh Khan, and whatever was in the fort became his. 

The Sultan then returned from Rantambhur to Dihli, and being 
greatly incensed against the inhabitants of that city, sentenced many 
of the chief men to be exiled from it ; and he himself would not 
enter the town, but took up his quarters in the suburbs. 

Ulugh Khan for four or five months during the Sultan's absence 
enlisted an immense force, purposing to effect the invasion of Talinga 
and Ma' bar [Malabar] ; but fate happened to overtake him, and he 
was seized with death about the time of his approach to the capital. 
His corpse was accordingly brought into the city, and interred in his 
own mansion. The Sultan was deeply grieved at the sad event [and 
distributed a great deal of alms to the memory of the departed]. 
• [The Sultan 'Alauddin* then took active measures to render revolts 
in future impossible. First of all, he commenced with confiscating 

* Here is a blank in Major Fuller's translation, extending from p. 283, 1. 5, 
from below, Ed. Bibl. Indica, to p. 285, last line. The text of this portion is 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Ftruz Shdhi. 3 

the property of certain classes, and gave the order that all villages 
which people held as milk, or in 1 dm, or toaqf, should forthwith be 
resumed and made Imperial Domain land. The officers, moreover, 
were to treat the people as tyrannically as possible ; they should think 
of pretexts for extorting money, and leave no one in possession of gold. 
After a short time matters had gone so far, that only in the houses of 
the Maliks, and Amirs, and officers, and Multani merchants, and... . not 
even so much money remained .. ..and from his excessive demands 

only a few thousand tankahs to him in Dilhi all pensions, 

grants of land, and legacies in the whole kingdom they opened (?), 

and the whole people had so much to do with earning their livelihood., 
that no one had even time to pronounce the word ' rebellion.'] 

[Secondly, with the view of making revolts impossible, the Sultan 
appointed informers fmunhiydn), and their number was so great, that 
he knew the good and bad things that men did. People could not utter 
a syllable without his knowledge ; and whatever happened in the 
houses of the Amirs and the Maliks, of wellknown and great men, of 
the officers and collectors, was, in the course of time, brought to the 

full of blunders, and a few words have remained untranslated. Ed. Bibl. Ind. 
p. 283, 1. 2 from below, for tijJLioo, read jJjUoo bikashdnand Fordj^ 
in the last line, read ^b| • and as &J& (.&> Kjj (iJLL^j has no sense, we may 
perhaps read ^jJoo Um In) /iLL^tyJ, or Jj*Lk .j ; and leave no one in possession 
of gold. 

P. 284, 1. 2, sdhdn is unclear to me. After an qadre, a sentence with 
&f is wanting. For Jchdnah we expect khdnahd, though it is in accordance 
with the clumsy style of Zia i Baranf, Mafniz on 1. 3 is a queer word, 
and should be either Bjjj^b bddrozah, or &^\)\ rozinah, daily allowance, 
the same as wazijah. Another queer word is ^/o|Vff on 1. 14, for which 
we have perhaps to read cux>|-i fine, mulct. For ^)\^j j UL&. on 1. 4 from 
below, read c)\^\ /^l^ala. as on p. 2S5, 1.2 from below. For midddand on 
1. 9 of the same page (28 A), we should perhaps read middd, if daur be the sub- 
ject ; for the plural mikardand in the following line is used honoris caus& of the 
Sultan. The word al£j is doubtful. 

The word daur is evidently the name which 'Alauddin gave his corps of 
spie3, and is the same as naubat, a watch, a patrol. 

On p. 285, 1. 13 dele j before &]£ An amusing alteration by the printer's 
devil and his ' superintendent' may be found on p. 287, 1. 3, where for fitnah. 
ancjezi, we read fitnah i Angrezi ! ! 

4 Translations from the Tar'ikh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

Sultan. Nor did he treat indifferently ffard naguzasht) whatever in- 
formation was brought to him by the patrol (daur), but he made the 
patrol responsible for it. The spies were so intruding, that the Maliks 
in Hazar Situn could no longer say a single word openly, and if they 
had to say anything, they made use of gestures. Day and night they 
trembled in their houses, lest the patrol of informers should come ; 
and they no longer spoke, nor did they do anything which might sub- 
ject them to reproof, fines (gharamat), or punishments (ta'zirj* 
Every Bazar news, sales and purchases, and the doings of the people 
in the markets were reported by the watch, and inquired into by the 

[Thirdly, with the view of preventing revolts in future, the drink- 
ing and the sale of wines were prohibited. Afterwards the Sultan 
also prohibited bagnif and hemp (bang J, as also gambling. Great exer- 
tions were made to carry out the prohibition of the sale of wine and 
bagni, and special wells were constructed to serve as prisons. Drunkards, 
gamblers, bagni- vendors, were driven out of the city into the country, 
and the enormous taxes which the state had derived from them, had to 
be struck off the revenue books. The Sultan, first of all, gave the order 
to remove from the social assembly rooms of the palace all decanters, 
■ma'baris } % the porcelain vessels painted with gold, and the glasses and 

* Ta'zir ( ♦JV*ii ) is a punishment not fixed by the Qoran, and is opposed to 
hadd f ti^. ) when the Qoran fixes the punishment, as stoning for adultery. 
In the former the judge may use his discretion, and control the degree of the 
punishment according to circumstances. 

f I do not know why the ' superintendents' of the Ed. Bibl. Ind. have 
•written ~bugni. The word is only given in the Majma'ulfurs by Sururi 
(vide J. A. S. B., 1868, p. 16), who has— 

From this Burhdn has copied, though he has left out the form ^xXj pagni, 
which has also come under Sururi' s observation. 

X The text (p. 284, 1. 1) has ^y^uo^ a word not to be found in our diction- 
aries. From the context it is clear that a vessel jor holding wine is intended. 
It may come from ~\juo ma' bar, Malabar. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shahi. 5 

bottles. All were smashed, and the broken bits were thrown in 
heaps before the Badaon gate. The bottles of wine were also taken 
from the assembly rooms and poured out, and the quantity of wine 
thus thrown away was so great, that pools and puddles were formed as 
in the rainy season. The Sultan 'Alauddin also discontinued his wine- 
assemblies, and he told the Maliks to mount elephants and go to the 
gates of the city, and into the streets and the districts, the bazars and 
sarais, and proclaim that it was his order that no one should drink or 
sell wine, or have anything to do with wine. Decent people gave up 
wine drinking as soon as the order was published, but shameless ill- 
disposed wretches, pimps and panclerers, erected stills (Hind, bhatti), 
and distilled spirits from sugar, and drank and sold wine in secret ; 
or they filled leather bags outside the town with wine and put them 
between loads of grass or fuel, or had recourse to other tricks of con- 
veying wine into the city. The spies made strict inquiries, and the 
guards at the gates and the runners (harid) posted there examined 
every one, and seized the wine and the owners, and took them before 
the Palace. It was then ordered to give the wine to the elephants 
of the Imperial stables to drink ; and such as had sold it, or smuggled 
it into the city, or had drank any, were beaten with sticks, and 
. fettered, and put into prison, where they were detained for some time. 
But as the number of the prisoners increased very much, they made 
wells before the Badaon gate at a place where all people pass by, and 
into these wells all were thrown that drank or sold wine.] 

Some from the distress and misery they suffered in the wells 
died there, while others who were released after a time, came out 
half dead, and it took ages for them gradually to recover their health, 
and pull up strength. Many, therefore, through fear of imprisonment, 
abjured the use of wine, and if they were unable to control their 
appetites, they used to go [to the fords] of the Janmah, and 
the villages ten or twelve Jcos off, and drink it there. In Ghiaspur, 
however, and Indarpat,* and Kiluk'hari, and the villages four or five 

# Ghiaspur and Indarpat are portions of Dihli. Kilok'hari had been noticed 
before. Ghiaspur is that portion of Dihli where Nizamuddin Aulia lies buried. 
It is also called Mughulpur, from a party of Mughuls that were converted to 
Islam and settled there ; Baddoml., p. 173, 1. 4. I am not quite sure whether 
this Mughulpur is not the same as Afghdnptir, mentioned before (J. A. S. B. for 
1869, p. 214, note ) ; for the parganah and the town of Afghanpur in Satnbhal 
also were called both Afghanpur and Mughulpur. 

6 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz ShuJii. [No. 1, 

kos away, as well as in the Sarais outside the town, the sale and 
purchase of liquor was no longer feasible. It is nevertheless cer- 
tain that some reckless individuals continued to distil wine at their 
own houses, and to drink and to sell it ; and ultimately suffered 
disgrace and infamy, and were cast into prison. 

When the prohibition of the use of wine began to press too severely, 
the Sultan gave orders that, if any one distilled spirits privately, and 
drank the liquor in seclusion, without having a party or assembly, 
and without selling it, the spies were not to interfere with him, 
nor enter his house, nor apprehend him. 

From the day that the use of wine was interdicted in the city, trea- 
sonous conferences and conspiracies began to decrease, and thoughts 
and ideas of rebellion were no longer agitated by the people. 

Fourthly, with a view to obviate the causes of revolt, it was direct- 
ed that the Maliks and Amirs, and all the noble and confidential 
officers of the crown, should not go to one another's houses, and give 
parties and entertainments, nor should they, without first reporting the 
matter before the throne, enter into family alliances with one another, 
nor permit the people to have constant intercourse with them at their 

This order also was enforced with such strictness that not a stranger 
was permitted to stay in the houses of the Maliks and Amirs ; 
and feasts and entertainments, when a great concourse of people would 
be gathered, were altogether stopped. * The Maliks and Amirs, 
though fear of the patrols, behaved most cautiously, and never 
held an assembly, nor uttered an imprudent expression, nor allowed 
any rebellious, infamous, or disaffected character to come near them 
When they repaired to the palace, moreover, it was no longer possible 
for them to put their heads close to one another's ears, and to utter 
and hear whispered conversations, nor could they sit down in close 
proximity at one spot, and give vent to the sorrows of their hearts, 
and to complaints against the world. 

* So perhaps in Major Fuller's MS. The last Hue on p. 286, of the Edit. 
Bill. Indica has no grammar. Page 287 of the same edition is dreadfully dis- 
figured by blunders and typographical errors. Line 3, read angezi for angrezi. 
For rnusliattit'i with a Jj , we expect mushattiti, with a o. Line 15, for 
dwardan read awardand. Line 17, for kluitdn read Ichuidnrd. Line 18, for 
yd read td. Line 19, for chardi, read chardi ; for bistdmd read bistdnand ; and 
suMnatgari should not be broken up. Line 20, for ghubbate read ghabane. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrihh i Firtiz Shdhi. 7 

Owing to this prohibition also, no information of a treasonous con- 
ference ever reached Sultan 'Alauddin, nor did any revolt again occur. 

After settling the above regulations, Sultan 'Alauddin requested his 
councillors to suggest some rule or regulation, whereby the Hindus 
might be ground down, and their property or wealth, which is the 
source of rebellion and dissaffection, might no longer remain with 
them ; and that one law respecting the payment of revenue might be 
instituted for all of them, whether landlords or tenants,* and the re- 
venue due from the strong might not fall upon the weak ; and that 
so much should not be left to the Hindus as to admit of their riding 
horses, wearing fine clothes, and indulging in sumptuous and luxu- 
rious habits. 

In furtherance of the above object, which is indeed the chief of all 
objects of government, they suggested two regulations. First this, that 
whatsoever the Hindus cultivated, whether great or little, they should 
give one half agreeably to the measurement and [the full value of the 
produce per biswaJi], without any distinction, and that they should leave 
the landlords nothing beyond their proprietary rights [?]. Secondly, 
that they should levy a grazing ta*x on every animal that gives milk, from 
a cow to a she-goat, and that they should collect them in a fold in rear 
of every dwelling house [?]f , so that no opportunity might be left for 

* The text has y*>^Jj <X.L^. Lower down we find ujyfc^bj &lJzyL. Baldhar 

maybe Hindustani, and signify a low-caste servant. Khut is a rare Arabic word 
signifying a fine, strong man. From the passages below it is quite clear that 
these terms mean the strong and the weah, and most probably landlords and 
tenants, as translated by Major Fuller, if I did not know that Major Fuller's 

MS. had <Xi^.:-L with a j, — he says in a foot note that the words *A^J* <*i^A 

are unintelligible to him — , I would say that Aj^k was a blunder for Ik^yi 
with a o. 

I have never seen these terms used in any other book. 

f The text has bahukm i masdhat o ivafd i biswah bikunand, — very unclear 
terms. Major Fuller left a blank. 'Alauddin wants to grind down the Hindus ; 
they are to pay taxes amounting to one-half, i. e. 50 per cent., and their lands are 
to be measured, and not even a biswah of their grounds is to escape taxation. 

The words from tvithotit distinction to dwelling house, with all due deference 
to a scholar like Major Fuller, are wrongly translated, though I am not sure 
whether the following is absolutely free from objections. Translate — 

' First this, that they (the officers) should measure, and tax to the full value, 
even the last biswah, whatever grounds the Hindus cultivated, whether great 
or little ; and that the Hindus should pay 50 per cent, without distinction, and 
that there should be no difference between the powerful and the weak, and 
that they (the officers) should remit the powerful nothing of the sums due by 
them for their wealth. Secondly, they should levy a grazing tax on every 

8 Translations from the Tdrihh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

evasion or subterfuge in levying the tax, and the burden of the strong 
might not fall upon the weak, but that both to the strong and to the 
weak there might be but one law for the payment of the revenue. 

On tliis duty, and in calling to account those functionaries, clerks, 
overseers, and agents, who were in the habit of taking bribes and 
committing embezzlements, Sharif i Qayini,* Naib Wazir of the Em- 
pire, who had not his equal in the art of caligraphy throughout the 
whole Kingdom, and was conspicuously distinguished for his judg- 
ment and ability and his elegant composition, was several years 
employed. He used the greatest efforts, until he made all the villages 
around the capital, the towns and districts in the Diuib, from Biyauah 
to Jhayin, from Palam to Deopalpur, and Luhur, all the territories 
of Samanah and Sunnam, from Rewari to Nagor, from Karah to 
Kanodi, and Amrohah, Afghan pur, and Kabar, from Dabhai to Ba- 
daon, and K'harak, and Koelah, and the whole of Katehar,f — until he 
made all these places, with regard to the payment of revenue, subject 
to one standing regulation of measurement and [the full value of the 
produce per bisivah, and of a house tax, and] the grazing tax, as if 
they were but one village. 

He carried out the system so well too, that contumacy and rebel- 
lion, and the ridingj of horses, carrying of weapons, wearing of fine 
clothes, and eating of betel, went out entirely among the Chowdries, 

animal that gives milk, from a cow to a she-goat. And this grazing tax was 
established. Also, for every house, they should demand a dwelling tax, so 
that no opportunity, &c.' The difficult words are az pas i har Tchdnah sultiinat- 
gari talab numdyand. Zia, as shall be shewn below, is a most miserable 
writer, as far as style is concerned. His language is Hindi literally translated 
into Persian. Even in his work on the History of the Barmakides his style is 
very poor. Az pas i liar klidnah is idiomatic Hindi or Hindustani, har g'har 
he piclilie, behind every house, i. e. for every house, per house. That a new 
tax is meant is clear from p. 288, 1. 10 and p. 323, 1. 10, where fg&S is either 
^'SS, or t^sj^, from l^S (*j£), or j£, a house. 

* So according to Major Fuller's MS. Qayin f ^li ) is the well known in 


f Samanah and Sunnam occur often together. They belong to the Sirkar of 
Sarhind ; Dabhai ( ^jl^jjj, or with a nasal n, ^L^xi.i ) belongs to the Sirkar 
of Kol, and must not be confounded with U4JJ, L>ehba, (now &*A^ Dahrnah) in 
the Sirkar of Ghazipur. Kdnaudi, or Kdnaudah, belongs to the Sirkar of 
Narnaul ; Katehar is Eohilcund. Kabur is in Sambhal ; another Kabur belongs 
to the Sirkar of Bihar in Bihar. Amrohah lies in Sambhal. For vfJi-frS' Major 
Fuller's MS. had £)yx? (?). 

X Compare J. A. d." B. ; 1869, I., p. 121, 1. 15. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrihli i Mruz ShdJti. 9 

landed proprietors, and other opulent men. In collecting the revenue he 
made one law applicable to all of them, and to such a degree did their 
obedience extend, that a single constable of the revenue department in 
exacting the taxes would seize some twenty landed proprietors, chief 
men, and agents, and minister kicks and blows to them. It was not 
possible in fact for a Hindu to hold up his head, and in their houses not 
a sign was left of gold and silver [and tanhahs and jetals~], and articles 
of luxury, which are the main incentives to disaffection and rebellion. 
In consequence of their impoverished state, the wives of the landed 
proprietors and chief men even used to come to the houses of the 
Musalmans, and do work there, and receive wages for it. 

The same Sharaf of Qayin, the Naib Wazir, also carried out the 
business of investigating and recovering the embezzlements of all the 
superintendents, overseers, revenue officers, and functionaries, agents, 
and collectors, to such an extent, and effected such a close scrutiny, 
that every Jetal standing against the name of each of them was extract- 
ed from the ledgers fbahi) of the pativdris (or village accountants), 
and in accordance with that, the sums were levied from them under 
pain of torture. It was no longer possible, therefore, for any one to 
take one tankah or any single thing indeed from either a Hindu 
or Musalman by way of bribe.* 

He thus reduced the revenue officers, collectors, and other function- 
aries to a state of poverty and destitution ; for he used to commit them 
to prison, and kept them for years in irons for the sake of a thousand or 
five hundred tankahs, so that these appointments were regarded with 
greater disgust by the people than a plague. The office of revenue clerk 
too fell into bad odour, so that no one would give his daughter in mar- 
riage to such a person, while the post of superintendent would only be 
accepted by one who had no regard for his life ; for these officials 
and collectors passed most of their days [on suspicion] in confinement, 
suffering from blows and kicks. 

* In the Ed. Bill. Indica, p. 289, 1. 3 dele the words harishwat before chize. 
On 1. 9, the word J^i has either the meaning the jail situated in the shiqqah of 
a shiqddr (?), or it is blunder for ^Jj* and dar shalclc means on suspicion. 

In Shakespear's Hindustani Dictionary I findj|i>iL£ shiqqddr given in the 
sense of perplexing, uncertain ; but surely, this is a mistake, or an Indian spel- 
ling, for jl^xw from iSJ* shakk, doubt. 


10 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shdh'i. [No. 1, 

Sultan 'Alauddin was a monarch, who had not a particle of education, 
and had never cultivated the society of intelligent persons. 

On attaining to the sovereignty, he formed the opinion in his own 
mind, that the business of ruling and governing was a totally distinct 
affair from giving efficacy to the statutes of religion, and that royal 
mandates appertained to Kings, but the commandments of the law of the 
Prophet to Qazis and Muftis. In accordance with this idea, therefore, 
whatever measure in the course of government pleased him, or ap- 
peared advantageous to the State, that he invariably adopted, no mat- 
ter whether it was consonant with the precepts of religion or not ; 
and never, in the transaction of state affairs, did he ask for an ecclesi- 
astical verdict or decree on the propriety of any measure. Very few 
intelligent persons had frequent intercourse with him ; but of those 
who used to visit him were, first, Qazi Ziauddin of Biyimah ; second, 
Maulana Zahiruddin Lang, and third, Maulana Mushayyid of Guhrani.* 
[They were ordered to sit at the table, and sat together with the 
Amirs outside]. Qazi Mughisudclin of Biyanah also had constant 
communication with the Sultan, and used to attend both at public 
and private audiences. 

One day, about the time when a great deal of trouble was being 
taken with regard to levying heavier taxes, and imposing fines and 
recoveries on revenue officers, Sultan Alauddin told the Qazi Mughis 
that he intended asking him for his professional opinion on several 
subjects, and required him to state the exact truth in return. Qazi 
Mughis said in reply : " It seems as if the hour of my death 
were near at hand ;" whereupon the Sultan enquired, " Why should you 
think so ?" "Because," exclaimed the Qazi, "when your Majesty 
asks my opinion on religious points, and I state the truth, your Ma- 
jesty will get enraged and put me to death." " Rest assured," said 
the Sultan, "that I will not harm you ; only reply with truth and sin- 
cerity to whatever questions I may put to you." Qazi Mucin's 
answered, " Whatever I have read in theological works, that will I 

The first question proposed by Sultan 'Alauddin to the Qazi Mu- 
ghis was : " Under what circumstances can the epithets of Khirdj- 

* Guhram is a town and parganah in the Sirkar of Sarhind. In Elliot's 
works, also in Prof. Dawson's Edition, the name is wrongly spelt Kolirdm. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrilch i Firm Shdhi. 11 

dih, and Kliirdjguzar be properly applied to a Hindu ?" The 
Qazi replied, " By the ecclesiastical law, the term * Khiraj-guzar' is 
applicable to a Hindu only, who, as soon as the revenue collector de- 
mands the sum due from him, pays the same with meekness and 
humility, coupled with the utmost respect, and free from all reluc- 
tance ; and who, should the collector choose to spit in his mouth, 
opens the same without hesitation, so that the official may spit into 
it, and under such circumstances continues to pay him homage. The 
purport of this extreme meekness and humility on his part, and of the 
collector's spitting into his mouth, is to shew the extreme subser- 
vience incumbent on this class, the glory of Islam and the orthodox 
faith, and the degradation of false religion. God Almighty himself [in 
the Qoran] declares with regard to their being subjected to degrada- 
tion 'cm yadin wahum gdghiruna* and thus he expressly commands 
their complete degradation, inasmuch as these Hindus are the dead- 
liest foes of the true Prophet. Mustafa, on whom be blessing 
and peace, has given orders regarding the slaying, plundering, and 
imprisoning of them, ordaining that they must either follow the true 
faith, or else be slain and imprisoned, and have all their wealth 
and property confiscated. With the exception of the Imam i A'zam 
[Abu Hanifah], whose doctrines we uphold, we have no other 
great divine as authority for accepting the poll tax fjazyahj from a 
Hindu; for the opinion of other learned men is based on the [TIadis~] 
text, " either death, or Islam." Sultan 'Alauddin burst out laughing 
at Qazi Mughis's answer, and said : "I know nothing of the subjects 
that you have been talking about ; but it had often struck me, that 
the landed proprietors and chief men used to ride fine horses, wear 
handsome clothes, shoot with the Persian bow [i. e., cross bow], fight 
among themselves, and follow the chase, and yet never paid a jetal of 
their taxes on lands, persons, flocks and herds, although they took their 
proprietary share of the produce separately, and that they were further 
in the habit of having parties and drinking wine ; yet some of them 
would never come to the collectorate, whether summoned or not, nor 
pay the least respect to the revenue officers. My anger was roused 
at this, and glowing with passion, I said to myself : Here am I de- 
sirous of conquering other countries, and bringing more realms under 
* Qoran 9, 29. Sale's Qoran, 1857, p. 152, Vide Am translation, p. 237, note 1. 

12 Translations from- the Tdrihh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

my subjection, while a hundred classes, in my own Kingdom, do 
not shew that obedience to my rule that ought to be shewn ; how can 
I then expect to bring other countries properly under my subjection ? 
For this reason I have established laws, and made my subjects tho- 
roughly submissive, so that under fear of my commands they would 
all escape into a mouse hole ; and now you tell me that it is inculcat- 
ed in the divine law, that the Hindu should be made obedient and 
submissive in the extreme. You are a learned man, Maulana 
Mughis, but you possess no experience ; while I have no learning, 
but a vast stock of experience. Rest assured, that the Hindu will 
never be submissive and obedient to the Musalman, until he becomes 
destitute, and impoverished. I have, therefore, directed that so much 
only shall be left to my subjects as will maintain them from year to 
year in the produce of the ground, and milk and curds, without ad- 
mitting of their storing up or having articles in excess." 

The second question proposed by Sultan 'Alauddin to Qazi Mughis 
was this : " As to the robbery, embezzlement, and bribery, going on 
among officials, and the way in which they falsify accounts and de- 
fraud the revenue ; is this mentioned anywhere in the divine law ?" 
Qazi Mughis replied: "It has never occurred to me, nor have I 
ever read in any book, that when officials receive a sufficient salary, 
and yet rob the money of the public treasury, which contains the 
aggregate of the national income, or receive bribes, or defraud the 
revenue, they cannot be chastised by their superiors, either by fine, 
imprisonment, or other infliction as may seem most advisable ; but for 
such a delinquent, who robs in his official capacity, amputation of the 
hand has not been authorized (i. e., the recognized sentence awarded 
to a common thief.)" 

The Sultan said : " Well, I have ordered the revenue commis- 
sioners to recover by means of various kinds of torture whatever sums 
may appear on investigation against the names of the agents, superin- 
tendents, and other officials ; and ever since they have been called so 
strictly to account, I hear robbery and bribery have greatly diminish- 
ed. I have, however, also directed, that the salary of super- 
intendents, and other officials shall be fixed at such a rate as to 
allow of their living respectably ; and if, notwithstanding this, they 
still commit frauds, and decrease the actual sums received, it shall be 

1870.] Translations from tie Tarikl i Firm Shdhi. 13 

recovered from them with stripes ; and accordingly you yourself can 
see how it fares in the present day with persons holding these ap- 

The third question proposed by the Sultan to Qazi Mughis was 
this : " As regards the wealth that I brought from Deogir with 
so much trouble, on my gaining the sovereignty ; is that wealth my 
private property, or does it belong to the national treasury of all 
Musulmans ?" Qazi Mughis replied : "I have no option but to 
speak the truth before the royal throne ; the wealth that your Majesty 
brought from Deogir, was gained by the force of the army of Islam ; 
and whatever is gained by such means, becomes the national treasure 
of all Musulmans. Had your Majesty acquired the wealth from any- 
where by yourself, it would be a satisfactory reason according to 
divine law, and the wealth so acquired would be Your Majesty's pri- 
vate property." 

The Sultan getting testy with Qazi Mughis, then exclaimed, " What 
is this you say ? and are you thoroughly aware of what you are speak- 
ing about ? How can the wealth, for which I staked my own life 
and that of my followers, and which at the time of my gaining the 
sovereignty I took from certain Hindus, whose name and designation 
even were not known at Dihli, reserving it for my own use without 
placing it in the royal coffers ; how can such wealth (I say) belong 
to the national treasury?" Qazi Mughis replied: "Your Majesty 
has proposed a question in divine law to me, and if I speak not agree- 
ably to what I have read in the Scriptures, and your Majesty should, 
by way of test, enquire of other learned men also, and they give a 
different opinion to what I have given, while I speak in accordance 
with the royal inclination, how could your Majesty retain any confi- 
dence in me, or enquire of me as to the statutes of the divine law?" 
The fourth question proposed by Sultan 'Alauddin to Qazi 
Mughis was this: " What portion of the national treasury belongs 
by right to myself and my children ? Qazi Mughis exclaimed : 
" Surely my hour of death has arrived ;" to which the Sultan replied ♦ 
"Why should your hour of death have arrived?" "Because," said 
the Qazi, " if I answer this question which your Majesty has put to 
me, according to the truth, your Majesty will get into a passion, 
and put me to death ; and should I tell an untruth, on the day of 

14 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firiiz Shake. [No. 1, 

judgment, I shall have to enter into hell." The Sultan replied: 
" State whatever is authorized hy the divine law, and I shall not harm 
you." Then said Mughis : u If your Majesty intends following the 
example of the virtuous Caliphs, and desires the highest honours of a 
future state, you should take for your own use and that of your family 
just as much only as you have assigned to each of the soldiery, 
viz., 234 tankahs. But if your Majesty prefers following a middle 
course, and considers that that sum would not suffice to maintain the 
dignity of your exalted position, you might take for your own use 
and that of your family as much as you give to the chief dignitaries 
of your Court, such as Malik Qiran, Malik Qirbak, Malik Naib 
Waki'lidar and Malik Khag Hajib. Or should your Majesty adopt 
the opinions of the sages of the world, in taking a sum from the 
national treasury for your own use and that of your family, you should 
take a portion that is larger and better than that of other nobles of 
your Court, in order that a distinction may be drawn between your- 
self and others, and the dignity of your exalted position may not be 
lowered. Whatever your Majesty takes from the national treasury 
however, in excess of these three modes which I have represented, and 
for all the lakhs, and krors, and gold jewels you bestow on your 
family, you will have to answer for at the day of judgment." 

Sultan 'Alauddin flew into a passion, and exclaimed : " Do you 
not fear my sword, that you dare to say, all the wealth which is spent 
on my family is unauthorized by divine law ?" Qazi Mughis replied : 
" I dread your Majesty's sword (I assure you), and lay before you 
my shroud, which is my turban ; but your Majesty having asked me 
a question on divine law, I have replied to it according to what I 
know. Were your Majesty to seek information as to its political ex- 
pediency, I should say that whatever is expended on your family 
should be increased a thousand fold, in order that the royal dignity 
might thereby be enhanced in the eyes of the people ; for this enhance- 
ment of the royal dignity is essential to political expediency." 

After discussing the aforesaid questions, Sultan 'Alauddin said to 
Qazi Mughis : " After the way in which you have stigmatized my acts 
as contrary to divine law, listen to this : I have even established a 
fine of three years' pay for every horseman, who does not stand muster ; 
I cast into prison all who indulge in wine or sell it ; when any one 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Wiruz Slidhi. 15 

commits adultery with another's wife, I cut off his (offending) organ 
and put the woman to death ; in revolts I slay both the good and the 
bad ; embezzled money I recover by means of various kinds of torture, 
and keep the delinquents in prison and in chains so long as one 
jetal of the sum remains unliquidated, and revenue defalcators I 
make prisoners for life. Now, do you mean to say all these acts are 
contrary to divine law ? " 

Qazi Mughfsuddin then rose from his seat, and advancing to the 
foot of the throne, bowed his head upon the ground, and cried in a 
loud voice :"0 monarch of the world ! whether you permit your poor 
slave to live, or whether you order me, this instant, to be removed 
from the world, I must declare that all are contrary to divine law ; 
and in the tradition of the Prophet, (on whom be peace !) and in the 
doctrines of the learned, it is nowhere stated that a sovereign may do 
whatever he chooses with regard to the promulgation of orders." 

Sultan 'Alauddin offered no reply on hearing the above speech, but, 
putting on his slippers, retired into his private apartments. Qazi 
Mughis also returned home, and next day, having taken a final adieu 
of his family, dispensed alms, and performed ablutions, entered the 
royal Court, and came before the Sultan, prepared to undergo execu- 
tion. Sultan 'Alauddin, however, summoning him to the front, treat- 
ed him with great kindness, and giving him a robe and a thousand 
tankahs, said : Qazi Mughis, although I am not versed in learn- 
ing, yet for many generations have my ancestors been Musalmans ; 
and in order that insurrections may not occur, in which so many 
thousands of Musalmans are constantly destroyed, I adopt such mea- 
sures towards the people, as seem most to their advantage. The peo- 
ple, however, shew a rebellious and contumacious spirit, and will not 
fulfil my commands ; and I am, therefore, compelled to make such 
severe laws as will reduce them to obedience. I know not whether 
these laws are sanctioned by our faith or not ; but whatever I con- 
ceive to be for the good of the State, and whatever appears expedient 
to me at the time, that I order, and as for what may happen to me 
on the approaching day of judgment, that I know not." 

[But stop, Maulana Mughis ! One thing I do not forget in my 
prayers to God, and I often say, u Grod, thou knowest that my 
kingdom suffers nothing, if any man sleeps with the wife of his neigh- 

16 Translations from the Tdri/ch i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

bour ; or that it is no loss to me, if any one drinks wine ; and that I 
feel no grief, if any one commits a robbery, for he won't steal anything 
from my inheritance ; or that if any one takes advances of money and 
does not go to his work, the work will yet go on, even if ten or twenty 
people are lazy. With regard to these four things I certainly act 
according to the orders of the Prophets. But the people of these times, 
from one to a lac, nay to five hundred lacs and one thousand lacs, do 
nothing but talk and boast, caring neither for this world nor the world 
to come. Now I am ignorant and do not know how to read and 
write ; in fact my whole knowledge consists in saying an Alhamdu 
(the first chapter of the Qoran), a Qui liua-lldhu (Qor., Sur. 112,) the 
prayer Qunut (as described in law books), and the formulae of blessing 
the prophets ; but it is I who have given the order in my realm that a 
married man who commits adultery with the wife of another, shall be 
castrated ; and yet, notwithstanding this harsh and bloody order, 
several men stand before the Palace who have slept with the wives of 

[And those who take advances of money and then do not go to their 
work, are made liable to refund advances of three years.* But in 
every employment there are hundreds, two hundreds that are made 
liable to refund three years' advances, and yet people will take 
money and not work, and prefer to live broken down in the jails. 
And for thefts committed in the city, I have reduced to beggary 
about ten thousand clerks and collectors ; nay, I have made their flesh 
so sore, that worms eat up their bodies, in order to see whether that 
bad lot will keep their fingers from stealing ; for keeping accounts and 
stealing at the same time is what a clerk, in these days, is born to.] 

[And as regards selling and drinking wine, I have killed and am 
now killing people in the wells. What do they care for being inside ? 
What is a jail to them ? — They will drink wine, they will sell it. No 
one has ever managed God's 'pious subjects,' and I can't either.] 

[In the same year in which the Sultan 'Alauddin asked Qazi Mu- 
ghis on some questions of the law, Maulana Shamsuddin Turk, a very 

* On p. 296, Ed. Bill. Indica, 1. 15 read bd zan i yalce for zan i yoke, and 
kunad for Tcunand ; on 1. 18, read bistdnad for bistdnand, and bandmzadA for 

Bad i burnt zadan (1. 12) is said, of men, to boast; of women, we say bad i 
gesii zadan. 

The whole page is about the most difficult and doubtful page in Barani. 

1870.] Translations from the Tarilch i Ftniz Shahi. 17 

excellent and learned teacher of the Hadis, had come to Multan, 
bringing with him a collection of four hundred works on the Hadis. 
He would not go beyond Multan, because he had heard that the Sul- 
tan said no prayers, nor attended the Friday-prayer in the mosque. 
Fazlullah, son of Shaikhul Islam Qadruddin, became his pupil. This 
learned man, while at Multan, wrote a commentary on the Science of the 
Hadis, which he sent, together with a pamphlet in Persian, to Court. 
In the preface, he had said much to the praise of the Sultan. In the 
pamphlet the following passage occurred. ' I have come from Egypt 
with the wish of seeing your Majesty and the city of Dihli, and my 
intention was there to establish a school of followers of the Hadis,* 
and to deliver the Musalmans from acting upon the traditions of 
learned but irreligious men. But when I heard that your Majesty 
says no prayers, nor attends the mosque on Fridays, I returned from 
Multan. However, I heard of two or three qualities which your 
Majesty possesses in common with pious kings, and I also heard that 
your Majesty has two or three qualities which do not belong to reli- 
gious kings.'] 

[' Now, the good sides of your Majesty are these. I am told that 
the wretchedness and the misery and the despicable condition and the 
worthlessness of the Hindus are now so great, that Hindu children and 
women will go about begging at the doors of the Musalmans. Hail, 
king of Islam ! the protection which thou affordest the religion of 
Muhammad (God's peace rest on him !) is such that, if for a single act 
done by thee to the glory of Islam, a measure of sins filling Heaven 
and Earth be not forgiven thee, thou may est grasp the hem of my 
garment on the morrow of resurrection.'] 

[Secondly, I have heard that thou hast made grain and apparel and 
other things so cheap, that no one could improve matters by the 
breadth of the point of a needle ; and it is a matter of astonishment 
how in this important matter also, which interests all men on earth, 
and which other kings of Islam have striven to bring about by labours 
extending over twenty, thirty years, and yet have failed, thou, king 
of Islam, hast so well succeeded.'] 

* I. e., the Maulana rejected the decisions of the early lawyers, unless based 
upon the Qoran and the Hadis. 

18 Translations from the Tdr'ikli i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

[' Thirdly, I have heard that your Majesty has banished every- 
thing that intoxicates, and that the lust and the lying of the lusty 
and the liars have turned bitterer than poison. Hail, hail, bravo, 
bravo, king, that thou hast brought about this result.'] 

['Fourthly, I have heard that thou hast driven the trades people 
with their voluble tongues into mice holes, and hast taken the cheat- 
ing, and lying, and falsifying out of them ; and yet thou thinkest* 
it little that, in this regard also, thou hast managed Lizar-people 
as no king ever has done since the days of Adam. king, bless God 
that thou sittest for such deeds in the company of the prophets !] 

[' But the other things which I have heard of your Majesty, are 
such as neither God, nor the prophets and the saints, nor even the 
rationalist, can approve of. First, for the office of Qazi of the realm 
(a most critical office which suits no one, except he despise the world) 
thou hast appointed Hamid of Multan, whose family from the times 
of his grandfather and father have lived on usury. Nor dost thou 
carefully enquire into the belief of thy other Qazis, and thou givest 
the laws of the Prophet into the hands of the covetous, the avaricious, 
and the worldly. Be on thy guard, lest thou shouldst not be able 
to bear thy sinful drowsiness on the morrow of resurrection.'] 

[' Secondly, I have heard that people in thy city give up walking 
after the tradition of the Prophet, and walk after the sayings of the 
1 wise.' It is difficult for me to understand why thy town, the people 
of which have the tradition but do not follow it, has not long ago 
become a heap of rubbish, or why the visitations of heaven do not pour 
down upon it.] 

[' Thirdly, I have heard that ill-starred, black-faced, learned men in 
thy town sit in the mosques with abominable law books and deci- 
sions before them, making money, and perverting the right of Musal- 
mans by interpreting, and cheating, and adopting various ways of 
swindling. They drown the accuser and the accused ; but they too 
shall be drowned.'] 

* On p. 298, in Bibl. Ind. edition, 1. 4, read bamandfi' for mandjV, and on 
1. 11, mishumdri for mashumdrt. It looks as if mashumdri had been taken in 
the sense of nashumdri, because the same grammatical blunder is perpetrated 
three times on p. 327. 

On p. 302, 1. 8, read lashkar for shuTcr ; 1. 11, ndgirift for td girift ; 1. 17, az 
for ar. 

1870.] Translations from the Tarikh i Firuz Shdhi. 19 

[' But I have also heard that these two last things are not brought 
to thy notice, on account of the impious and shameless Qazi who 
stands near thy throne ; else, thou wouldst never give thy sanction to 
such a rebellion against the religion of Muhammad.'] 

[Now the book and the pamphlet written by this teacher of the Hadis 
came into the hands of Bahauddin, the Counsellor ; and Bahauddin, the 
ungrateful Counsellor, gave the book to Sultan 'Alauddin, but the 
pamphlet he did not give and kept it hidden, on account of his par- 
tiality for Qazi Hamid of Multan. But I, the author of this book, 
have heard from Malik Qira Beg that the Sultan learned from Sa'd, the 
logician, that such a pamphlet had arrived ; and he called for the 
pamphlet, and he wanted to make away with Bahauddin and his son, 
because he had not given up the pamphlet, and the Sultan was very 
sorry that Maulana Shamsuddin Turk had returned from Multan dis- 
appointed.] (Ed. Bibl. Ind., p. 299.) 

Death of JJlugh Khan. Conquest of Chitor. Invasion of the Mughuls. 

Not long after Sultan 'Alauddin had returned from Rantambhur to 
Dihli, and begun pursuing this parsimonious and cruel conduct to- 
wards the people, and had thrown open the gate of fines and chastise- 
ments ; Ulugh Khan fell sick, and while proceeding to the Capital, he 
died at one of the halting-places on the road. 

Malik A'azzuddin Aburja, [Bur Khan (?), Ed. Bibl. Ind.~] was ap- 
pointed Wazir in [Shahr i Nau (Jhayin)] the revenue of which was 
now levied, like that of the environs of Dehli, according to measure- 
ment and the exact value 'per biswah. 

Sultan 'Alauddin then took the army away again from the Capital, 
and marching to Chitor, invested that fort, and speedily reduced it, 
after which he returned to the Capital. Just about the time of his 
return, an invasion of the Mughuls took place ; for the Mughuls 
had heard in Mawarannahr, that Sultan 'Alauddin had marched with 
his army to a distant fortress, and was engaged in besieging it, and that 
Dihli was consequently unprotected. Turghi accordingly got together 
two or three tumdns of horse, and reached Dihli by a series of rapid 
marches with the utmost celerity. 

During this year too, in which the Sultan had proceeded to capture 
the stronghold of Chitor, Malik Fakhruddin J una Dadbak i hazrat, and 

20 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firtiz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

Malik Jhujhii, Jagirdar [muqta''] of Karah, the nephew (brother's son) 
of Nucrat Khan, together with all the xlmirs of Hindustan, had been 
dispatched to Arangul ; but by the time they arrived there, the rains 
had begun to descend from the sky, and the season became most un- 
propitious, so that the army of Hindustan could effect nothing at 
Arangul, and ultimately returned about the beginning of the cold 
weather, totally disorganized, and with all its stores and equipments 
lost and ruined. 

It was during this very year, when Sultan 'Alauddin had returned 
to Dihli after the capture of Chitor, and the army that had started 
along with him, had lost all its stores and equipments during the rainy 
season, and a month had not elapsed since the time of the Sultan's 
return, so that the soldiery had not yet been mustered, nor their 
kits renewed, that the invasion of the Mughuls took place, and the 
accursed Turghi, advancing swiftly with 40,000 horsemen, encamped 
on the banks of the river Jamnah, and blockaded the roads of ingress 
and egress of the city. 

A strange incident was this that befel the soldiery during this year ; 
for Sultan 'Alauddin, after returning from the capture of Chitor, had 
not sufficient time to provide the army with horses and arms after the 
loss of equipments they had sustained at Chitor, and Malik Fakhr- 
uddin Jiina, the Dadbak, having returned with the army of Hindustan 
broken and disorganized from Arangul into the provinces, not a horse- 
man or footman out of it could force his way into the city, on account 
of the blockade kept up by the Mughuls on all the roads, and the 
piquets they had stationed. In Multan, Samanah, and Deopalpur, 
moreover, there was no force of sufficient strength to overthrow the 
Mughul army, and join the Sultan's camp [at Siri]. The army of 
Hindustan was summoned to advance, but in consequence of the hostile 
presence of the Mughuls, they remained at Kol and Baran. [The 
Mughuls moreover had occupied all fords (of the Jamnah)]. 

Sultan 'Alauddin, therefore, with the few horsemen that he had at the 
Capital, came out of the city, and fixing his head quarters at Siri, 
pitched his camp there. The Sultan was then under the necessity of 
having a trench dug round the camp, and palisades, formed of the 
planks of house doors, erected along side the trench, whereby he pre_ 
vented the Mughuls from forcing an entrance into the camp. He 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Slidhi. 21 

also kept his troops ever alert and vigilant, and constantly on the guard 
and watch, and in every [trench, alang~\ under arms ready to receive 
any assault of the Mughuls ; but he deferred engaging in a pitched 
battle. With each division and in each trench too, were stationed 
five elephants incased in armour, and a party of infantry to keep guard 
and watch over them. On the other hand the Mughuls used to go 
round and round the camp, longing to make a sudden irruption on it, 
and destroy it. 

So formidable an invasion of the Mughuls as this, had never before 
been witnessed at Dihli for many ages ; for did Turghi remain but a 
single month longer on the banks of the Jamnah, he would inspire such 
dread, as to create utter desolation in Dihli. During the present 
blockade, however, whereby the supply of water, forage, and firewood 
was rendered very difficult for the people, the entrance of caravans of 
grain totally prevented, and the dread of the Mughuls so widely spread 
that their horsemen used to advance up to Chautrah Segani, \_Bibl. 
Ind. Subhani, as on p. 320] and Murdodhi [Mori and Hadhi, Bill. 
Ind.~], and the reservoir, and alight at these places, and drink wine 
there ; grain and stores were sold at a moderate price out of the 
royal depots, and no great scarcity was felt.* 

On two or three occasions desultory conflicts and skirmishes occurred 
between the outposts on either side, but neither party gained any 
decided advantage. By the grace of God, Turghi found himself un- 
able to force his way by any means into the Sultan's camp ; and by 
virtue of the supplications of the poor, after a period of two months, 
the accursed wretch marched off with his army, and made the best of 
his way back to his own country. 

This occasion, on which the army of Islam had received no injury 
from the Mughul force, and the city of Dihli had escaped unhoirmed, 
appeared one of the miracles of the age to all intelligent persons ; for 
the Mughuls had arrived in great force quite early in the season, and 
had blockaded the roads against the entry of reinforcements or sup- 
plies ; and the royal army was suffering under the want of proper 
equipments, while they were in the most flourishing and hearty con- 

* Vide a plan of 'Alauddin's Intrenchment in Campbell's ' Note on the Topo- 
graphy of Dihli,' J. A. S. Bengal, 1866, Pt. I., p. 217. 

22 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firliz Shdhl. [No. 1, 

As soon as the danger threatened by Turghi, which indeed appeared 
most appalling (for the time), had passed away, the Sultan awoke 
from his lethargy, and gave up carrying on wars and sieges. He built 
a palace at Siri, and took up his abode there, making Shi his capital, 
and rendering it populous, and flourishing. He also directed the fort- 
ress of Dihli to be built up, and issued orders that the forts on the 
line of march of the Mughuls, which had gone to ruin, should be re- 
paired, and that new ones should be erected wherever they were 
required, and distinguished and able governors appointed to all these 
strongholds in the direction whence the inroads of the Mughuls 
occured. He further commanded that they should make up numerou 
warlike engines, enlist expert marksmen, establish magazines for arms 
of all kinds, and accumulate stores of grain and fodder after the man- 
ner of granaries, within the ramparts ; that numerous picked and 
chosen troops should be enrolled at Samanah, and Deopalpur, and kept 
ready for service, and that the districts in the direction of the Mughul 
inroads should be confided to experienced nobles, and firm and energe- 
tic chiefs. 

Administrative Measures of'Alduddin. (Ed. Bill. Indica, p. 303 

to p. 326.) 

After Sultan 'Alauddin had taken care to make these preparations 
against another inroad of the Mughuls, he used to have discussions 
with his councillors both by day and night as to the means of effec- 
tually resisting and annihilating these marauders ; and on this point 
he was most particular in procuring the best advice. After prolonged 
deliberation, it was agreed and determined by the Sultan and his ad- 
visers, that an immense army was required for the purpose ; and that 
all the troops should be picked and chosen men, expert archers, well 
armed, and well mounted ; so that they might be always fully equipped 
and [well-mounted.] With the exception of this one plan, none other 
appeared feasible for resisting the Mughuls. 

The Sultan then took counsel with his advisers, every one of whom 
was unequalled and eminently distinguished, saying : "To maintain 
an immense picked and chosen force well mounted, so that they may 
be fully equipped and efficient at all times, is impossible, without the 
expenditure of vast treasures ; for one must give regularly every year 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrilch i Firdz Shdhi. 23 

whatever sum is fixed upon at first ; and if I settle a high rate of pay 
upon the soldiery, and continue to disburse money to them at that 
rate annually, at the end of a few years, notwithstanding all the trea- 
sure I possess, nothing will be left, and without treasure it is of course 
impossible to govern or deliberate." 

" I am accordingly desirous of having a large force, well mounted, 
of picked and chosen men, expert archers, and well armed that will 
remain embodied for years ; and I will give 234 tankahs to a Murattab 
and 78 tankahs to a Du-aspah ; from the former of whom I shall require 
two horses with their corresponding equipments, and from the latter 
one* with its usual gear. Consider now and inform me how this idea 
that has entered into my mind about raising a large force, and main- 
taining it permanently, may be carried into execution." 

The councillors, endowed with abilities like those of Acaf, exercised 
their brilliant intellects, and after some reflection unanimously ex- 
pressed the following opinion before the throne : " As it has entered into 
your Majesty's heart, and become implantedf there, to raise a large force 
and permanently maintained on small allowances \ba mawdjib i anddk^\ 
such can never be accomplished unless horses, arms, and all the equip- 

* L e., one horse. The Edit. Bibl. Tnd. has yak aspah, one horseman. 

This passage is unfortunately unclear and useless, because Barani has not 
supplied a commentary. First, it is clear from the following that the wages of 
78 and 234 (i. e., 78 % 3) tankahs were unusually low, and Barani has not 
stated what the ordinary rates were. Secondly, it is also clear that 'Alauddin 
takes the terms Murattab and Duaspah in a new sense, because he defines them 
for his councillors, and Barani has not stated what their usual meanings were. 
The word Murattab does not appear to occur in later histories ; it may mean 
equipped, though murattib would give a meaning too. To call a man duaspah, 
because he joins the army with one horse, is extraordinary, and against the 
meaning which the word has in the Akbarnamah, Badaoni, the Padishahnamah, 
&c. Vide the annotator's note on Akbar's Mangabs (Kin translation, p. 238 to 
247). Thirdly, we expect in the wages a proportion of 1 : 2, not 1 : 3, because 
' Alauddin' s Murattab furnishes two, and his Duaspah one horse ; but this diffi- 
culty may be explained away (vide Kin translation, p. 251, 1. 3, where also the 
rates are given which Akbar gave his Yalcaspahs. 

Badaoni's interesting remark that Akbar's Ddgh-l&yv had been the rule under 
'Alauddin i Khilji and Sher Shah (Ain translation, p. 242, and J. A. S. Bengal 
for 1869, p. 126) can but little be verified by a reference to Zia's work, though 
the word ddgh (in Akbar's sense) occurs on p. 319, 1. 2 from below (Ed. Bibl. 
Ind.), and p. 477, 1. 6, (Muhammad Shah's reign) — also an interesting page for 
the military history of India, inasmuch an army of 380,000 troopers is men- 
tioned, a statement which may advantageously be compared with Ain trans- 
lation, p. 245. 

f The text has jdgir, which is taken in its etymological meaning of jd-girif- 
tah, having taken a place, having taking root, vide Kin translation, p. 256, note. 

The earliest passage at present known to me, of jdgir being taken in a sense 

24 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

ments of a soldier, as well as subsistence for his wife and family, become 
excessively cheap, and are reduced to the price of water ; for if your 
Majesty can succeed in lowering the price of provisions beyond measure, 
a large force can be raised and permanently maintained according to 
the idea that has entered your august mind ; and by the aid of this vast 
force all fear of danger from the Mughuls will be averted." 

The Sultan then consulted with his trusty and experienced coun- 
cillors and ministers, as to what he should do, in order that the means 
of livelihood might be made exceedingly cheap and moderate, without 
introducing capital punishment, torture, or severe coercion. The 
Sultan's ministers and advisers represented, that until fixed rules 
were established, and permanent regulations introduced for lowering 
prices, the means of livelihood would never get exceedingly cheap. 
First then, for the cheapening of grain, the benefit of which is 
common to all, they proposed certain measures, and by the adoption 
of these measures, grain became cheap, and remained so for years. 

These measures were as follows : a fixed price current ; a magistrate 
(to carry out the provisions) of the law ; royal granaries; prohibition 
against all sales at enhanced prices ; consignment of the caravans 
of grain into the hands of the magistrate of the market ; sale of 
grain by the cultivators at their own fields ; publication of the price 
current daily before the throne. 

By the adoption of the seven measures detailed above, whatever 
was the price current determined before the throne, it never rose a 
dang, whether there was an excess or a scarcity of rain. 

[For the last two paragraphs, the Ed. Bibl. Indica, p. 304, 1. 4 from below 
to p. 305, 1, 10, has the following : — 

Regulation I. — The price of grain to be fixed before the throne. 

approaching its later (Indian) meaning of lands assigned to military commanders, 
occurs in Barani (Ed. B. I., p. 40, 1. 13) — 

o*-£i,i eUa5{ ojf^J^ jxfi*. j] jM > j\yA> ji^ 

* He had 4000 troopers as jdgir, and held Badaon as aqtd' ; for which later 
Histoiuans would say 

*■£*•* taj-Jr^- cJj ' *Hj uwAA/o jl^-w jli* jl^a. 

The word mangao, like zaminddr, is old, and occurs even in the Tabaqdt i 

It is of interest to watch the changes of meaning which the word jdgir has 
gone through. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firdz Shdlii. 25 

Regulation II. — The Sultan to store a large quantity of grain in gra- 

Regulation III — To appoint a Shihnah (inspector) of the market (mandi) 
and trustworthy men with full power and dignity. 

Regulation IV. — The merchants (Jcdrwdnidn) of all parts of the empire 
to be registered in a Daftar. They are to be in charge of the Shihnah i 

Regulation V. — The revenue of the Duab and the country to a distance 
of 100 kos so to be settled, that the subjects cannot even lay by 10 mans of 
grain, and the subjects to be ground down to such an extent, that they sell 
the grain on the fields to the merchants. (For txixlb, 1, 2, p. 305, read 
CyxAki !) 

Regulation VI — To take certificates from the Collectors [hdrkundii]* of 
the country to shew that the merchants get the grain on the fields. (For 
o^lj o^f)^ rea( l *^^5 c^0^» as is c l ear from p. 307). 

Regulation VII. — To appoint a trustworthy travelling agent (harid) 
who, together with the Shihnah, is to report to the Sultan on the state of 
the market. 

Regulation VIII for rendering produce cheap. — In times of drought, 
no produce, not even for a dang, uselessly to be sold in the markets. 

In consequence of these eight rules, the price of grain did not rise a dang, 
whether there was an excess or a scarcity of rain. (The last regulation is 
not enumerated separately on p. 308 of the text).] 

The first regulation was of this description — Wheat, 7 J jetals per 
man; barley, 4/.; gram, 5/.; rice, bj. ; mash, bj. ; and mot'h, 
3 j.\ The above prices held good for years, and as long as Sultan 
'Alauddin was alive, grain never did rise a dang above that, either 
during an excess or a scarcity of rain, and this establishment of a fixed 
price in the market was considered one of the wonders of the age. 

# We should not forget that Kdrhun was the title of a class of Revenue 
officials under the 'Amil, or Collector. Daring the reign of Akbar, the 'A'rnil, 
had two bitihclus or ' writers' under him, whose titles were Kdrlcun and Khar- 
nawzs. Abulfazl specifies their duties in the Akbarnamah (beginning of the 
27th year). 

The Bar-id (pr. ' runner,' from the Latin veredus), in time of Barani had to 
perform those duties which the Wdqi' ahnawis under the Mughuls had to per- 
form. Vide my Am translation, p. 258. Abulfazl, indeed, says that the office 
of the Waqi' ahnawis was an innovation by Akbar ; but from Barani (Ed. Bibl. 
Ind., p. 40, 1, 6 from below) it is quite clear that the office existed as early as 
in the reign of Balban, though the ' Waqi' ahnawis' was called barid. Hence 
news agent would be perhaps a better term than travelling agent. 

t Professor Co well, I think, observes very correctly that these price lists 
would be more interesting, if the coins and their value were better understood, 
But they may be compared with the price lists in the Am, p. 62. 


26 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shahi. [No. 1 , 

The second regulation for effecting a cheapness in the price of grain 
was, that Malik Qabul [a servant of Ulugh Khan], who was a wise, 
discreet, and trustworthy noble, was appointed magistrate (s/rihnah) over 
the market. The official in question was granted a large estate, and a 
large body of cavalry and infantry to support his power and consequence. 
A deputy, shrewd and experienced, was also appointed from the throne, 
out of the circle of his friends, and a distinguished travelling agent 
\barid] with a due sense of respect for royalty was also installed in the 

The third regulation for the same purpose was, the accumulation of 
vast hoards of grain in store-houses. Sultan 'Alauddin gave orders that 
throughout the crown lands in the Dual), they should take the grain 
itself in place of money payments for revenue, and send it into the 
royal granaries at the capital, while in [Shalir i nan] audits adjoin- 
ing territory, they should take a moiety of the royal share in kind, and 
that in Jhayin and its several districts also, they should form depots 
for grain, and forward it by the caravans to the capital. In short, 
so much of the royal grain reached Dihli, that there was scarcely a 
street, which did not contain two or three of the royal store-houses 
filled with it ; and when there was a scarcity of rain, or the caravans, 
from some cause or other, failed to convey sufficient grain into the 
market, they used to bring it into market from the royal stores, selling 
it at the regulated price, and supplying the people according to their 
wants, while in Shalir i nau they used to consign the grain out of the 
royal depots to the caravans. By these two arrangements, there was 
never a dearth of grain in the market, nor did it ever rise one dung 
above the regulated price. 

The fourth regulation for the same purpose was, the consignment 
of the caravans to (the charge of) Malik Qabul, magistrate of the 
market. Sultan 'Alauddin gave orders, that the whole of the cara- 
vans from all parts of the kingdom should be subject to the magis- 
trate of the market, and their leaders should be [fettered and chained]. 
The magistrate also was directed to keep the leaders of the caravans 
[fettered and chained] ever present before him, until they became of the 
same mind, and agreed to sign a deed on mutual security, and that until 
they brought their wives, children, cattle, and property with them, and 
set up their abodes in the villages bordering on the Jamnah, where the 

1870.] Translations from the Turihh i Firtiz Shdhi. 27 

jurisdiction of the magistrate would extend over them and their wives 
and children, and the caravans would be completely subject to him, he 
should not remove the chains from their necks. By the establishment 
of this regulation, so much grain began to pour into the market, that 
there was no need for the royal stores, and the price never rose a 
dang above the fixed rate. 

The fifth regulation for the above purpose was, the prohibition 
against the hoarding up of grain and selling it at enhanced prices. 
This check was so rigorously enforced during the 'Alai reign, that it 
was not possible for any one of the various classes of merchants, traders, 
grain-dealers, &c, to hoard up a single man of grain, or sell it 
secretly at their own houses for one dang or diram above the fixed 
price ; and if any hoarded grain was discovered, it became confis- 
cated to the crown, and the proprietor was fined. Written agreements 
were also taken from the superintendents and agents of the territory 
lying within the Duab, binding them not to permit any one within 
their jurisdiction to hoard up grain, and engaging that if anybody 
was detected at this practice, the officials themselves should be 
considered at fault, and have to answer for it before the throne. 

Owing to the enforcement of this prohibition therefore, the price 
current in the market never rose a single dang or diram either during 
the greatest superabundance or scarcity of rain. 

The sixth regulation for securing the cheapness of grain, was the 
taking of written agreements from the superintendents and agents of 
districts to this effect, that they would cause the grain to be delivered 
to the caravans by the cultivators at their own fields. Sultan 'Alaud- 
din accordingly gave orders, that at the chief office of revenue, writ- 
ten engagements should be taken from the magistrates and • collectors 
of the country lying within the Duab, which is nearest to the city? 
binding them to exact the revenue due from the cultivators with the 
utmost rigour, so that it might be impossible for them to carry off any 
large quantities of grain from the fields to their own houses, and hoard 
it there, and that they might thus be induced to sell it to the caravans 
at the fields at a cheap rate. 

By the establishment of the above regulation, no excuse was left to 
the caravans for not bringing grain into the market, and constant 
supplies consequently were continually arriving, while the agricul- 
turists also found it to their own advantage to convey as much of their 

28 Translations from the Tarifth i Firilz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

grain as they could, from their fields to the market, and sell it at the 
regular price. 

The seventh regulation for the above purpose [consisted* in this that 
reports had to be furnished of the prices current in the Bazars. The 
continuance of the prosperity of the Bazars was ascertained in three 
ways. First, the Skihnah i Mandi had to furnish a list of prices and 
report on the condition of the Bazar. Secondly, the Band i JIancU, 
reported on the quality of the articles. Thirdly, the informers who had 
been appointed for every Bazar made reports. If there were discrepan- 
cies between the reports of the informers and that of the Barid and that 
of the Shihnah, the Shihnah got for it what he had to get. But as 
the officers appointed in the Bazars knew that the Sultan got his 
reports on the transactions and the state of the market from three 
sources, it was impossible to deviate, even in the least, from the Bazar 
regulations. Experienced people that lived during the reign of 'Ala- 
uddin were astonished to see how firm the prices of articles re- 
mained ; for though it is nothing uncommon to see prices remain 
firm during years when the season is good and there is plenty of 
rain, it was most remarkable that during the reign of 'Alauddin no 
famine occurred at Dihli, not even in years when there was a draught 
and people thought a famine unavoidable. Neither the grain of the 
Sultan, nor the grain of the merchants could indeed rise a single 

* Here is a blank in Major Fuller's translation, extending from p. 308, 1. 3, 
Ed. Bill. Indica, to p. 312, 1. 4 from below. On page 308, 1. 5 from below for 
v| read j| • 1. 3 from below, dele j and for ^Kj^^j read c ,^wai > Page 310 

I. 5 read &X^$ for ^y^\ the Hamzah cannot be left out, as the word is an adjec- 
tive ; I. 7 dele the Hamzah, and read *,jj j <X*o for *.vx~» • I. 10. .-laiLg for 

i».m j 1. 12 read^ii^i for ^cJ^^»; &• 14. <X~» for^*^ and +*jjjs for 
tJJj O.j.3; l> 19, j^xLif l^tio for ^xjUif. Paje 311, I. 4 the second word is 
birasdnand ; I. 6, dele the Hamzah of Ai**il| ; I. 13, dele j • I. lg } read 
ic \&J> (of Shushtar or Shustar) for (cJ^.-i. Page 313, I. 3, read ^t^juw! 
or Jj«^*t for ^Ut ; and compare lines 14 and 15 with I. 20. Page 314, I. 6, 

+&» ? Line 10, read &A\yL for ^a^ ; I. 11, <^dJ dj .£ for ^AJdJ,^ ; 

1. 12 read (J^jcDiH^jf **& for the absurd— ^aj^I^juo j| } <Mvf • I 19. 

JW for j\yt m Page 315, L 10, read ^ ±* for^T** j last line, o^.^. 

for e^^j ? and gjye for ^./o. The pages from 308 to 332 of the Bibl. Indica 
Edition look like uncorrected proof sheets. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrilch i Firuz Sli&lii. 29 

d/tng, and it is certainly a matter of astonishment that no other king 
besides 'Alauddin ever did effect such results. If even once or twice 
the Shihnah i Mandi petitioned the Sultan to raise the price of grain 
by half a jetal on account of a season of draught, he got twenty 

[In seasons of draught, the merchants of each quarter of the town 
received daily a supply of grain according to the number of the in- 
habitants in each quarter, and they issued grain to the common people 
at a rate not exceeding half a man per individual ; but rich people 
also and notables, who were not in possession of villages and lands, got 
grain from the Bazar. If during a season of drought poor and helpless 
people crowded to the Bazars and got crushed to death, and the officers 
neglected to pay attention to the influx, the matter was immediately 
reported to the Sultan, and the Shihnah had to suffer for it]. 

[Five regulations were also given to keep all articles at low prices, 
as cloth, common sugar, refined sugar (nahdt), fruits, grease, oil ; and 
on account of the continuance of these five regulations, the cheapness 
of the articles continued. The prices fixed by the king did not rise, and 
the people got what they wanted. These five regulations referred to 

1. The establishment of the Sardi 'Adl. 

2. The fixing of prices. 

3. The registration of all merchants in the Empire. 

4. Advances made from the Treasury to rich and respectable Mul- 
tani traders, who were put in charge of the Sardi 'Adl. 

5. Passes to be given by the chief of the town (rats)* to great and 
rich people when they wanted to purchase costly articles]. 

[The Jirst regulation for keeping the prices of articles low, consisted 
in the establishment of the Sardi 'Adl. The open space inside 
the Badaon Grate, in the direction of the Koshalc i sahz, which 
for years had not been used, was called Sardi 'Adl, and 'Alaud- 
din gave the order that no article belonging to the Sultan or to 
merchants of the town and the country, should be stored up in 
any other place but the Sardi Adl. Every article should there be sold 
at the price fixed by the Sultan, and if any one should store up wares 
in his own house, or sell them, or sell them a jetal dearer than was 

* Perhaps the Biwan, as below, in the third regulation, Barani uses Rais 
as equivalent to Di'tvdn i Riydsat. 

30 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shahi. [No. 1, 

fixed, such wares should lapse to the Sultan, and the owner should be 
liable to severe punishment. On account of this regulation all wares 
were deposited in the Sardi 'Adl, whether in value from one hundred, 
or from thousand to ten thousand tanlcolis.~] 

[The second regulation for the above purpose fixed the prices of 
sundry articles. Thus the prices of silk, &c, were as follows : — 

Dihli Khazz Silk, .. 16 Taniaks. 

Orange coloured, raw silk, Khazz i Kaunlai 
( ItojS )* 6 T. 

Half silks mixed with hair, as prescribed 

in the Muhammudan law, fine, 3 T. 

Red striped stuffs, ... 6 Jetals. 

Common stuffs, 3.}- J. 

Red lining as woven at Nagor, 24 J. 

Coarse lining, 12 J. 

Shirin baft, fine,.... 5 T. 

Do., Middling, 3 T. 

Do., Coarse, 2 T. 

SiUhatiyf fine, 6 T. (?) 

Do., Middling, 4 T. 

Do., Coarse, 2 T. 

Long cloth (Kirpds), fine, 1 T., for 20 gaz. 

Do., Coarse, 1 T., for 40y«2. 

Again, White sugar, 2J Jetal, per ser. 

Light brown sugar (shakar i tar), l£ </"., Do. 

Brown sugar, l£ X, for 3 sers. 

Grease, of different animals, 1 J., for l|-s. 

Sesame oil, 1 J"., for 3 s. 

Salt, 1 J., for 2£ mans. 

* Regarding Khazz silk, vide Kin translation p. 92, note 4. The word 
JULYS' must be written with a hamzah above the ^ a3 j n a n other adjectives de- 
noting colour ; e. g., &x~*jpistat, looking green like the pistachio nut, fyb nuqrai 
looking like silver, f^-a. chihrat pink, &c. Vide J. A. S. Bengal, for 1868, p. 41. 

Hence Jib**' looking like a 4Uy ( Hind, an orange), as raw cocoon silk looks. 

f The price mentioned is very high. The stuff which people now-a-days 
call Sildhati is a kind of cloth made of cotton, and was even at the times of 
Akbar very cheap. Ain translation, p. 95. Compare the above list with Briggs 
I, p. 35G. 

1870.] Translations from the Tarikh i Firuz Shdhi. 31 

[The prices of other fine and coarse articles may be inferred from 
those which I have given]. 

[The Sardi 'Adl was open from early morning till the time of the 
last prayer. People thus got what they needed, and no one returned 

[The third regulation for the above purpose was this that the name 
of the merchants of the town and the country had to be registered in 
the book of the Diwan (rais). The Sultan 'Alauddin ordered that 
the names of all merchants, whether Musalmans or Hindus, of the 
Empire should be registered in the book of the Diwan (Diwan i 
riydsaf), and further that a regulation should be made for all merchants 
in the town and outside. According to this order a regulation was made, 
and merchants had to sign engagements, whereby they were compelled 
to bring a certain quantity of wares to town and to sell them at the rates 
fixed by the Sultan. When the latter provision of the regulation was 
carried out, the articles which the Saltan had to furnish, fell off in 
in number, and the merchants that came within the regulation, 
brought a great deal of wares to the Sardi 'Adl, where they were 
stored up for a long time without being sold]. 

[The fourth regulation for the above purpose provided that 
advances from the Treasury should be made to Multani traders, so 
so that they might bring articles to town, and sell them in the 
Sardi 'Adl at the rates fixed by the Sultan. The Sultan 'Alauddin 
ordered that advances within twenty lacs of tankahs should be made 
to rich Multani merchants from the treasury, who were to be put in 
charge of the Sardi ''Adl ; and he told the Multanis to bring articles 
from all parts of the Empire, and sell them at the rates fixed by the 
Sultan in the Sardi. Whenever merchants did not bring articles to 
town, this regulation was applied, and articles remained cheap]. 

[The fifth regulation for the above purpose consisted in this that 
the Diwan (rais) was ordered to grant passes for the purchase of costly 
articles. The Sultan 'Alauddin ordered that no man should be allowed 
to buy in the Sardi Adl costly stuffs, as Tasbih, Tabriz!, embroidered, 
cloths with gold threads, Dihli floselle silks, kamkhabs, Shushtar silks, 
Hariri silks, Chinese silks, Bhiram (?) silks, Deogir silks, and other 
stuffs which common people do not use, without first obtaining a pass 
from the Diwan, and writing out a receipt for them. The Diwan then 

32 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firiiz Shdhl. [No. 1, 

used to give Amirs, Maliks, great and well known men, passes according 
to his knowledge of their circumstances ; but if he knew that some of 
them, though not merchants, had merely applied to him for permission 
to take costly stuffs from the Sardi } Adl, in order to sell them in the 
country at four or five times the price at which they had got them from 
the stores of the Sultan, he refused to give passes. The very reason why 
the pass system had been introduced, had in fact been this, to prevent 
merchants, both in and outside the town, from obtaining costly stuffs 
from the Sardi 7 Adl at the rates fixed by the Sultan, and then taking 
them to the country where they could not be had, and selling them at 
high prices]. 

[In consequence of the continuance of these five regulations, all 
things remained so cheap in Dihli, as to astonish old experienced 
people. Politicians of the age used to ascribe the low prices prevailing 
during the reign of 'Alauddin to four reasons ; first, the harsh way 
in which he enforced his orders, from which there was absolutely no 
escape ; secondly, the oppressiveness of the taxes and the rigour with 
which they were exacted, so that people had to sell grain and other 
articles at the rates fixed by the Sultan ; thirdly, the scarcity of 
money among the people, which was so great that the proverb got 
en vogue, ' a camel (may be had) for a dang ; but where is the dang 
to be had?' fourthly, the impartiality and consequent harshness of 
the officials, who would neither take a bribe, nor pay regard to the 
rank of any man]. 

[Four regulations also were given to maintain cheap rates for 
horses, slaves, and cattle. They were introduced in a very short time. 
These four regulations were — ] 

Specification of quality, and its corresponding price ; prohibition of 
purchase by dealers and monied men ; coercion and castigation of bro- 
kers, dealers, and monied men ; investigation into the sale and purchase 
of each market at certain intervals before the throne. By the institu- 
tion of the four laws mentioned above, at the end of a year or two, 
such a reduction in the prices of horses, slaves, and cattle ensued as 
was never witnessed subsequent to the 'Alai reign. 

First, with respect to the specification of quality and the correspond- 
ing price of a horse, it was determined thus. Horses coming under the 
designation of taxable animals, were divided into three qualities, with 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firliz Shahi. 33 

fixed prices [?]* ; that of the first quality varying from 100 to 120 tan- 
kalis, the second from 80 to 90, and the third from 60 to 70 ; while 
such as did not pass through the custom house [or rather, the Dhoarts 
master'], were called tattoos (ponies), averaging from 10 to 20 tankahs. 

The second regulation for securing the cheapness of horses was the 
prohibition of dealers and monied men from purchasing animals in 
the market, or employing any one to purchase on their account. 
Sultan 'Alauddin directed, with regard to the establishment of the 
above regulation, which is the very basis of all laws for the cheapen- 
ing of horses, that no dealer should be allowed to go about the horse 
market. Such strictness was observed in carrying out this regulation, 
that no dealer was accordingly permitted to frequent the horse mart, 
and several of them, who for years had been getting a profit and gain- 
ing a livelihood by traffic in horses, and were in league with the chief 
brokers of the market, were fined, and overthrown, and both them- 
selves and the chief brokers were banished to distant fortresses. By 
the establishment of this regulation for the suppression of purchasing 
on the part of dealers, the current price of horses began to be very 
much reduced. 

The third regulation for the above purpose, was the coercion and 
castigation of the chief horse brokers, who were a most arrogant, rebelli- 
ous, and audacious class of people. These they treated with immense 
rigour and severity, and expelled some from the city, until the price 
of horses began to get cheap ; for these chief brokers are in reality the 
rulers of the market, and until they are brought into order by coercion 
and castigation, and cease taking the bribes which they receive from 
both parties, and abstain from mediating between the buyer and the 
seller, the price of horseflesh can never fall. It was a matter of some 
difficulty to bring these bare-faced brokers into order, nor would they 
have behaved themselves properly except through fear of the Sultan's 

* I do not know what Major Fuller's MS. had. The Edit. Bill. Indica, p. 
313, 1. 3, has (reading asphdi for the absurd asdmi) — 

' Horses which raider the designation of hasham (i. e. fit for war) passed the 
muster of the Diwan, were divided into three classes, and (pattern horses) 
were shewn to brokers with the prices fixed for them. 

The passage may be compared with my Ain translation, p. 231, bottom. 

Akbar also prohibited the export of horses (Bad. II, 390, 1. 4 from below), ,• 
but he encouraged the import by wise regulations Kin, p. 133). 

34 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz ShdJii. [No. 1, 

harsh disposition, whereby it was no longer possible for them to pre- 
varicate and tell falsehoods. 

The fourth regulation for the above purpose was, the investigation 
into the quality and price of horseflesh before the throne. Every 
month or six weeks, Sultan 'Alauddin used to summon before him [for 
a day or two] a specimen* of all these qualities of horses, together with 
the chief brokers, when he both examined and tested the quality of the 
animal, and ascertained its prices. If any variation appeared between 
its sterling worth, and the specification of its quality and price, the 
brokers suffered penalties and punishments accordingly. Owing to 
this scrutiny, inasmuch as the chief brokers were liable to be summoned 
quite suddenly before the throne, it was impossible for them to set up 
a price and quality of their own, or to take any thing from the buyer 
and seller, or to enhance or diminish, or to exceed the standard [and 
yet pass in muster before the throne]. 

The institution of laws for cheapening slaves and cattle was manag- 
ed on the same principle, as that which I have just written regarding 
the cheapening of horses. It was not possible for dealers and monied 
men to go about the market, and shew [get a glance even at the hair 
of] a slave in any way. The standard value of a working girl was fixed 
at from 5 to 12 tankahs, and the price of a singing girl at from 20 to 
30 or 40, while one or two hundred tankahs was a price seldom 
fetched by any slave ; and should a slave, such as is not to be procured 
in these days for a thousand or two thousand tankahs, appear in 
the market, who was there that could buy him for fear of the watch ? 
The price of a handsome young slave boyf ranged from 20 to 30 tankahs, 

* Major Fuller's MS. seems to read &jj+i for t5 ^>o (?) which the Ed. Bibl. 
Indica, p. 314, 1. 6, has. 

f Major Fuller passes mildly over the obscene phrases of the text (p. 
314, the last six lines.) Komizdk i kindrz means, of course a girl for 
embracing (landrail), a concubine, not necessarily a singing girl. The words 
Ghuldmdn i kdrlcardah and bacliagdii i naalcdri, which Major Fuller translates 
' working men' and ill-favoured boys,' have another meaning. KdrJcardah is the 
same as maful, not ' working,' but worked upon,' a catamitus ; hence gludd- 
mdn i Mrkardah, slaves that are pi-actised and may be used by sodomites. 
Glmldm bachagdn i naiikdn, who fetched of course less money, are ' novices in 
the art.' 

To the great joy of Barani ' beardless slaves, beautiful eunuchs, pretty slave 
girls fetched (during the next reign) 500 to 1000 Tankahs, and even 2000 ZV ; 
vide Ed. Bibl. Indica, p. 384, where, passim, we have to read on the last lines 
arzishlidi (prices) for the absurd az (on one line) and rishtahdi (on the other 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firdz Shdhi, 35 

and that of working men [?] from 10 to 15, while ill-favoured boys [?] 
were procurable at 7 and 8. 

Such penalties were inflicted on the chief brokers, that life even 
became distasteful to them ; and they longed eagerly for death. 

In the cattle market, by the introduction of these regulations, the 
price of the best beasts of burthen which in these times fetch 40 tan- 
kahs, was 4, or at the outside 5 tankahs. A cow for slaughtering fetch- 
ed a tankah and a half, while a milch cow was valued at from 3 to 4. 
The price of a cow buffalo in milk averaged from 10 to 12 tankaks, 
[one for slaughtering, from 5 to 6 tankahs], and that of a fat kid from 
10 to 12 [and 14] jetals. 

The cheapness of all the three markets mentioned above was so 
securely established, that it would be impossible to improve upon it ; 
and as further precaution, police men were stationed throughout the three 
markets, who used to take cognizance of all the good and bad, obe- 
dience and disobedience, and fair and unfair dealing that was going 
on in them, and were bound to furnish daily reports of the same 
to the Sultan. Whatever therefore reached the Sultan through the 
reports of the police, it was impossible that it could escape the 
most rigorous scrutiny and investigation, nor could the culprit's guilt 
fail to be brought to light, and punishment to be inflicted upon 
him. From fear of the police, people both high and low, whether 
belonging to the market or not, became very careful of their be- 
haviour, obedient, and submissive, and subdued with fear and awe ; 
nor did any one dare to swerve a needle's point from the letter of the 
law, to increase or diminish any of the royal standard prices, to in- 
dulge in vain desires and excesses of any sort, or to accept anything 
from buyers and sellers. 

In the establishment of laws for the market people, which belongs 
to the financial department [diwdn i riydsat] of the State, and for the 
establishment of the price of articles sold in the stalls of the market, 
a great deal of trouble was taken ; and with immense toil, everything 
connected with the markets, from caps to socks, combs to needles, 
sugar cane to vegetables, [Harisali to broth, Qabuni sweatmeats to 
Reoris* cakes and baked bread to rice bread and fishcakes, from pdn- 

* Reori is perhaps familiar to all in India. For Harisah, we have Abulfazl's 
recipe, Kin translation, p. 60, 1. 18; and p. 33, Note. 

36 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firdz Slidln. [No. 1, 

leaves] to betel nuts, roses, and greens, was put thoroughly in order. 

Sultan 'Alauddin effected this and reduced everything to cheapness 
hy instituting of his own accord the following measures : the ap- 
pointment of a superintendent of ability and judgment, with a stern, 
relentless disposition and parsimonious* character ; the strict super- 
vision and control over the traffic of every person in the market ; 
the appointment of a magistrate in every market on the part of 
the finance department ; and the severe coercion, intimidation, and 
castigation of the market people, even to the cutting of the flesh 
of both cheeks. 

For the establishment of regulations for the public markets too, the 
advantages of which extend to the whole population at large, Saltan 
'Alauddin made strenuous efforts, and was constantly employed in ap- 
praising every article, however slight it might be, such as needles, 
combs, slippers, shoes, cups, pitchers, and goblets ; and the prices of 
all these he determined according to the estimated cost of the articles, 
with a fair profit to the seller ; and schedules of the prices fixed before 
the throne were given into the office of finance. 

The first measure for establishing the cheapness of articles, apper- 
taining to public markets, was the appointment of an able superinten- 
dent, and a stern harsh- tempered magistrate ; [for the people of the 
markets are shameless, bold, cunning, and debauched, they c burn' 

fools and lie, and (?) ; they arbitrarily fix the prices of articles 

themselves. Kings have been unable to reduce them to obedience 
by laying down price lists, and ministers have failed to devise laws and 
regulate the transactions of this forward set of people. After much 
reflection, 'Alauddin appointed Ya'qub, the superintendent (nctzirj, to 
the new office of Diivdn i riydsat ; for he knew the whole town, and the 
transactions and the sales and purchases of every class, and was not only 
a trustworthy and upright man, but also ill-tempered, hard and close, 
cruel and coarse. But on account of the respect in which he was held, 
and the obedience which people shewed to his orders, the Sultan gave 
him the riydsat, in addition to his duties as n&zw 7 and the Muhtasib- 
ship of the Empire. Such a rats conferred indeed every honor on the 
office. From the numerous corporeal punishments which he inflicted 
and had inflicted, from the imprisoning and fettering, and the 
* Kotalidast. — Barani means a man who will not take a bribe. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrihh i Firdz Shdhi. 37 

ignominies which he heaped on the bazar people, every one of them 
stood in awe of him, and sold his things cheap ; but notwithstanding 
all severities and scoldings, they could not keep from giving less, or 
shewing purchasers one thing as a pattern and then giving something 
inferior, or from burning fools, and cheating and falsifying.] 

[The second regulation for keeping bazar prices low was this, that 
the Sultan should continually make enquiries ; for if a king wishes to 
regulate. the doings of bazar people who never were subject to regula- 
tions, he should not befriend (?)* nor neglect continually to 

enquire into their doings ; for kings of olden times have said that it 

* The misprints in the Ed, Bibl. Indica are again so numerous, that it is 
difficult to get any sense at all. P. 316, Z. 6, read M^ao for AJkjf^so • Z. 11, 
^SJlg for ^j^ • Z. 14, ^TjJ (an estimate) for dj^Jd ' l - 18 > Ajforj^ ; 
^lAjljb for lAjfjfj; U»**J «-*<^ for ^i-'J ,* &• 20, g«iJ^w <XjJL« for dAiLj 
%&')jy«9 j- 8&J£#} is a word, which very likely has no meaning. P. 317, I. 5, 
read «^^l^ oj&j \j for e^-k-'O^b) bj Z. 9, &*>j j^d*? for A^jfjs&d*? ; 
Z. 10., ^^♦J for <*^>*J, anc ^ *^J for ^«^J *, &« Hj ^»^3 j ci>^ for j | e>^ 
^l>o • Z. 14, either o.&J| is wrong, or a word has fallen out before it, as 
bd ghaflat nlfat nalcunad ; Z. 15, read £jU)<XJ for <3>i.jUJ J 2. 17, &JjjjU for 0«3;|jlj • 
Z. 19, Laai^l for ^Uaix*! ; Z. 20, ^jjjjf -y ^ for ^\})\j rj'^, and cZeZe 
^aj ; £. 22, c^wt for *5|. P. 318, Z. 1, read ^ b for ^t^ and ^U/Jo 
for a^J j Z. 3, the word ^ Ix&f is twee written with a ^ though no ad« 
jective follows ; Z. 4, for a-jbj read ojIa^ and ^(ftyLaL for j./.ftVjA • Z. Gj 
the whole line has no sense ; Z. 7, again ^(Ju&f with an impossible ^ • 
Z. 16, lcibdr is doubtful; Z. 20, the first word is glmldm-lacliagdn. P. 319, 
Z. 1, read ^^ dJ ly for ^^jUj j Z. 3 cZeZe the first j ; and for *3jf read d j) • 
Z. 5, read^U&| with a^ for L&| ; Z. 8., JJif^^ for *^ ; Z. 9, put the 
words &\i)± j\ f^f at the end of the line, and cZeZe the j after ^(^ which 
is moreover a bad Indian spelling for ^fo • Z. 12, *L&j has received a Ham- 
zah, the editors being doubtful as to the propriety of a final ^ • Z. 15, for »[)A 
readjI^A jf ; Z. 16, for ^| read ^ and dele U • Z. 17, readjl^j^^o^oj ; 
Z, 21, dele j. The sentence, moreover, is either one of Barani's bad sentences, 
as there are two different subjects, Sultan 'Alduddin, and on p. 320, I. 1, tlio 
Mugfiuls; or the editors have not looked up the MSS. P. 320, Z. 1 cZeZe j after 
A^Cv/o . Z. 10, the • before -U has no sense : Z. 11, read 'ik for ,&.=». • 
^ 13, for c*bb read ^£bt3| as on p. 241 ; but the chance is that even that is 

38 Translations from the Tdrihh i Firiiz Shahi. [No. 1, 

was an easy matter to clear the outskirts of a jungle, and subject dis- 
tant nations, but it was difficult to clear a jungle from within and 
suppress rebellious bazar people. But Sultan 'Alauddin inquired per- 
sonally so carefully into the sales and purchases of the articles of every 
bazar as to astonish every one ; and in consequence of his minute 
examination of the prices, the prices of the bazar — a very difficult 
matter — did get low.] 

[The third regulation for keeping prices low referred to the appoint- 
ment of Shihnahs on the part of the Dhvdn i Biydsat. Ya'qiib, the 
Ndzir and Bais of the town, selected and appointed Shihnahs for each 
bazar, gave each Shihnah a copy of the price lists which had emanated 
from the throne, and ordered them, whenever bazar people should sell 
things, to write down the prices at which they had been sold ; and 
should they have no opportunity to write down the sales, the Shihnah 
should always enquire from the purchasers how much they had paid for 
anything. Should then a marketman be found out to have sold 
things at a price not sanctioned by the price lists, he should be taken 
before the Bais, and the responsibility of that bazar which if they 

give less weight (?) the Shihnah (?). The appointment of a 

Shihnah for each bazar was very conducive to keeping prices low.] 

[The fourth regulation calculated to keep prices low, was this, that 
the Nazir Ya'qiib should illtreat and beat the people of the bazars 
and cut off pieces of flesh from their cheeks, if they did not give proper 
weights. Young and old people in the city were unanimous that no 
Biwan i Biydsat, in any age, could have been harsher than the Nazir 
Ya'qiib ; for in every bazar he used (daily) ten, twenty times to enquire 
into the prices at which articles were sold, and at each enquiry he dis- 
covered deficiencies in weight and lashed the tradespeople mercilessly, 
and illtreated them in every possible way. But notwithstanding his 
harshness and his lashes and punishments, the bazar people would not 
desist from giving short weight ; for though they sold things at the 

wrong, for on p. 323, I. 17, the editors have put Tdtak ; ?. 15, read u£UjJ for 
i®jl^J as on lines 10 and 18, unless again both are wrong ; I. 17, read ^t.i.ssi 
for &&+*» j I- 21, read Oo^tiof. P. 321, 1. 1, dele the Hamzah, which is against 
Persian Grammar ; I. 7, dele j • I. 15, read ^l^Afj for^xS^!) • I. 17, ^^Mj for 
i^j ; I. 20, ^j for ^j. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrilch i Firuz Shdhi. 39 

fixed rates, they would cheat in the weights and decrease the quantity 
of the wares (?), and would ' burn' the buyers, especially such as were 
simple or young. When the Sultan 'Alauddin enquired and saw that 
the people of the bazar would not be submissive as behoved them, and 
did not desist from giving short weight, falsifying, and ' burning' the 
simple and the young, he called sometimes simple slaves from his 
pigeon houses, gave them ten or twenty dirhams (4. e., tankahs), and 
told them to go to the bazar, ordering one to bring bread and roast- 
meat, and another to fetch bread and Yalchni, a third to bring Halivd, 
a fourth to bring Beori, a fifth, melons, a sixth, cucumbers, and so on ; 
and when the boys returned with the things they had bought, the 
Sultan sent for the Rais, and had the articles brought by the boys 
weighed in his presence. Whatever was found to be deficient in the 
articles the boys had brought, was given to the Rais, and he went and 
stood before the shop of the fraudulent seller, cut a quantity of flesh 
equal to the deficiency from his two cheeks, and then kicked him out 
of the shop. These punishments were continued for some time till, at 
last, the bazar people become quite submissive, and discontinued 
giving short weight, and cheating and falsifying, and burning inex- 
perienced purchasers and cheating the young ; nay, they even gave so 
much and so correct weights, that on enquiry it was found out that 
they had given above the fixed quantity.] 

[But this rule, these enquiries, the strictness with which the orders 
were carried out, and the punishments inflicted on the bazar people, 
came to an end with the death of 'Alauddin, and of all the thousand 
regulations of the 'Alai reign, his son Sultan Qutbuddin could not 
enforce this regulation.] 

Effect of 'Alauddin'' s Administrative Measures. (Ed. Bill. Indica, 
p. 319 to 326.)* 
[As soon at the prices had become low and things were cheap, a 
Murattab (p. 23) could be enlisted for 234, and a Duaspah for 78 

* The following errors occur on pp. 322 to 325 in the Ed. Bill. Indica :— 

P. 322, I. 2 read aijfy j I- 6 read £j*> • I. 9 the name is wrong {vide below)* 

P. 323, I. 1, we expect ^s for +J&3 • transfer the last AUf to the end of the 

third line ; I. 12 dele ^U ; I, 13 read %d$ or j$t j£x>c j I. 14 read^Uj for U^ 

anAjjxg&fi orjjJ&s forjjAJ3U; 1 17 read^jUjfor^Uj; 1. 18^1^ for^jt^ 

40 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firliz Shrihi. [No. 1, 

tanhahs, and the army was numerous and was never disbanded. The 
recruits also of the whole empire in passing muster before the ' Arz 
i Mamdlih were examined in archery, and such only were entered 
fcaliili shudanj as were archers and had good armours. By order of 
the Sultan also, the prices of horses and the brand (ddgh) were re- 

[As soon then the cheapness of all necessaries of life had been 
secured, and a large standing army could be entertained, the Mughuls 
were defeated each time they invaded Dihli or the Dihli territory, and 
were slain, or captured, and the standard of Islam obtained one signal 
victory after the other over them. Several thousand Mughuls with 
ropes on their necks were brought to Dihli and trampled to death by 
elephants. Of their heads, they formed a large platform (chautarahj, 
or made turrets of the Mughul skulls, and the stench in the city of 
the dead bodies of such as had been killed in battle or had been exe- 
cuted in Dihli, was very great. The army of Islam gained in fact 
such victories over the Mughuls, that a Duaspah would bring in ten 
Mughuls with ropes on their necks, or a single Musalman trooper would 
drive one hundred Mughuls before himself.] 

[Thus on one occasion 'Ali Beg and Tartak (?) who were the leaders of 
the Mughul army (the said 'Ali Beg was supposed to be a descendant of 
Chingiz Khan, the accursed), occupied with thirty, forty thousand Mu- 
ghuls the foot of the hills in the district of Amrohah, and Sultan ' Alaud- 
din sent against them Malik Atubak(?), the master of horse. He attacked 
them in the confines of Amrohah, and God gave the army of Islam the 
victory. The said 'Ali Beg and Tartak were both caught alive, and the 
greater part of their army was slain and completely overthrown ; on the 
battlefields heaps were erected of dead Mughuls, and a rich harvest 

(a blunder which goes through the editions of Barani and Badaoni) ; ^J— >$*> y 
according to Fullers MS., is a mistake for ^ji* • I- 21, insert aj after e ^ r » j 
and write -j (^ for _j^. P. 321, I. 9, dele j after ^IjfS which, like j^cUj 
has the Itdfat ; I. 16, Om»[^st ^ is very doubtful for Sl^sr^ j for &&udj] 
read s<>a£u<>J| • I. 18, L^ is absurd. P. 325, I. 5, read a.jf for <*xf j I. 10, 
vez&Jai jJaLo for^Jai only ; I. 11, read Js&e j I. 12, read Oof ; I. 13, read 
•JUtijti/o nvuttfaddiyaTi for *.j**£/0, or dj j>£*x> mu'iad bihi (many) ; I 22. dele the 
3 before jLfla. where the apodosis commences, 

1870.] Translations from the Tar'ikh i Firuz Shuhi. 41 

was brought in. 'Ali Beg and Tartak and several others, with ropes 
on their necks, were taken before 'Alauddin, who had given orders for 
a splendid darbar to be held in the Chautarah i Subhani, from which 
place as far as Indarpat the army stood drawn up in two lines. The 
crowds that were present were so great, that on that day people gladly 
paid twenty jetals, and half a tankah, for a goglet of water. 'Ali Beg 
and Tartak, together with the other captives and the spoils, were 
brought to this Darbar and marched past the throne, and all the captives 
were trampled to death by elephants in this very Darbar, and torrents 
of blood flowed along.] 

[On another occasion, in another year, the army of Islam engaged the 
Mughuls under Grung (?) the accursed, at Khekar (on the Gr'haggar ? 
vide p. 45, 1. 12,) and Grod again gave the Musalmans the victory, and 
Grung, the accursed, was captured alive, taken before the Sultan, and 
trampled to death by elephants. On this occasion also, a great number 
of Mughuls were killed, both on the battle field and in the town, and of 
their heads a tower was raised before the Badaon gate, at which tower 
people look at to the present day and think of Sultan 'Alauddin.] 

[In the following year, three or four commanders of tumdns fell 
blindly with thirty, forty thousand Mughuls over the districts in the 
Sawalik Hills, plundering and carrying off spoil. 'Alauddin sent an 
army against them, and ordered it to occupy the roads by which the 
Mughuls would return, and to encamp on the banks of rivers, in order to 
chastise them on their return, when want of water would bring them to 
the rivers.] The army of Islam seized the roads by which the Mughuls 
would have to return, and bivouacked on the banks of the river. By 
the will of the Almighty, it chanced that the Mughuls having overrun 
the Sawaliks, and performed a long journey from thence, arrived at the 
river bank with their horses and themselves both parched with thirst, 
and disordered. The army of Islam, who had been looking out for 
their arrival for several days, thus gained a most advantageous oppor- 
tunity over them ; and the Mughuls putting their ten fingers into their 
mouths, begged for water of the army of Islam, and the whole of them, 
together with their wives and children, fell into the hands of the latter. 
A glorious victory accordingly fell to the lot of the army of Islam, 
who carried several thousands of the Mughuls as prisoners to the fort 
of Narainah, and conveyed their wives and children to Dihli, where 

42 Translations from the Tdr'ikh i Firdz Shahi. [No. 1, 

they were sold in the [slave] market, like the slave boys and girls of 
Hindustan. Malik Khac, the Hajib, was deputed from the throne to 
proceed to Narainah, and on his arrival there, the whole of the Mughuls 
were put relentlessly to the sword, and their polluted blood began to 
flow in torrents. 

Next year Iqbalmandah headed an invasion with a large body of 
Mughuls, and Sultan 'Alauddin despatched an army to repel them. 
On this occasion also the army of Islam joined battle with the Dard- 
mandah force of Amir Ali [?]* and gained the victory over them. 
Iqbalmandah himself was slain, and some thousands of the Mughuls 
fell a prey to the sword. Such of the Mughul Amirs as were [com- 
manders of one thousand or one hundred] and were taken prisoners 
alive, were conveyed to Dihli, and there trampled under foot by 

After this victory, in which Iqbalmandah was slain, and not one of 
the Mughuls managed to return alive, they conceived such a dread 
and terror of the army of Islam, that the desire of invading Hindu- 
stan was altogether erased from their hearts; and until the clou <<i 
the Qutbi reign, the Mughuls never again allowed the name of Hindu- 
stan to escape from their mouths, nor did they wander about the 
frontiers. Through fear of the army of Islam, in fact, they could not 
enjoy a satisfactory sleep ; for during sleep even they used to see the 
swords of their adversaries hanging over their heads. 

The incursions of the Mughuls were thus totally removed from 
Dihli, and its adjoining districts, and perfect peace and security pre- 
vailed throughout the country, so that the inhabitants of those quar- 
ters which were usually invaded by the Mughuls, engaged to their 
hearts' content in farming and agriculture. 

Sultan Tughluq Shah, who in those days was called Ghazi Malik, 
acquired a great name and reputation in Khurasan and Hindustan, 
and became, until the close of the Qutbi reign, the great bulwark 
against the advance of the Mughuls in [his] districts of Deopalpur, and 

* So Major Fuller. The Ed. JBibl. Indica (p. 322, 1,9) has joined battle at 

a place called ^&1j u^ s 'j J ? \ I «*£**, which has no sense. If Badaoni is correct, 

tvc might expect a phrase to avenge the death of Amir 'Alt Beg. My MS. of the 

Tabaqat, however, has at ^^fj ■ J^rJ/ ! Bi^ido. Dihandah (Bad. I, p. 274, i.l.) 

was the name of a river near Ajodhan (Patan i Panjab). S. W. of Deopalpur, 
Ghazi Malik's aqtd'. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrilch i Firm Shake. 43 

Lahor. He was appointed in the place of Sher Khan, the former* 
commander, and every year during the cold season he used to march 
out of Deopalpur with a select force of his own, and advance to the 
Mughul frontiers, and there publicly challengef them to an engage- 
ment ; while the Mughuls could not even approach their own frontiers 
for the purpose of guarding them. Such security prevailed at last, 
that not only did no outbreak of the Mughuls occur at Dihli, J but 
their name even never passed any body's lips. 

* # * Note by the Editor. 

[Synopsis of the Mughul invasions which took place during the reign of 

' Al&uddin, according to Zid i Barani, Nizam i Harawi, 

Badaoni, and Firishtah. 


(Major Fuller's translation in J. A. S. B.for 1869, and 1870.) 

1. (J. A. S. B. 696 Ulugh Khan, and ? 

1869, p. 189) A. H. Zafar Khan. Jarimanjur. 

2. (p. 193) 3rd year of 

reign. Zafar Khan. f aldi. Siwistan. 

3. (p. 194) End of the "'Alauddin, Zafar Qntlugh- 

3rd year. Khan, and Ulugh Khwajah 

Khan. and Turghf. Kill. 

4. (J. A. S. B. ? 'Alauddin besieged 

1870 p. 20) by Turghi. In Siri. 

5. (p. 40) ? Malik Atabak(?), 'AliBegand 

the Master of Tartak (?) 

Horse. Amrohah. 

6. (p. 41) ? ? Gung (?) Khekar (?) 

(on the Gr'haggar ?) 

* The words of the Text (Ed. Bibl. Indica, p. 323, 1. 1) bet jdi Sher Khan 
qadtm o mustaqim gashtah have no sense. If the o is correct, we must read 
qawim for qadim. Fuller leaves out the o, and reads Sher Khan i qadzm, 
* Sher Khan the former Commander ;' but this is doubtful. 

f Or rather, he advanced to the Mughul frontier, and having kindled the lamp, he 
searched for the Mughuls (an Indian phrase for searching carefully for anything), 
and the Mughuls found it impossible to approach their own frontiers by way of 
visiting them. 

X So perhaps Major Fuller's MS. The Ed. Bibl. Indica reads, not only did 
outbreaks of the Mughuls occur to no one (dar dile — not dihli — miguzdsht), but 
their name, 8fc, 

44 Translations from the Tdrihh i Fiiuz ShahS. [No. 1, 

7. (p. 41) ? ? ? Near some 

river beyond 

8. (p. 42) ? ? Iqbalmandah ? 
Besides these, there were several attacks made by Ghazi Malik 

(later Sultan Tughluq) on the Mughuls near the Indus. 

Firishtah, (Briggs, Vol. I ). 

1. (p. 326) 2nd year of Ulugh Khan. Amir Daud. Labor. 


2. (p. 329) 697 Zafar Khan. Chaldi Khan. Siwistan. 

3. (p. 329) 697 Zafar Khan, Ulugh Qutlugh Khan, 

Khan, 'Alauddin, son of Amir 
Nucrat Khan. Daud. Dihli. 

4. (p. 354) 703 A. H. 'Alauddin besieged Turghi Khan. Dihli. 

5. (p. 361) 704 A. H. Tughluq Khan. Ali Beg and 


6. (p. 363) 705 A. H. Ghazi Beg Tugh- Aibak Khan, 

luq. to avenge On the 

No. 5. Indus. 

7. (p. 364) 706 ? Ghazi Beg Tughluq Iqbalmandah. ? 

(Ed, Bill. Tndica, L, p. 184 to 186.) 

1. 698 A. H. Ulugh Khan, Tugh- ? Jaran- 

luq Khan. Manjiir. 

2. ? Zafar Khan, Qutlugh 

Ulugh Khan. Khwajah, 

son of Daud. Kili. 

3. Malik Fakhruddin, 

relieved by Malik Turghi Baran. 

Tughluq. captured. 

4. ? Malik Manik 'Ali Beg and On the 

(= Kafur Naib Muhammad Rahab. 
Hazar Dinari.) Taryaq (?), 

princes of 

1870.] Translations from the TdriJch i Firuz SlidM. 45 

5. ? Malik Naib, and Iqbalmandah, 

Malik Tughluq. and Kapak, 
to avenge 
No. 4. ? 

Niza'm i Harawi'. 

Nizam, in his Talaqdt i Akbari, follows Barani. The first expe- 
dition, according to MS. 87 of the Asiatic Society of Bengal — a very- 
fair MS. — took place at Jdran Majhur (sic) in Sind (!). The names of 
the Mughul commanders of the second, third, and sixth expeditions are 
given as Caldi and Qutlugh, son of Ddud, and JTapik or Kabih. He 
calls 'All Beg (fifth expedition) the grandson (nabisah) of Chengiz 
Khan. For IPhelcar (sixth expedition), he has Kliahliarah, in all 
probability the river G'haggarnear Patiala (Sarhind) ; and he says that 
the river mentioned in the seventh expedition was the Ravi (Labor). 

Thus we see that Barani and Nizam have more than eight, Firishtah 
has seven, and Badaoni ^ve invasions. Firishtah agrees more with Zia 
i Barani than Badaoni. The Mughul leader Kapak, in expedition No. 5, 
is evidently the same as Gung in No 6 of Barani, as &*? and vSA-^ 
only differ in the diacritical points. As Badaoni's events differ 
materially from those of the other two historians, I subjoin a 
translation of Badaoni (I., pp. 184 to 186). 

' In 698, Chatalcli (sic), a leader of the Mughuls crossed the Indus, 
and invaded Hindustan. Ulugh Khan and Tughluq Khan, governor 
of Dipalpur (Panjab), who is the same as Grhazi Malik, were sent 
against him. They met him in the confines of Jaran Manjhur, 
defeated him, killed some, and captured others, and 'Alaucldin's army 
returned victorious with much plunder. 

< The second time Qutlugh Khwajah, son of Daud, came from Ma- 
warannahr with countless hordes to conquer Hindustan, and came as 
far as the environs of Dihli to A'rah (?) ; but he did not ravage the 
districts. In Dihli things got very dear, and the condition of the 
inhabitants was miserable. Sultan 'Alauddin appointed Ulugh Khan 
and Zafar Khan commanders, and sent them with a large army to 
fight the Mughuls. A battle took place at Greli (Kill), in which 
Zafar Khan was killed. In his death also 'Alauddin saw an advan- 
tage. Qutlugh Khan fled to Khurasan, where he died.' 

46 Translations from the Tdrikli i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

1 The third time Turghi Mughul, who belonged to the markandn (?), 
i. e., unerring archers, of his country, came with a lot of foot soldiers, 
and 20,000 intrepid and renowned horsemen, occupied the foot of the 
hills and the districts lying there, and advanced as far as Baran, whose 
governor Malik Fakhruddin, the Mir Dad, shut himself up in the Fort. 
Malik Tughluq* was sent to his relief from the capital, when Malik 
Fakhruddin left the Fort and effected a junction with Malik Tughluq. 
Both fell upon the Mughuls at night, defeated them, and captured 
Turghi, who was taken by Tughluq to Dihli.' 

* The fourth time, Muhammad Taryaq (?, Tartaq ?, and 
'AH Beg, who were princes royal of Khurasan, advanced with a large 
army, one corps of which plundered Nagor, and the other occupied the 
Sirmiir mountains as far as the Bayah, or Kali, river. Sultan 'Aland- 
din sent his slave Malik Manik (?), who is the same as Kamr Naib Bazar 
Dinari, and Malik Tughluq, governor of Dipalpur, towards Amrohah; 
and when the Mughuls with their cattle and spoils arrived at the 
Rahab, Malik Manik fell over them from the rear. A great battle 
ensued ; both princes fought bravely, but were at last captured and 
executed. Most of these accursed invaders were killed, and those that 
escaped fled in a wretched condition to their country. The heads of 
the two leaders were fixed on the battlements of the Fort at Badaon. 
The following Ruba'i was composed by a poet of that time, ami may 
now be seen inscribed on the southern gate of that town (Badaon) — 

Fort, may God's protection be thy friend, 

And may the conquests aud the victories of the Shah be thy standard ! 

The present King has built thee up again, 

May Turghi also, like 'Ali Beg,f be thy prisoner.' 

' And Mir Khusrau also has described the war of Malik Manik, who 
had now received the title of Malik Naib, in his history entitled 
Khazdinulfutuh, the language of which is a miracle and exceeds human 
power, though, in fact, every thing written by this Prince of poets, is of 
the same kind, so that it would be idle and wrong to make distinc- 
tions and preferring one poem to another.' 

' The fifth time Iqbalmandah and Kapak (?) collected an army of 

* The Ed. Bibl. Indica, p. 185, 1. 9, has wrong Malik Tughluq and Ghazi Malik. 
It is one and the same man. 

f The text has wrong 'Aid Beg. Besides, did Tughluq release Turghi, whom 
he had captured in the third Expedition ? 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrihli i Firuz Shdhi. 47 

Mughuls, and invaded Multan, to avenge the death of Muhammad 
Taryaq (?) and 'Ali Beg. 'Alauddin sent this time also Malik Naib 
and Malik Tughluq against them. When the Mughuls returned, 
'Alauddin's army followed them in forced marches. Kapak was 
caught in the fight, but he was exchanged for the prisoners and the 
spoils which had fallen into the hands of the infidel Tatars.' 

' From that day the desire of invading Hindustan grew cold in the 
hearts of the Mughuls, and the teeth of their rapaciousness were all on 
edge.' — 

Of the five invasions mentioned by Badaoni, the third is not to 
be found in any other historical work. It is a matter of surprise that 
Barani should have said nothing about it, as Baran was the centre 
of the expedition. For the fourth invasion also, Badaoni has a few 
new particulars. 

I have not seen a MS. of Khusrau's Kha%ain ulfutiih, though it 
would be of interest to examine that book as also his Qirdn ussadain 
from a historical point of view. 

Brigg's Firishtah has only a few differences in the proper nouns, 
and his variations might be increased by comparing the Bombay and 
the Lucknow editions. 

Badaoni complains that ' historians, in narrating these invasions, 
have let the thread of chronology slip from their hands ;' but it is 
not only the chronology which is unsatisfactory : the geographical de- 
tails of this period have been as much neglected by the historians, 
as in other parts of Indian History. From Firishtah and from p. 327, 
1. 1, of Barani 's text edition it is, however, clear that the Mughul 
invasions all took place before A. H 708 or 709.] 

Thus had Sultan 'Alauddin eradicated the Mughuls, and stopped up 
completely the road of their invasions, while the soldiery from the 
establishment of a cheap price for every military equipment, and arti- 
cle of consumption, were in a flourishing condition. The provinces 
in every quarter were under the administration of trusty nobles and 
worthy courtiers, the rebellious had become obedient and submissive, 
and the system of imperial taxation* [according to measurement, and 

* 'Alauddin's house tax (ghari) and grazing tax {chardi) corresponds to the 
Khanahs'hwmdri and Gdoshumdri of later reigns. Both taxes were looked upon 
as illegal and odious. Vide my A'in text, p. 301, 1. 5. 

48 Translations from the Tarikh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

the house-tax] and the grazing duties having entered into the minds of 
all the people, all ideas of rebellion vanished from their hearts, and they 
pursued cheerfully their several avocations and trades. Rantauibhur, 
Chi'tor, [Mandalgadh], Dhar, Ujain, Mandu, 'Alaipiir, Chanderi, Trij, 
Siwanah and Jilor,* which are all strong places beyond the limits of 
the empire [?] had fallen under the control of various provincial gover- 
nors, and jagirdars [muqta'] ; while the territory of Gnjrat flourished 
under Alan [Alp?] Khan, Mill tan and Sistan under Tajulniulk Kafuri, 
and Deopalpur and Lahor under Ghazi Malik Tughluk Shah, Samanah 
and Sunnam under Malik Akhurbak Nanak (?), Dhar and Ujain under 
'Ainlmulk of Miiltan, Jhayin under Fakhrulmulk of Mi rat, Chitor 
under Malik Abu Muhammad, Chanderi and I'rij under Malik Tamar, 
Badaon, Koelah, and K'harak under Malik Dinar, superintendent of ele- 
phants, Audh under Malik Takir \_Ed. Bibl. Ind., Baktan], and Karah 
under Malik Naciruddin Sauteliyah. Kol, Baran, Mirat, Amrohah, 
Afghan piir, Kabar, and all the districts lying within the Duab, were 
under the influence of the same law, as if they were one single village ; 
they were crown lands, and applied to the support of the soldiery. 
The entire revenue was paid into the treasury, even to the last dang 
and diram, and in the same way was pay issued to the soldiery from 
the treasury, and the expenses of all establishments defrayed. 

In short, the imperial administration of Sultan 'Alauddin had reach- 
ed such a state of perfection that vice and crimes were totally expelled 
from the capital, and the safety of the highways throughout the pro- 
vinces had become so great, that the Hindu landed proprietors and 
tenants [Jfuqaddimdn o Ehutdn] used to stand on the highroads, and 
keep watch over way-farers and caravans, while travellers with goods, 
fabrics, cash, or any other property used to alight in the midst of the 

* Mandalgarh (the Ed. Bibl. Indica, p. 323, 1. 13, lias wrong MandalVlrr) is 
the name of a town and Parganah in Chitor. Siwanah or Sucdnd (<SJ|j*, or Gl*.x«») 
is the name of a town and Parganah in Jodhpur. For Mandu, Major Fullers 
has Mdndu and Kalidr{?), and the Ed. Bibl. Indica has^^j^bo for $5Jjt}JUc • 
but Mdndtigarh is the same as Mandt'c or Mdndu. 

For 'Aldipur the MSS. of the Kin have 'Aldpur. It is a town with a fort, 
and also a parganah, in the Sii'kar of Gwaliar. Abnlfazl says that before the 
time of 'Alauddin it had another name ; but none of the thirteen MSS. in my 
possession gives the old name legibly ; the MSS. have jl$f\ jl^, and \l$~». 

Major Fuller's words, which are all strong (mazbut) places beyond (kharij) the 
limits of the Empire, are scarcely correct. Translate, ivhich do not belong to 
mazbut districts, i.e., they were not yet under Musulman Zdbits or Governors. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shdhi. 49 

plains and deserts. From the excessive rigour of his rule,the good 
and evil, favorable and unfavorable transactions of the inhabitants 
in the capital, as well as the affairs of the whole of the residents 
in the provinces, were never unknown to him. The hearts of all his 
subjects both high and low were deeply impressed with awe and re- 
verence for his severe rule and harsh disposition, and the royal seed* 
having settled in the breasts of the public generally, the roots of his 
empire had sunk deep. 

It never crossed the minds of people on beholding this state of 
things, that the sovereignty would pass away from his house so spee- 
dily, and revert to another family ; and when by the aid of the acei- 
i dental luck and good fortune, which attended him, the measures of his 
, government turned out satisfactorily, and his enterprises, both preme- 
ditated and unpremeditated, were accomplished as speedily as he could 
I wish, worldly-minded persons, who consider greatness to depend 
! upon the attainment of worldly prosperity, and the success of one's 
| designs, attributed the favorable results of Sultan 'Alauddin's mea- 
j sures to his consummate ability, and imagined that the expres- 
sions which used to fall from his lips regarding the execution of state 
affairs, and the victories and triumphs of his armies, proceeded from 
i inspiration. Those, however, learned in civil and religious law, and 
i versed in the irresistible decrees of Grod Almighty, [and those] whose 
! far-seeing judgment penetrates the realities of things, and whose con- 
clusions are more certain that the revolution of the heavens, and the 
immobility of the earth, used to remark on beholding the frequency of 
Sultan 'Alauddin's victories and triumphs, and the constantly success- 
ful issue of his undertakings, that every triumph and victory which 
accrued to the standard of Islam in his age, and every undertaking of his 
and of all his subjects which turned out well, and every measure of ad- 
j vantage and improvement which was apparent throughout the kingdom, 
i arose from the virtues and benedictions of Shaikhul Islam Nizamuddin 
of Ghiaspiir. He, (they said) is the beloved and chosen of God, and on 
his head the divine grace, bounty, and beneficence is being constantly 
showered ; and in consequence of the continual favours that are pour- 

# Verbally, the hearts of men were generally ('dmatan) settled regarding his 
rule, and the roots of his kingdom which he himself had caused to sink (into 
the hearts of men), on beholding them (the roots), it never crossed, &c. This 
is one of Barani's bad sentences. 

50 Translations from the Tdrihh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 1, 

ing down upon his head, and owing to the blessings of his auspicious 
existence, which has been eternally and perpetually the object of 
divine affection, the undertaking of both the rulers and the ruled of 
this government have been accomplished satisfactorily, and the stan- 
dard of Islam has been exalted time after time with celestial victory 
and triumph ; whereas what relation can virtue and divine inspiration 
have to Sultan 'Alauddin, who is polluted with so many sins, both 
active and passive,* and from indulgence in cruelty and bloodshed, has 
become a habitual and bloodthirsty murderer. All the comforts, 
general prosperity, and perfect peace and security of people from perils 
of every kind, and the inclination of the people to obedience and devo- 
tion, have arisen from the blessings of Shaikh Nizamuddin. 

The author's object in noticing the stability which Saltan 'Alaud- 
din's government had acquired, and the satisfaction he enjoyed from 
the success of his undertakings, is this, that as soon as the Sultan's 
state affairs and negociations were settled, and his mind was satisfied 
with the condition of every quarter that belonged to him, he [built 
Fort Siriand peopled it. Sultan 'Alauddin then] engaged in territorial 
conquests. With the view of overthrowing the Hindu chieftains 
and lords of other principalities, and carrying off wealth and elephants 
from the kingdoms towards the south, he organized and equipped 
another force besides the one which he maintained for the Mughul 
inroads. — {Ed. Bibl. Indica, p. 326.) 

(Here ends Major Fuller's translation.) 

* # * Barani then proceeds to narrate 'Alauddin' s expeditions to the Dak'hin, 
which extend from p. 326 Edit. Bibl. Indica to p. 337. The text is, however, 
so carelessly edited that without the help of several MSS. it would be useless 
to attempt a translation. On p. 327 alone, there are sixteen blunders, gram- 
matical, historical, and typographical. The following list of corrections may 
prove acceptable. 

P, 326, I. 20, read %ist for zalast ; I. 22, hJiidmaWid for khidmdt; and 
for duwum (the second) we have probably to read duwdzduhum (the twelfth). 

P. 327, I. 1., tis'a watis'amiyah (909 A. H.) is nonsense, as 'Alauddin 
lived 200 years earlier ; perhaps we should read tis'a wa sab'a miyah 709, 
or better samdni wa sab'amiyah, 708 j 1.2, read Arangul for Aratgul ; I. 5, 

* Ma'dqii lazimah o muta'addiyah, 'active and passive,' inherent and passing 
on to others. Crimes are lazimah when they are ^13 i. e. attach to the sinner 
himself j and muta'addyah, when a man causes others to sin. 

1870.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firdz ShdM. 51 

nabdshi for mabdshL a grammatical blunder which is repeated four times on 
this page in different verbs ! 1. 9, read murd'dt for murd' at ; I. 10, naparddzi for 
maparddzi ; I. 12, dele kill ; I. 13, read naydyad for biydyad, which would be 
the opposite ; kliiydnatlidi for khiyanathd ; and put a Hamzah over the last 
letter of this line ; I. 16, read khui for kiwi, as required by Persian grammar ; 
I. 17, a wdw has been omitted before neh ; and read nabdshi for mabdslii ; 1. 19, 
read ta'arruz for ta'azzuz, or tanaglighuz ; Z. 20, read chand for cliatad ; J. 22, 
spell jyfjA for IjASyk. 

P. 328, I. 1 read dar for do ; Z. 2 for ba hamchundn read hamchundn yd ; 
1. 5, for Rdbri read Rdpri ; I. 10, khidmatihdi for khidmatlidi ; I. 22, yahtdju for 
yahtidju ; and for rishtali on p. 328 and gab/ the first on p. 329, read rishtatdbil 

P. 329, J. 15, read ba for azs ; Z. 20, for nairah read naizah ; I. 21, for bastand 
read bisitadand. 

P. 330, Z. 2, read khidmatihdi for Ichidmatiydn ; I. 11, Jhdyin for Jhdbin ; 
I. 16, dardngdh kih for dardrikih; I. 22, (ZeZe the first wdw, and put MTi after 

P. 331, Z. 10, read barhhastah for bikhdstah; p. 14, insert a -ra after Nizdm- 

P. 333, Z. 2, read Rdpri for Rdbri ; I. 5, read lagdmrez for lagdmzir; I. 6, s/ 
o shash ; 1.8, raftand has no sense; Z. .9, for the absurd qaranhdi read aa 
qaranhd ; I. 11, strike out either cmcZdbaTi or bay an ; I. 12, for bu$ read budand ; 
1. 19, for namikdn read nimgdn ; I. 22, read budah ast for ast. 

P. 334, Z. 15, for j| read only « ; and for hakim read hukm ; I. 20, dele the waw. 

P. 335, Z. 3, read migoyand for migoyad ; I. 12, mimdnad for minumdyad ; Z. 
17, dardim for dardim (a clever spelling) ; Z. 18, mituwdnim for wiZttwanara. 

P. 336, Z. 3, cZeZe j) ; Z. 7, the word budhkdn has no sense; Z. 11, read 'aldi for 
'aZai ,• Z. 14, dele the two u vowel signs, they are wrong ; L 17 read 'aldi for 
'aldi; and naddsht for nad,dshtant ; I. 18, /<xre& for qariyat ; Z. 19, for the 
third time on this page, read 'aldi for 'aldi. 

P. 337, Z. 3. Here read'aZoi for 'aldi; I. 4 andZ. 5, Qdyini for Qdnini ; I. 11, 
here read 'aZa£for 'aldi, and (ZeZe the wot before panj ; I. 16, read again Qdyini 
for Qdnini, and perhaps riydsat for risdlat ; I. 17, a few words are left out after 
ws7ia ; Z. 19, the Arabic word is Za yufiih, with the Persian plural, a — h not a 

52 Rejoinder to Mr. Beames. [No. 1, 

Rejoinder to Mr. Reames, by F. S. Growse, Esq , M. A., B. C. S. 
(See Vol. XXXVIII. for 1869, p. 176.) 

Mr. Beames in replying to my criticisms on his translation, lias 
evidently written under great excitement ; but at this I am not sur- 
prised ; it must be very annoying for a translator of Chand to be con- 
victed of not knowing some of the commonest Hindi words. I am 
aware that nisan will not be found in Forbes, or any similar dictionary 
of modern Hindustani ; but it occurs repeatedly in the Ramayana of 
Tulsi Das, and in the glossary appended to most native editions of 
that poem is explained by the words nagara and dauhd. The deriva- 
tion is no very recondite mystery ; since the root is simply the Sans- 
crit swan (Latin sonarej with the prefix ni. In the same glossary, 
Mr. Beames will also see the word bais explained by avasthd, and the 
Hindi form is so evidently a corruption of the Sanskrit, that I should 
have imagined the fact would be obvious to the merest tyro in philo- 
logy. But to discuss Mr. Beames's reply in detail : — 

I. — I am dissatisfied with his reproduction of the text, since I 
detect in it several conjectural emendations. I should much prefer to 
have seen it precisely as it stands in the MS. and with the words un- 
divided. I also miss the concluding stanza, which I was particularly 
curious to see, as the English version of it is anything but lucid. 

II. — Mr. Beames's sarcasms are quite innocuous, being mainly 
directed against the imperfections of my text. I always stated it to 
be a mere fragment, never vaunted its accuracy, and am even willing 
to follow Mr. Beames in stigmatizing it as a ' bad, faulty garble and 
jumble.' Still the question remains, which of the two translators has 
made the better use of his materials? And further, if the differences 
are so exceedingly great, how comes it that I at once discovered in 
my copy the parallel passage to Mr. Beames's specimen ? The diffi- 
culty ought to have told equally against both of us. 

HI. Assuming my text to be faulty, my translation of it at least 

appears to be tolerably correct. Mr. Beames, with natural anxiety to 
discover the joints in my harness, has hit only upon four vulnerable 
points, which I now proceed to examine. 

1st. He says Bijay, or subijay, as it stands in his text, (su being 

merely an expletive) cannot be a proper name as I translate it, but 

1870.] Rejoinder to Mr. Beames. 53 

must be an epithet, since the king's real name is given lower down as 
Padam-sen. To this I reply that Padam-sen is not the king, hut the 
king's son, as is sufficiently indicated by the title ' Kunwar,' a title 
which is never given to the head of a house, but always to one of its 
subordinate members. 

2nd. — He says mahabhuj (as it stands in his text) cannot mean, as 
I should translate it, ' very exalted,' but must mean 'long-armed.' 
To this I reply, 1st, that the Sanskrit for ' arm' is not bhuj, as Mr. 
Beames imagines, but hhuja ; and though a palatal at the end of a 
word is liable to be changed into a guttural, a palatal in the middle of 
a word and with a vowel following it is not so liable. 2nd. One of 
the MSS. reads abhang : now this rhymes neither with durg nor drug, 
and has all the appearance of being a gloss : it is a very good gloss on 
mahabhuj in my sense, but not at all so of mahabhuj with the sense of 
1 long-armed.' 3rd, Whether my text correctly represents the origi- 
nal or not, it is certain that the copyist intended the words to convey 
some meaning. Now bhuj, as a corruption of bhris' fits in equally well 
with either reading ; with Mr. Beames's interpretation of the word, 
my text would be absolutely untranslateable. 4th. Whether in 
this particular case, bhuj really represents bhris ' or not, it is certain 
that by the recognized rules of Prakrit formation, it might represent 
it. Even Mr. Beames will scarcely deny this, when he reflects that 
buddha is the Hindi equivalent for the Sanscrit vriddha, and dis' is as 
often as not represented by dig. If the above explanation be not 
accepted, I fall back upon my old alternative and take bhug in the 
sense of bhugat ; forming it from bhu precisely in the same way that 
Jchag is formed from Jcha. Thus his charge of ' simple nonsense' re- 
coils upon himself. 

3rd. — He says sevahin must be a dative plural, and is exceedingly 
amused at my regarding it as a verb. To this I reply, by merely 
taking a copy of the Bamayana and opening it at random. On the 
very first page that presents itself, I find the following line — 

ms\x sreft: vi-zH ^T?nft — ^rkH 

And again a little lower down — 

^c w?r fK^H ^fa ^kH ^r<^cr jit^t 

May I ask Mr. Beames if bhentahin, karahin, barakhaliin are also 
datives ? If so I should be glad to see his rendering of the lines quoted. 

54 Rejoinder to Mr. Beames. [No. 1, 

There is of course a dative with a similar ending of very common 
occurrence — thus on the very same page of the Ramayana fog ^r??f% 
^*r<ff : but if ' to servants' were the meaning intended, the word would 
have to be not sevaliin, but sevakhin from sevak, as seva means not 

* a servant,' but ' service.' Certainly my respect for Mr. Beames's 
scholarship (in spite of his reference to Lassen) is not enhanced by 
his remarks either here or on the word bais. I strongly advise him 
to adhere to his resolution of not again attempting to answer my 

4th. — He says with regard to the line in my MS. 

^fK €ft ^re ^ ?n?r wtcct *f& mi*\ 

11 Your text as it stands is not intelligible, and I should like to 
know by what process you get your English out of it," and proceeds 
to be facetious about my expression ' shimmering like a fish in a 
stream.' I reply that the text to my simple intelligence appears 
tolerably clear. It admits of two constructions, but both yield pre- 
cisely the same sense. If jha/ch joti be taken as a compound adjective, 
its most literal translation possible is 'shimmering like a fish;' the 
words ' in a stream' were added simply because, according to English 
usage, it would not be considered . complimentary to style a woman 

* like a fish.' lijhakh and joti be regarded as two distinct words, 
jhahh must be taken with Mr, Mr and harts as forming the subject of 
the verb chharat which will then govern joti, and mdnn will stand for 
the imperative mdno ; whereas under the alternative construction, it 
stands for the substantive man. 

These are the only four blots which Mr. Beames flatters himself he 
has detected in my translation : it has not been very difficult to dispose 
of them.* 

IV. — On reading Mr. Beames's text, I find that the verbal differ- 
ences are more considerable than I had anticipated (the number I 
imagine would be reduced, were the conjectural emendations expunged). 

* Referring again to Mr. Beames's onslaught, I find there is yet one more 
point on which he attacks me. In line 4 of my text I translate prabal bhup by 
' puissant chiefs ;' upon which my critic writes, " The puissant chiefs of Mr. 
Growse's translation are evidently a creation of his own brain, or of his Pandit's, 
for I do not see how he gets it out of his own text even." It is difficult to 
answer a remark of this kind : however much Mr. Beames may disparage his 
own intelligence, I cannot believe him to be so utterly unversed in the 
language, as to be ignorant of the meaning of two such ordinary words as prabal 
and bhup. 


Rejoinder to Mr. Beanies. 


The general sense remains the same in both MSS , and thus I have 
been to some extent misled, and in several places have too hastily con- 
demned the translator for carelessness and inaccuracy. All such criti- 
cisms I very gladly cancel. Still it is only the minor premiss of my 
argument that requires modification, the conclusion remains unaltered. 
Thus, taking Mr. Beames's text as he gives it me, and comparing it 
with his translation, I find in the very short space of 19 couplets 
(even after omitting the lines which his alterations have made obscure 
or unintelligible) the following formidable list of errors : — 


True meaning. Mr. 

Beames's rendering. 


a kettle drum 

a standard 


they serve 

to servants 


a jewel 

a horse's hoof ! 

khan j an 

a wagtail 



a heap or bundle 



a swan [anas casarca) 

a lotus ! 


well arranged 

fair to see 


betel juice 

a koil ! 

bay sandh 





god of love. 

Further, on Mr. Beames's translation of his 7th stanza, I would 

| observe that as ang is often used to denote the numeral 6, 1 hesitate to 

| believe that Chand speaks of 14 angs. He might speak of 14 vidyds. 

If Mr. Beames will look at his text again, I think he will find that 

what he has printed as chatur das is in the MS. chatur dis. 

Again, the obvious purport of Mr. Beames's 10th stanza is, that the 
princess began teaching the parrot to say Bam Bam. The translator 
declares that this cannot be. Why ? Simply because he has been 
pleased to render the words ' Grai khel sab bhul' by ' she went to 
play forgetting all about him.' Surely he must see that the words 
quoted can, with equal grammatical propriety, be translated ' she forgot 
all her play' — and as this is the only translation which harmonizes 
1 with the context, it must be the correct one. Again, in his conclud- 
ing stanza, after the word pik, the mistranslation of which I have 
already noted, comes the word sad, which he explains by 'voice.' 
My impression is, that there is no such word in the language as sad : 

56 Rejoinder to 31r. Beames. [No. 1, 

but, however, that may be, it is quite certain that the word here in- 
tended is rad } the teeth, and if Mr. Beanies will only look a little 
more closely, he will probably find it in his MS. 

In Mr. Beames's own phrase, ' Is not this enough ?' Yet one word 
more : since he speaks of me as a self-constituted interpreter, let me 
remind him that the MS. was in the first instance made over to 
me by the chief authority in these Provinces. Subsequently I 
received a requisition from another quarter that the book might 
be sent to Calcutta to be photographed. As soon as it reached 
Calcutta, Mr. Beanies volunteered to edit it, and I have since seen 
no more of it. Whether of the twain, I would ask, seems to be 
rather the self-constituted interpreter ? Still, if the literary world 
are satisfied with Mr. Beames's proficiency, I have no wish to 
interfere with him ; and if he will only stay quiet for a year or two, 
and in the mean time extend his knowledge of old Hindi by reading 
a few books of the Ramayana under the guidance of any intelligent 
native — whether Brahman or Baniya, it matters not — I see no reason 
why he should not eventually produce a very creditable performance. 

3fainpuri, Dec. 29th, 1869. 

Postscript. — Within the last day or two I have had an opportunity 
of seeing Mr. Beames's new edition of Sir H. Elliot's Supplementary 
Glossary. The additional matter supplied by the editor, is not very 
considerable; but under the word Gahlot, I notice that he quotes 4 
lines from Chand, and refers the passage to the place which it oc- 
cupies in his MS. of the Prithirajras. Singularly enough, it happens 
that these very 4 lines, with some verbal differences, were included in 
a specimen of the Hindi text given in an article of mine contributed 
to this Society's Journal in February, 1869. I mention the coin- 
cidence, because Mr. Beames has excused himself from criticising my 
translation by saying that the Hindi, from which I translate, is not 
traceable in either of his copies. It is of course quite possible that 
Mr. Beames may not have seen the parallel passage as quoted by me, 
and may not have read any part of my article (since I have no 
pretensions to rank among European scholars) but, under the word 
Chandel, he apparently quotes from the very article, though without 

1870.] Rejoinder to Mr. Beames. 57 

Since the immediate subject of discussion at the present moment is 
Mr. Beames, as a translator of Hindi, it may not be out of place to 
notice a few more specimens of his skill. In the original edition of 
the Glossary occur several curious local proverbs, which were nearly 
all left untranslated. Mr. Beames, in his new edition, has very pro- 
perly essayed to supply this omission ; but his explanations are 
scarcely so brilliant or even so accurate as the public has a right to 
expect from a scholar of European celebrity. Thus in the couplet 

Ndnah, nanhd ho raho jaisa nanhi dub 
Awr glids jal jaenge dub klwb ki Jchub. 

to translate the last words by " dub remains fresh and fresh" seems 
neither literal nor idiomatic. It should rather be ' the dub remains 
fresh as ever.' This, however, may be a mere question of taste and 
style ; but (under the word giimd) to translate the words sab rang rati 
by ' all coloured red' is absolutely wrong. 
Again, the lines — 

Des Mdlwd gaihir gamblur, 
Dag dag roti, pag pag nir. 

are translated by Elliot correctly enough, while Mr. Beames renders 
them thus : " The land of Malwa is deep and rich ; at every step 
bread, on every path water;" apparently confusing pag with pagdandi. 
I would suggest the following equivalent : — 

Kick and deep is the Malwa plain ; 
At every step water, at every foot grain. 
Again, " Hairy ears 

Buy these, do not let them go" 
is certainly rather a feeble representation of the lines 

Kdr, Kachhauta jhabre Kdn 
Inhen clihdndi na lijiye an 

Which might be rendered thus — 

When buying cattle, choose the black, 
With bushy ears and hollow back. 

And, to conclude, under the heading akhtij occur two lines, which 
Mr. Beames leaves unaltered in their original obscurity and docs not 
attempt to translate : 

Poi mdvas mul bin, bin rohini khetij, 
Sravan salono bdri kyun bakhere hi]. 

58 jYote on a Circle of Stones. [No. 1, 

It may help him over the difficulty to suggest that the first word ^ITT 
should be corrected to ^. 

Mainpuri, March 9th, 1870, 

F. S. Growse. 

Addenda. — In the 40 Hindi verses occurring on pages 162, 163 of 
Part I. of the Journal for 1869, correct as follows : — 

Line 5, for 3^ 3% read ^^| ^^\, sajje bajje ; 16, for ^ read 
^^, aru ; and for ^ttt read ^I'SfT, chhdrat ; 19, for ^ft read ^^t, 
radii ; 20, for ^Tf% read ^ttf% dsi ; 27, for ^T?fiT?T read ^sfirr, chah- 
rat;28, for ^5€JT read ^^3"^T chahutyan ; 31, for ?a^f read *a^f, 
Me^ ; 32, for ^S^T read ^^?r^T chahutyo ; and for xpf^r read "qri% 
phuli ; 37, for iTpfl read flffl, mutti ; 38, for ^ read ^3, sulchn ; 
and for *PCJ% read WCHT, murti ; 39, for ^iT read ^ ft 7ier*. 

iVbfe on a Circle of Stones situated in the Distrkt of Eusoofzyc, by 
Colonel Sir Arthur Puayjre, Member of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal. ("With a plate.) 

( Vide Proceedings A. S. Bengal, for January, 1870.) 

About fifteen miles east of Murdan, the head quarter station of the 
corps of guides, in Eusoofzye, near a place called Sung Butte, is a 
remarkable circle of tall upright stones. These stones, or masses of 
rock, consist of rough slabs of granite, with a few squared, or other- 
wise worked pillars of the same material. Only ten of what appear 
to be of the original size, are now in an upright position. The rest 
lie upon the ground, some broken and some half buried in the 
ground. Two or three though still upright are the mere stumps of 
the original stones. The accompanying plate will render detailed 
description unnecessary, but a few remarks may be acceptable. 

The circle has been over fifty feet in diameter. The highest of the 
pillars which remain upright, is about eleven feet. The largest of 
the rough slabs, which have the appearance of being in the state in 
which they were quarried from the rock, is about the same height, 
two and a half feet -broad in its broadest part, and two feet thick 

Vol XXXIX. Ft: T 1870. 

1870.] Note on a Gireh of Stones, 50 

The squared stones are from twelve to fourteen inches square The 
stones are placed from three to four feet apart. There is no appearance of 
any stones having been placed across the tops of the uprights. On 
the north side, two short upright stones are placed against the taller 
ones, as if to mark an entrance to the circle. In the centre of the 
circle, there has once stood an upright pillar, now thrown down and 
half hidden with earth. A hole some four feet deep shows that this 
pillar has been undermined, probably in search of treasure. 

There are traces of an outer circle of smaller stones having once 
surrounded that now described, at a distance of fifty or sixty feet. 
The people of the country call this stone circle in the Pushto language 
LuJcJci Tiggi, signifying, I am informed by Colonel Keyes, C. B., Com- 
manding the Guides, u Upright stones." 

The only tradition or legend they have regarding the fabric, as far 
as I could learn is, that the members of a marriage, while passing over 
the plain, were changed into these stones, by some powerful magician, 
or malignant demon. Within a mile or two there are indications, in 
the shape of granite slabs, smaller than those in the large circle, lying 
about in the fields, of other similar monuments having once existed. 
It may be mentioned also, that many Muhammadan tombs in the 
vicinity, have unusually high slabs of stone, placed at the head and 
foot of the grave. Some of these slabs, though thin, are from eight 
to ten feet high. Whether any of these have been appropriated from 
ancient ircles is doubtful ; but in an adjoining village I saw two 
massive squared granite pillars about five feet high, put up as gate 
posts to a house. These apparently had once belonged to a smaller 
stone circle, such as those already alluded to. 

The country of Eusoofzye is full of Buddhist remains, such as ruined 
stone monasteries, topes, idol temples, carved images, and so on. 
These stone circles are believed to be in no way connected with them, 
and they probably existed before the Buddhist era. The present po- 
pulation is almost entirely Muhammadan. They take no interest in the 
ruined buildings or monuments of the Kafirs, and cannot help the 
enquirer with trustworthy traditions. 

60 A Covenant of AM, fourth Caliph of Baghdad. [No. 1, 

A Covenant of ' All, fourth Caliph of Baghdad, granting certain Immu- 
nities and Privileges to the Armenian nation. — By Johannes 
Avdall, Esq., M. A. S. 

[Received 23rd September, 1869.] 
An authentic historical document is extant, originally written in 
Cufic characters, and purporting to be an Edict or Covenant of 'Ali, 
the Lion of God, fourth Caliph of Baghdad, and son-in-law of the Pro- 
phet, bestowing certain immunities and privileges on the Armenian 
nation. The Edict was given in the year of the Hijrah 40, or A. D. 660, 
just a year before 'All's death. It was first translated into Armenian 
by Gregor Campan, on the 15th January 1767, in Astrachan, and 
afterwards by M. Saragian, authenticated by Joakim Gregor Bagratuni 
of Constantinople in the year 1804. 

I was in possession of a copy of the original document, written in 
Cufic characters, which I lent some years ago to the late Henry Torrens, 
Esq., Vice-President of the Asiatic Society, for translation and 
insertion in the Journal. It appears that this rare piece of antiquity 
was lost or mislaid among his unpublished papers. The following is a 
correct and faithful version from the Armenian translation of the Edict 
or Covenant of the Caliph 'Ali. 
In the name of God, the beneficent and the merciful from 
whom we solicit help. 

'• Praise and thanksgiving to the Creator of the universe, and 
blessings upon the great chief and benign Muhammad and his sacred 

" After all this, it is the purport of the translation of the Covenant, 
which was written by Hashim, the son of Athap,* the son of Valas,* 
according to the command of the blessed chief of the Arabians, and 
of the Lion of God, of the holy of the holies, of 'Ali, the grandson 
of Abutalib, the exalted, in Cufic character, in the celebrated domicile 
of Kharanthala,* in the magnificent palace, in the month of f afar, 
in the fortieth year of Hijrah.f 

u Whereas certain of the Armenian nation, men of distinction, famous 
for their erudition and honoured for their dignity, namely, Jacob 

* So in the Armenian text. For Hashim the Armenian has Hdsham, ac- 
cording to the Persian pronunciation of all Arabic Part. Present. 

f June, July, 660. 

1870.] A Covenant of 'All, fourth Caliph of Baghdad. 61 

Sayyid 'Abdul-Shuyiikh, and the son of Sahan, and Abraham the 
Priest, Bishop Isaiah, and several others, forty in number, having 
communicated with me, and being present in the enactment of this 
Covenant, solicited me to do this, and have rendered every assisance 
in their power to our agent whom we had sent to our forts and 
frontiers, (which was the occasion of our conference and the enactment 
of this Covenant) — Therefore I have made this Covenant with them 
on my behalf, as well as on behalf of all tribes of Islam, from 
east to west. To this end they are, in reality, fully under my 
fostering care and protection, as long as I live, and after my death, 
so long as the religion of Islam shall prevail, and the doctrine of 
Christianity shall continue. It shall be the duty of all potentates and 
of all princes, and of all men to carry out our Covenant by the help 
of God, so long as the sea shall be capable of wetting wool, tufts 
and briers, and rain shall descend from heaven, and grass shall grow 
from the earth, and stars shall give light, and the moon shall rise 
upon aliens and strangers. No man shall dare to violate or alter 
*his my Covenant, nor increase and decrease or change the same, 
because he that increases it, increases his punishment, and decreases 
our patience. 

" And those who violate this Covenant, shall be considered intriguing 
infringers of that which I have bestowed on them (the Armenians), 
and in league with those who do not profess loyalty to me. They 
also become transgressors against the divine ordinance, and thus 
incur the just indignation of the only G-od. 

"Moreover, the testimony of the Sayyid (Arch) Bishop and of 
the others, whose names have been written above, is a binding 
and sufficient authority. Because the principal followers of Chris- 
tianity requested me to establish a Covenant and a treaty among all 
the Christians, placed under the shadow of the rule of the Musalmans, 
now, by virtue of this Covenant, there shall be perpetual peace and 
tranquillity between Christians and Musalmans. The contents of 
this Covenant are indubitable and true, and I have given it to them 
(the Armenians) of my own accord and with a cheerful countenance. 
I shall abide by this Covenant and act accordingly, so long as the 
Armenians shall be faithful to me and continue in their loyalty to my 
government, and take no part in opposing the religion of my people. 

62 A Covenant of 'Alt, fourth Caliph of Baghdud. [No. 1, 

If they remain steadfast in the observance of this Covenant, they 
shall resemble the Musalmans and the Mumins. 
. u Moreover, I have convened together the grandees of the Musalmans 
and the leading men of my elders and dignitaries, and in their pre- 
sence have established my Covenant, which the Christian nation 
requested of me and desired to possess. I have written down and 
recorded for them conditions and stipulations, which are hereafter to 
stand firm and remain in force. Should, in future, any monarch or 
prince, or any person of rank and authority, oppress them and treat 
them with cruelty, they should produce and present this record 
of my Covenant, because it is incumbent on monarchs, and on 
all Musalmans to act according to our behests ; but the Armenians 
also, by acts of fidelity and loyalty, should comply with our 
mandates and obey our will, in conformity with the contents of the 
treaty which I have made and established with them. There shall 
be no disobedience or opposition to my commands and wishes. 
Moreover, it is politic and expedient, not to molest and oppress 
the Christians, so that by the adoption of a conciliatory course, they 
might be induced to comply with the stipulations contained in this my 

" This my Covenant is a burden and an obligation to its recipients, 
and wearisome and irksome to maliciously disposed and evil-minded 
persons, and I desire that there should be no contention between the 
Christians and my exalted nation. But if any one shall act against all 
that I have written concerning the Christians, who have proved them- 
selves worthy of my favor and benevolence, such a person acts against 
the will of God, who inspired me with grace to do this act of goodness 
to that nation and to save them from troubles and vexations ; for 
I have entered into a Covenant with them, because they requested 
and solicited it from me and from all my friends. I have thus given 
them a divine Covenant, a Covenant of patriarchs, of prophets and of 
all holy men from the first to the last. And the word of God to the 
holy prophets, which was brought down from heaven by the angel, 
enjoins obedience to the laws and performance of duties, and also faith- 
fulness to this my divine Covenant. Because the Christians under my 
authority are my subjects, and I am ruler over them, it is my duty to 
have a paternal eye over them, and to protect them from all evils and 

1870.] A Covenant of ) All, fourth Caliph of Baghdad. 63 

troubles ; and thus a good reward shall be given in heaven both to 
me and to my nation which is scattered in different parts of the world. 

"And the scale of taxation fixed by me for these nobles should 
be strictly adhered to. No demand should be made from them beyond 
what has already been written clown and sanctioned. They should 
not be molested or oppressed. Their country should not be taken 
from them. They should not be alienated from their country. The 
priests should not be deprived of their holy calling. The Christians 
should not be converted from Christianity. The monks and hermits 
should not be disturbed in their solitudes, nor removed from their 
monasteries. Their preachers should not be prohibited to preach. 
Their habitations and their hereditary lands should not be devastated. 
Their property should not be meddled with when they build Churches. 
Nobody should remove or to pull down the bells from the steeples of 
their Churches. This is the law which I have made for them. But, 
those who shall infringe my Covenant, by disobeying my behests, 
shall be transgressors of the ordinance of God, and shall suffer severe 
punishments and eternal penalties. 

" Let no crowned head or man of authority of the Musalmans or 
believers, compel the Christians to profess the religion of Musal- 
mans. Nor let them hold any controversies with them on matters 
of religion, but let them treat them with kindness and tenderness ; 
and, under the shadow of their mercy and clemency, protect them 
from all sorts of oppression and tribulations, wherever they may 
be found or wherever they may reside. And if the Christian people 
be in want of money or in need of pecuniary help for the building of 
Churches and monasteries, for their national and social assemblies, 
and for their civil and domestic purposes, the Musalmans ought to 
assist them and supply them with the necessary means, by grant- 
ing them a portion of their superabundant and disowned property. 
And this should be done not by granting them a loan, but by way of 
charity. They should also aid them by good advice and suggestions 
in their transactions, because doing so is pleasing and acceptable in 
the sight of Grod and his apostle. But, if any one should infringe 
the contents of this my Covenant, he is an unbeliever and an apostate 
from the divine prophet, and he will assuredly be deprived of his 
merits, and the prophet shall look upon him with anger and 

64 A Covenant of 'AM, fourth Caliph of Baghdad. [No. 1, 1870. 

displeasure. If the stubborn and refractory shall prove themselves 
unfaithful and disobedient to the Covenant which I have established, 
they cannot remain faithful and obedient to the son of Abutalib, the 
exalted. For, whatever he may command and ordain, it is the duty 
of Musalmans to carry out his orders, by succouring and com- 
miserating them (the Armenians) at all times, so long as this world 
shall last. Glory to the Creator of the universe I" 

The tragical events of the last twelve centuries, recorded on 
the pages of the history of oriental nations, and in the ecclesiastical 
chronicles of eastern Christendom, sufficiently testify how far the 
contents of this Covenant of the pious and humane 'All, fourth 
Caliph of Baghdad, have been kept inviolate by his successors and 
his co-religionists. 





No. II.— 1870. 

Memorandum on and tentative reading of the Sue Vihdr Inscription from 
near Bhdwalpur. — By E. C. Bayley, Esq., C. S. L, C. S. 

(With two plates.) 

I enclose a tracing of an inscription and the accompanying note 
from Major Stubbs, R. A. 

The place ' Sue Yihar' in which this copper-plate inscription was 
found, is situated about sixteen miles S. W. of Bhawulpur, and the 
plate formed the bottom of a small arched chamber in which the 
vertical shaft which pierced the tower, terminated at the level of the 
summit of the mound. 

Major Stubbs says — 

1 The name of the place, where the tower stands, is Sue Yihar. 
Its present height is about 45 feet ; but report says that 6 or 8 feet 
have recently fallen. Upon approaching it from the north, it is seen 
that but half of it is standing, having been cut, as it were, right down 
the diameter, passing from N. E. to S. W. Half the exterior height is 
made up of a mound ; and about 20 feet above the place where the 
tower rises from the mound, there are the remains of a large square 
chamber, about 8 feet square, its sides facing the cardinal points. 
Above the floor of this, the walls rise at present about 1 1 feet size. 
In the centre of the floor, there is a square hole of 1 6 inches, opening 

66 Memorandum on and tentative reading of the [No. 2, 

into a shaft of the same size down to the top of the mound. This 
shaft is quite exposed from about 3 feet of the floor down to the 
top of the mound, by the falling away of half the tower, whenever 
that occurred. The tower is built of very large sun-dried bricks, 
17 % 13 X 35" . But in this chamber was formerly a flooring 
of burnt bricks of the same size as the sun-dried ones, laid in lime 
cement with the copper-plate bedded in the middle, while round 
the plate on the four sides, walls of the same kind of brick and 
mortar were raised, about 2 feet high, forming a sort of chamber 
with the copperplate at the bottom. In this, the coins, mixed with 
some pieces of iron, a few beads, fragments of ornaments, all mixed 
up with ashes and earth, were found. The men who were charged 
with the clearing out of this, unfortunately pulled the whole of the 
masonry down.' 

* The mound upon first sight appears to be merely a heap of earth 
covered with the debris fallen from the tower ; but upon closer 
examination, it turns out to be a regularly built tower, formed wholly 
of the sun-dried bricks above described.' 

1 When we arrived on Monday about noon, such was the state we 
found it in, the workmen already assembled had dug a few holes 
here and there in the mounds, and had come upon some loose 
bricks fpuccaj at the S. E. After some consideration, we divided 
the men into two companies, and thinking there might be a second 
chamber at some distance under where the first was found, as in the 
tope of Manikyala, we set one of the companies to sink a trench at the 
middle of the mound, carrying it right at the centre of the tower as 
shewn by the dotted line in the plan. (Vide PI. III.) The others were 
set to work to excavate the mound where the bricks had been dis- 
covered. The result of the two days' labour was the cutting of the 
trench into the heart of the tower to a depth of 10 feet below the 
original level, or 25 feet below the floor of the chamber, but as yet 
some 10 or 12 feet to the ground level remained unexplored. No- 
thing, down to this, had been found. The whole had been remarkably 
well built of sun-dried bricks of unusual compactness. The other 
work proved more interesting by uncovering a considerable portion 
of a piece of well built foundations arranged as shewn in the plan, 
consisting in some places of a double wall, 35 feet thick, with a 

1870.] Sue Vihdr Inscription from near Bhdwalpiir. 67 

space of 1 foot between them. These were built of burnt bricks 
of the same size as the others, but not cemented with mortar. 
Excavation at this place was very difficult, owing to the quantity of 
loose and broken bricks which overlaid the foundation. Three 
fragments of curved bricks were found among these.' 

1 1 hear that there is another tower similar to this in another part 
of this state about 100 miles still S. W. of this, at a place called 

I read the first nine words as follows (vide Plate II) — 

Maharajasa rajatirajasa devaputrasa Kanishkasa samvatsare 
ekadase (here follows the cipher for eleven, as to which more here- 
after) Daisikasa Masasa. That is " In the eleventh sambat of the 
great king, the king of kings, the god-born Kanishka, — of the 
month Daisik." 

Then follows the number of the day of the month, written 
in cipher. The tracing here is not clear, and I have failed to read it. 

So much for the first line. The important points are, first, the use 
of the samvat of Kanishka. I have long thought that the frequent 
occurrence of this king's name evidently in connection with a date, 
betokened the existence of a Kanishka sera. It seems clear now 
that it does. The question is, what was it ? Was it the year of his 
reign only, or was it a new sera ? Was it the Saka sera which dated 
from the death of a Saka king ? Perhaps the coins found with the 
plate, might help ; they show at least what coins were current in 
the eleventh year of the sera. 

Next comes the symbol, evidently standing for ten. This is 
the symbol which has been hitherto conjectured to stand for a con- 
traction of u Samvatsure." This discovery will render needful cor- 
rection of some dates as hitherto read, in this class of inscriptions. 

Lastly, the name of the month, evidently the Macedonian 
° Dsesius," or an attempt at it, confirms Cunningham's conjectural 
reading of the month on the Taxila plate, and shows that in some 
parts of India, the Macedonian months were in use. I now read 
the name of the month in the Wardak inscription as "Athwami- 
siyasa for " of Artemisius." 

This is one argument, I think, fairly deducible from the first line. 

The second line I attempt to read as — Atreswarasa Bhichusa 

68 Memorandum on and tentative reading of the [No. 2 

Naganatasa Dhakha kelisa atreyura matravisishtasa atreyubhrate 
prasishtasa yatri eva puyae ilia Damane (tliird line) vihar, — and 
tentatively I would read this as follows : — 

" This vihar, in Damana, for the religious advantage (puyae) 
equivalent to a pilgrimage (yatri eva. .yatra-iva ?) of Dhakakelis 
(Dhakukelis ?) the .... excellent mother and .... very excellent 
brothers of the Bhikshu Atreshwara of Naganata." 

The verb must come in the third line, which I have not as yet 
had time to work out ; but I do not like to keep the papers longer. 
I will copy out the tracing, however, and if I can make any further 
probable guesses, will send them afterwards. The only impor- 
tance which attaches to the second line is that which is derived 
(if my reading is correct) from the mention of pilgrimages, as show} 
ing that they were in use among the Buddhists of the early date 
to which this inscription apparently belongs (not later than the 
first century, A. D.), and that they were considered as conferring 
religious merit. 

If the Society publish the inscription, they should, I think, gei a 
loan at least of the plate. It is much more satisfactory to read from 
the original than from the best tracing or copy. 
May 1st, 1869. 

Major Stubbs having kindly sent me the original copper-plate 
found at Sue Vihar near Bhawalpiir, I am now in a position to 
add somewhat to the tentative readings before submitted to the 
Society, though I regret to say that I am still unable to complete 
the whole inscription. This mainly arises from doubts as to the 
value of certain characters which appear to occur here for the first 
time. If my readings, however, are right as far as they go, they 
seem to indicate that the pillar was set up as a quasi expiatory 
offering by some one who had at some period of his career lapsed 
into heresy, or into the commission of some grave crime. The 
only other point of importance brought out is the date of the day 
of the month, which is clearly the nineteenth ; but as will be seen, 
there is some difficulty as to the cypher for this, which hardly accords 
with that given for the date of the year eleven. The first figure 

^ is either a contraction for / ? S (11), or else there is 
some omission in the engraving. 

JOURNAL AS1AT. SOC. BENGAL, VOL. XXXIX. Pt. I. 1870, p. 65. 

'' N ^fe:T> -M 

*•<* ■>V.S,*, 


Journal Asiat: Soc : B en gal, VoLXXXlX ,-Pt;!, 187 . 

PI 111 

31-" i 

The Tower out Swe ViKar -near JjhjaxvvUpiir 

1870.] Sue Vihdr Inscription from near Bhdwalpur. 69 

The transliteration which I would now propose is as follows : 

1st line. 
Maharajasa rajatirajasa devaputrasa Kanishkasa samyatsare 

ekadase, 11. Daisikasa masasa divase anullviinsate x x ? 19 ? 

2nd line. 
? ? ? 

Atreshwarasa bhichhusasa Naganatasa Dhakhabhalisa. Achha- 

yuda matata vasishtusu achhayu bhrataprasishtasa yati evu puyae 

iha damane 

3rd line. 
? ? ? ? < ? ? ? 

Vihara samine upasika anananda. Swa si lajaya matata 

? ? ? ?? m ? ? 

chha imraya vipatita anupatrimra anupatitata, dadati sarva budha 

4th line. 
Strasa sukhaya bhavatu. 

Translation of the 1st line. 
The translation of the 1st line cannot be mistaken, I think. It 
is merely " On the 19th day of the month Daisik (Aawrtos) in the 
" 11th year of the divinely descended great king, king of kings 


" For the religious benefit (equivalent to a pilgrimage) of Dhakha- 
bhalisa the good the excellent mother and of the good and pre- 
excellent brother of Atreshwara of Naganata the religious mendicant, 
(this) for the holy lord (" samine" for swamine) the vihar, this 
worshipper gives (dadati), turned back (vipatita) from his maternal 
(virtue ?) — fallen away (anupatitata) from his ancestral . . . . ? May 
it be for a cause of happiness to all Buddhism (?)." 

In the second line, I have some doubts as to the reading of the 

3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 9th and 10th words, and my version of the 5 th 

and 7th is purely conjectural. It may be a corruption of the word 

" acharyya," or more probably perhaps from the same source as the 

Hindi term for " good." 

3rd and 4th lines. 

The third line is extremely 'dubious both as to reading and 

version, but the last compound letter of anananda is new, though 

" d" evidently enters into the compound, and the other letters may 

70 Notes on Old Delhi. [No. 2, 

well be "n." The letter next after anananda, lean only guess 
at. One seems an " n" or " m." The word "irma" or "inira" 
(most probably the latter), may have some connection with " amrit" 
which becomes in some Hindi dialects " imrit." 

The end of the third and the fourth line contains a common 
Buddhist formula employed at the end of dedicating inscriptions ; 
the word which I have rendered " Budhastrasa" is alone doubtful. 

I am sorry to have the version so incomplete, but send it so rather 
than detain the plate longer, as I have no prospect of being able to 
give that attention to it which a more complete version would 

1st April, 1870. 

Notes on Old Delhi. — By J. D. Tremlett, Esq., M. A., C. S. 
[Received 12th March, 1870.] 
In the present paper I purpose restricting my remarks to such 
ancient Hindu and Pat'han buildings as have a historical or archi- 
tectural interest, and are situated in or around the site of old Delhi. 
As, moreover, I intend these notes to be merely supplementary to 
the learned Paper of General Cunningham on the same subject, 
published in Vol. XXXIII. of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, I pass over in general all matters therein discussed. 

The Tank of Suraj Kundh. 

For the reasons given in the previous paragraph, I omit alluding 
to the two Pillars of Asoka, the iron pillar at Mihrauli, and the 
Hindu period of Indrapat (Purana Qil'ah). As, however, Cunning- 
ham's description of the tank of Suraj Kundh is confined to a few 
lines (p. xix) and that of Sayyid Ahmad in his Asar-uccanadid 
contains one or two inaccuracies, it may be well to dwell on this in 
some detail. 

Sayyid Ahmad attributes the construction of this tank to Suraj Pal, 
the fifth son of that Eajah Anekpal, who was the first king of the 
Tunwar dynasty, about 676 A. D. General Cunningham, however, 
holds that the popular date should be referred to the Balabhi era, 
which would give A. D. 1061, during the reign of the second 

1870.] Notes on Old Delhi. 71 

Anekpal or Anangpal who restored the city of Delhi, making it 
again the capital of his kingdom. 

The tank which is situated on high ground in the Delhi Hills a 
mile or so south of ' Adilabad, is not round as stated by Sayyid Ahmad, 
but is rather in the shape of an arc of a circle, since the west side is 
a straight line for very nearly its whole length, until at its north end 
it turns with a re-entering angle, and is continued a short distance 
towards a gorge which here meets the tank, and pours into it the 
drainage of the hilly ground. Except at this corner, where the 
stone-work probably was entirely discontinued to receive the hill 
streams, the tank is surrounded by a series of steps formed by large 
blocks of smoothed stone. These steps for a height of nine or ten 
feet are about the ordinary width of tank steps, but higher up, the 
space between successive steps becomes much wider, and the floor 
between is covered with cement, so as to form a succession of spa- 
cious terraces, running one above the other round the water ; the 
upper terrace which was on a level with the adjacent country, being 
surrounded with a massive stone wall. In the centre of the western 
wall, is a broad staircase with side walls of simply sculptured stone 
leading to the Fort, or fortified Haweli rather, of the constructor of 
the tank. The ruins of this building are still distinctly visible, 
occupying the hill top, which is here of no great size. The outer 
wall which crowns the crest of the ravine at the North- West 
corner of the tank before referred to, is very thick, and seems very 
singularly to be constructed as two walls standing side by side and 
forming one a lining to the other. In one spot on this face, I obser- 
ved the ground had been taken advantage of to build a circular 
projecting tower. Immediately opposite the staircase leading to 
this fort, a precisely similar one was carried up to the top of the 
tank enclosure, where stands what is now a confused ruin of no 
great size, but probably once was a temple. Towards the northern 
portion of this curved side, is a sloping way for the use of cattle. 

Although this fine work now stands in a desolate and apparently 
hopelessly sterile portion of the hilly range, there are numerous 
wells and relics of ancient buildings scattered around, showing it 
was once a populous locality. Do not the broken or dried up wells 
and ruins found so frequently in the Delhi hills, where the 

72 Notes on Old Delhi. [No. 2, 

country is now seemingly sterile as well as deserted, point to a pro- 
cess of desiccation going on there, or in the country at large, and 
felt the sooner in these Highlands ? 

The Great Mosque of the Qutb. 
The Colonnade. 

The features of the colonnades in the mosque of Qutbud-dm, as 
detailed by General Cunningham are, I conceive, such as to settle 
finally the question that the pillars are not in their original posi- 
tions, hut have been removed by the Muhammadans, as recorded 
over the eastern gateway, from the Hindu temples of the town. 
The fact that these beautifid Hindu columns were covered with 
plaster by the idol-hating conqueror does not rest on an inference 
from the presence of one or two groups of sculptured figures, as 
Cunningham appears to put it at p. xlix of his Paper, but in 
sheltered spots the plaster can even now be picked from the more 
deeply carved stones : besides the columns, and especially the capi- 
tals, are constantly adorned with human or divine figures which 
although usually mutilated in the face must still have stunk in the 
nostrils of Qutbud-din and his savage hordes. 

In reference to Cunningham's remark at p. x, that ft a single 
pillar amongst the many hundreds that now form the colonnades of 
the Qutb Manar, may perhaps belong to the old city, that is the town 
anterior to the Tun war dynasty, as it bears a figure either of Buddha 
the Ascetic seated in contemplation, or of one of the Jain hierarchs," 
I would remark that in the south colonnade, and in the roofs of the 
S. E. and N. E. galleries, are several figures of seated Buddhas, or 
figures which answer exactly to the seated Buddhas of Benares and 
Ceylon, (I add this as I have unfortunately no knowledge of Jain 
sculptures). I should therefore be inclined to believe that, besides 
the column alluded to in the foregoing extract, no less than six of 
the lozenge-shaped roof compartments belong to the Buddhist 
period of Delhi. The pillars froni the temples to which these roof 
compartments belonged, probably stood in that portion of the south 
cloister which has now been destroyed. 

The sculptures on these Hindu columns give us some light, 
although but little, on the garb and appearance of the people of 

1870.] Notes on Old Delhi. 73 

Delhi at the time of the Muhammadan conquest. The capitals of 
the columns are frequently formed by female figures which spring at 
the waist from the pillar, and with their heads support the roof •* 
these figures appear to wear the same covering for the breasts 
which is still in use (angti/a), and a waist cloth, the stomach being 
bare ; they wear as ornaments bracelets, armlets, chains round the 
neck, often with lockets attached, and a singular looking chain 
passing from the necklace over the left breast and reaching to the 
waist covering ; also waist chains, and in one group, of dancing girls 
apparently, pendant chains depend from this waist chain over the 
thighs. These female figures have usually a kind of coronet on 
their heads, but I am inclined to think this was added to give a 
larger space of support to the beam above. The workmanship of 
the ornaments is very varied, and many of the patterns are highly 
artistic. The men appear to wear dhotis, with the end hanging 
down in front. Elephants covered with a pad and horses are seen 
ridden ; the head-gear of the latter is much like that now in use, 
but the riders seem to have no stirrups ; there are chains round the 
animals' necks like the chains of white shells still in fashion. The 
riders on the elephants are strangely enough depicted as riding 
across the creature's back, as if it had been a horse. Over the 
north gate is a car with a heavy, clumsy wheel. I have observed 
no instance of a camel being introduced. Among the articles of 
furniture, may be seen round earthen pots and beds like those now 
in use, and round ottomans apparently of open cane-work. If I be 
right in identifying certain pyramidal carvings as temples, they also 
were in shape much like those erected now-a-days ; that they were 
low buildings, the height of the columns now standing in the cloisters 
clearly shows. So far therefore as these glimpses of a past age 
serve us, the subjects of Prit'hvi Eajah differed little in appear- 
ance from their descendants of to-day. 

Before quitting this subject I would mention that besides the 
two slabs described by General Cunningham at page xlix, there 
are numerous similar narrow slabs containing groups or processions 
built into the wall or roof, but usually so mutilated or filled with 
plaster, that it is difficult to discover their meaning ; perhaps though 
the greatest difficulty is caused by our ignorance of the occurrences 
or history of which these are the dumb records. 

74 Notes on Old Leila. [No. 2, 

On the construction of the Mosques. 

At p. xlviii General Cunningham speaks of Qutbud-din's 
mosque as a wall pierced by a line of seven arches. This must 
surely be a lapsus calami for fixe, which is the true number, the 
colonnade being carried into the mosque by a continuation of the 
straight roof of the arcade. 

A great difficulty I conceive with regard to these buildings is the 
manner in which the body of the mosques was roofed over. 
Enough, however, remains to show clearly that the line of the roof 
cut the arches, and that even columns stood in, and on the line of 
the open arches. Barbarous as it may appear that these noble 
arches should have their beauty marred, by being cut at about half 
their height, by the line of the roof of the room behind, there can 
be no doubt from an inspection of the ground, that such was the 
case ; and it should be remembered, that there is no connection 
between the arts of sculpture and architecture, and that it is in no 
sense improbable that the men, who could carve the pillars of the 
so-called ' But-khanah,' and cover the mosque wall with its elaborate 
and delicate tracery, would be still quite incompetent to attempt 
the feat of raising the body of the mosque to the height required 
to correspond to the lofty wall which the conqueror directed to be 
built : in fact, the whole mosque is clearly the work of men who 
did not know how to extend the appliances and skill which sufficed 
for Hindu temples, low in height and limited in area, to the more 
difficult task now imposed on them ; while many proofs can be 
drawn from the early Pat'han buildings to show that at the time of 
the conquest they had to depend on their Hindu subjects, and that 
the glories of Pat'han architecture were the results of the subsequent 
progress of a race now enjoying the wealth of India, and the 
leisure which such fortune brings. One other question anent the 
roof remains ; viz., whether the mosque itself was a two-storied 
building or not. On mature consideration, I am inclined to 
believe not, as in one place, a dome still remains above the first 
floor, which is coated on the outside in the same manner as the 
other domes are, which were exposed to the weather ; whereas, if a 
second floor had been superimposed, this would probably have 

1870.] Notes on Old Delhi. 75 

been left without a special coating in the midst of the material 
intervening between the roof below and the floor above ; and se- 
condly, I am not aware of any case of a story being built above the 
story on the Court level. The only thing to support the theory of 
a double story is the bad effect of arches opening below into a 
room and above to the sky ; and a block of stone projecting on the 
back of the front wall of the north mosque at a height above the 
level of the roof, and looking as if it belonged to the support of a 
roof or other erection at that higher level. As to the first of these 
reasons, the remaining features of the building, as already discussed, 
show how unsafe it would be to apply our notions to the way in 
which these arches were treated ; and as to the second point, although 
I have no theory even to offer as to the purpose to which the pro- 
jecting stone was applied, it seems less difficult to admit this than 
to hang on it alone the anomaly of an upper story. 

Extent of the Mosques of Shmnsud-din Altamsh. 

From the language used by General Cunningham at p. 2, it is 
clear that he considers the whole of the longer and outer southern 
cloister as belonging to these mosques. "With all deference to his au- 
thority as an archaeologist, I more than doubt whether the cloisters 
of Altamsh extended further than the Qutb Manar itself, and the 
portion to the east, I believe, belongs to a later period, probably 
that of 'Ala-ud-din Khilji. I found this on four reasons ; first, the 
pillars to the west of the Manar are all of one pattern, and this the 
same as in the fragmentary colonnade before the east door of the 
lesser mosque, which I consider belongs to this erection, while the 
columns to the east of the Manar, which are also all alike, are of a 
different pattern ; secondly, the line of the columns to the east and 
west of the Manar is slightly different ; thirdly, the stones facing 
the wall at the east end are larger and better cut than those in the 
west part ; and lastly and principally, the windows in the wall 
near the mosque are oblong, and generally resemble those in Qutb- 
ud-din's building, whereas to the east from the Manar downwards 
they are arched and filled in with trellis work in red sandstone, 
and closely resemble the windows in 'Alaud-din's porch. I infer 
therefore that Shamsud- din's north and south walls reached only 

76 Notes on Old Delhi. [No. 2, 

to the line of the Manar, and were connected by a triple colonnade 
without a wall, which was probably omitted owing to the close 
proximity here of the east wall of the inner mosque. Considering, 
however, the admirable taste with which the ground was cleared 
by Major Smith of rubbish (! !), to make way for paths and flower- 
beds, it is possible that a wall may have stood at this end, of which 
all traces acre now gone. I conceive that 'Aland-din added, not 
only his gateway, but also enlarged the cloisters by the columns to 
the east of the Manar, possibly altering or pulling down a little of 
the S. E. corner of Altamsh's arcade, in order to join on his new 

Sultan Ghdri. 

About three miles to the N. W. of the Qutb are some remains of 
considerable historical interest, known in the neighbourhood as 
Sultan Ghdri. The principal building is said by Sayyid Ahmad to 
be the tomb of a prince Sultan Nacir-ud-din Mahmud, the eldest 
son of Altamsh, who died in his father's lifetime, and by whom 
this tomb was erected in his honor in 1229, A. D. The tomb is 
approached by a lofty flight of steps which leads to a door sur- 
rounded by an inscription in white marble in the old Kufic charac- 
ter. This gate enters on a small court ; in the centre of which 
stands a large octagonal vault rising about four feet above the yard, 
the outer sides being coated with slabs of marble ; in one side is a 
small door which orjens on a flight of 15 steps leading to the bot- 
tom of the vault. This crypt which is only lighted from the door 
is faced with the stone of the neighbourhood, and supported by 
massive columns of the same. In it are the tombs of three adults 
and one child, all massively built, and covered with chunam, in the 
style of those in the mausoleum at Tughluqabad. At the west end 
of the court, is a marble qiolaligdh, handsomely carved : along both 
the east and west wall, is a single covered colonnade of fluted pillars, 
and in front of the entrance, and opposite it, in front of the qiblah- 
gah, the roof of the colonnade is raised into a low dome lined with 
projecting rows of carved stone in the Hindu fashion, as seen in 
the domes of Qutbud-din's mosque. The pillars which support 
the qiblahgah dome are r like the qiblahgah itself, of white marble 

1870. J Notes on Old Delhi. 77 

and project slightly beyond the line of the rest of the colonnade. 
At the fonr corners of the tomb yard, are small circular towers sur- 
mounted by low domes, built in the Hindu fashion, by layers of 
stone projecting .one above the other. If the learned Sayyid have 
rightly interpreted the inscriptions on this tomb, this will be, I 
believe, the earliest in India of any interest in the eye of the histo- 
rian. The popular name is probably a corruption either of the 
word Ghori, a not inapplicable race-name to give to a son of 
Altamsh, or is derived from the vault (jli, ghdr) in which the 
tombs are built. 

At the south side of this tomb, and on the natural surface of the 
ground, stand two monuments, each consisting of eight columns and 
surmounted by domes. These tombs stand each in a small enclo- 
sure, consisting of a low rough stone wall, entered on the east sides 
by narrow gateways. These tombs, Sayyid Ahmad considers to be 
those of Buknud-din, the son and successor of Altamsh, and of 
Mu'izzud-din Bahram, another son of the same emperor. I presume, 
he identifies these tombs from the account given of their repair by 
Firuz Shah ; for there is not a vestige of inscription on or about the 
tombs themselves, so far as I could discover. The pillars in the 
more eastern tomb closely resemble those in Na^rud-din's. The 
domes, as they exist at present, I have no doubt are the work of 
Firuz Shah, who is said to have repaired both buildings, as their 
shape and size points to a much later era than the Hindu-like 
domes of their brother's tomb hard by ; and the rubble masonry of 
which they are constructed, while quite in the style of Firuz Shah's 
time, contrasts unnaturally with the massive stone slabs by which 
the columns are surmounted. I greatly doubt if in the early portion 
of the 13th century, the Pat'hans had acquired the art of surmoun- 
ting a spacious building by a dome, and am inclined to believe that 
they finished them off by a few projecting layers of stone, leaving 
the centre open to the sky, much in fact as in the case of the tomb 
of Shamsud-din Altamsh, which there appears to be little reason 
for considering to have ever been domed over, Firuz Tughluq's 
annalist notwithstanding. At a short distance from Napirud-din's 
tomb is an interesting specimen of the mosque of those times, when 
Hindu temples were not at hand to be plundered. The mosque 

78 Notes on Old Delhi. [No. 2, 

roof, whicli is flat, rests on parallel rows of columns, from each one 
of which, excepting of course the outside rows, spring four narrow 
arches, two resting on the two adjacent pillars in the row parallel 
to the west wall, and two on the two adjacent pillars in the row at 
right angles to that wall, the spandrels of the arches forming a 
part of the solid roof, which is built of rubble masonry. 

Tomb of Ghidsud-din Balkan. 

Just beyond a mosque known at the Qutb as that of Jamali 
Kamali, stand the remains of the tomb of this famous slave king. 
It is situated in a small yard, surrounded by a low wall, pierced 
by a row of arched openings. Under the north door, which is 
approached by two flights of steps parallel to the wall, is an aper- 
ture, out of which water seems to have flowed through a pipe, as a 
slab of stone worked into the ordinary honey-combed pattern, is 
placed under the pipe. The tomb itself is a square building of 
masonry, covered with plaster and painted. The four corners have 
been cut off on the exterior by a six-sided recess becoming circular 
at the top. Inside over the east and west doors are inscriptions in 
Arabic. There is no trace now of the actual grave, and the inside 
is encumbered with massive fragments of the dome which has 
fallen in within recent memory. The qiblahgah is constructed 
in the wall of the court, which, opposite to the west door of the 
tomb, is raised to about double the height of the rest of the wall. 
The gateways in the court wall are narrow and flat at the top, but 
arched over with masonry. Ibn Batuta, who visited Delhi about 
fifty years after Balban's decease, says (p. 113, Lee's Translation), 
" One of his (Balban's) pious acts was his building a house, which 
was called the House of Safety ; for, whenever any debtor entered 
this, his debt was adjudged ; and in like manner every oppressed 
person found justice ; every manslayer deliverance from his adver- 
sary ; and every person in fear, protection. When he died, he was 
buried in this house, and there I myself visited his grave." If the 
Dar ul-aman were no larger than the tomb or even its court, the 
skirts of Balban's protection were but scanty ; I should be inclined, 
however, to think that the tomb was erected in the grounds of the 
house, both because the present area seems too limited for an 

1870.] Notes on Old Delhi. 79 

Alsatia, and also because it was not the custom for these Pat'hans 
to be buried within actual dwelling-houses, and I take it, the Dar- 
ul-aman was probably such, or a row of such dwellings, possibly in 
the form of a Sarai. Sayyid Ahmad who was perhaps unacquainted 
with this almost contemporary statement of the Arab traveller, 
places the tomb at Mihrauli (the Qutb) and the House of Safety 
some miles off, close to the shrine of Nizamud-din, where is a 
village called Grhiaspiir. As is his wont, the Sayyid does not give 
his reason for the identification, but if it rest at all on the name 
of the village, that seems too common a one to be worth much. 

' A' dilabdd. 

This fortress, attributed to Muhammad Tughluq, lies on the 
southern side of the tank, in which the tomb, erected by this king to 
his father, was situated. Although on a much smaller scale, this 
place, like Tughluqabad itself, consists of a strong fort on the 
highest ground and an outer line of fortifications probably enclosing 
a small town or bazar. These outer fortifications diverge from 
the Fort wall close to the main gateway, and after enclosing a 
considerable space of ground to the south, approach close to the 
Fort at its east end, and then by a double line of walls cross the 
head of the tank on an embankment and join the walls of Tugh- 
luqabad, Inside the citadel of this place are still to be seen the 
foundations of the palace. 

At a short distance to the west of 'Adilabad stands another Fort 
with its dependent fortified suburb. This place which is very much 
smaller than even ' Adilabad, goes in the neighbourhood by the 
unintelligible name of the Sweeper's Fort, or the Washerman's 
Fort. Inside the Fort, and scattered over the hill on which it 
| stands, I found numerous fragments of red sandstone, showing that 
an ornamental building of some nature had once stood within the 
I fortress, but all other traces of it have now disappeared. Both this 

I place and 'Adilabad are built in the style of Tughluqabad of enor- 
mous blocks of stone. It seems difficult to believe that Firuz 
Tughluq succeeded the builders of these works, which embody the 
highest ideas of simplicity joined to strength. 

80 Notes on Old Delhi. [No. 2, 

The Palace of Firiizaodd. 

The ruins known as ' Firuz Shah ka kotilah' close to the Delhi 
gate of the modern city, undoubtedly constitute only the palace of 
Firuzabad, which itself reached far into the modern town of 
Shahjahan, and on the other hand it, or its suburbs, are said to have 
stretched to the present village of Hauz Khac, and to Indrapat. 
I have carefully searched, and I believe not a single inscription 
can be found throughout the whole palace, probably because time 
has kindly removed or blackened the plaster in which this king so 
delighted. Immediately to the south of the pyramid, on which 
Asoka's pillar has been set up, is the mosque, which Sayyid Ahmad 
identifies as the Jami' Masjid of Timur Lang's days, and its size, 
situation, as well as the absence of any other ruins on the old river 
bank, which could be the mosque in question, render this highly 
probable, notwithstanding its position inside the palace. If, how- 
ever, it be the mosque, then that gracious monarch seems to have 
been guilty of exaggeration in describing it as a a noble mosque of 
polished marble" (Elphinstone's Hist, of India, p. 358), as it is only 
built of masonry, covered with plaster, and can never have been 
anything else, since in one or two places, ornamental medallions of 
raised plaster work still remain on the walls, and bear due testi- 
mony that the building was not raised in a reign of marble and 

3Iosques of Jdh&n Klian. 

General Cunningham speaks of the Kdld Jlasji'd, now within the 
enclosure of modern Delhi, as a characteristic and favourable speci- 
men of the architecture of those days. It is a trite saying De 
gustibus non est dispatandum, but it seems difficult to see what 
there is to admire in low colonnades, surmounted by rows of hemi- 
spherical domes of small diameter, each one touching its fellow, 
with one of larger size here and there over a gateway. It may be 
doubted too, if the sloping walls which crown so proudly the crests 
of the Tughluqabad hills, are much adapted for crowded streets, 
especially when for huge blocks of squared stone are substituted 
paint and plaster. However, for admirers of the later Tughluq 
style, I may observe that the mosque at the village of Khirkhi by 


1870.] Notes on Old Delhi. 81 

Muhammad Tughluq's hand, and that of Begumpur near the 
road from Delhi to the Qutb, are both much finer specimens of 
Jahan Khan's erections than the Black Mosque. Whatever may 
be the architectural beauties, however, of these mosques, they have 
a certain historical interest, as they were the fruits of Jahan Khan's 
desire to ingratiate himself with the people, when he was taking 
advantage of his master Firuz Shah's age and consequent imbecility 
and his own position as vazir, to intrigue for the succession to the 
already almost vacant throne. 

Tomb of Firuz Shah Tughluq. 
This monument stands in the village of Hauz Khae. It is a 
square lofty building of masonry. The principal entrance is on the 
south, where a stone wall of grey sandstone about two feet high 
with a broad coping stone forms a diminutive court by which to 
approach the door, which is raised by three steps, and is wide and 
oblong, but set in an arch, the upper portion being filled in with 
stone lattice work ; the lintels and side-posts of the door are of grey 
stone, and at the top, the side-posts are made to project and carved 
slightly. The east door resembles the one just described ; at the 
west and north are recesses in the wall, resembling those in which 
the opposite doors are set. At the side of the north recess is a 
narrow pointed arch now blocked up, but leading apparently to the 
Madrasah. At a considerable height above the floor, the shape of 
the walls is changed from a square to an octagon and then to a six- 
teen sided figure and so on, by filling up the corners with masonry 
worked into a beautiful honey- comb kind of pattern, and richly 
painted. The dome, a hemispherical one, is of considerable dia- 
meter, with a large circle painted in an elegant pattern at the top, 
from which belts cutting each other are drawn down to the bottom 
of the dome. In the intersections of the belt are three rows of 
medallions of different sizes and figures : the belts and medallions 
being all painted on the white ground of the dome. Outside the 
south door is an Arabic inscription. Hound the top of the square 
building, and around the low cylinder, from which the dome springs, 
is a narrow band of red stone, carved in a graceful pattern. Inside 
are three marble, and one masonry tomb, all much injured. Sayyid 

82 Notes on Old Delhi. [No. 2, 

Ahmad states that Nacirud-din Tughluq an( i 'Alaud-din Sikandar 
Shah (the Humayun Tughluq apparently of Elphinstone) also lie 
buried here. Adjoining the tomb to the north is a range of low 
masonry buildings, probably the Madrasah which Firuz Shah erect- 
ed here ; although at present unoccupied, this building is blocked up 
by the walls by which the villagers have adapted it to the wants 
of their modem civilization. Around the royal tomb are numerous 
open monuments of the common form of cupolas resting on pillars. 

Tomb of Mubdrik Shah. 

Near the tomb of f afdar Jang, stands the little village of Muba- 
rikpur. This is built in the midst of a large yard surrounded by 
a stone battlemented wall. The gates leading into this Court have 
the side posts and lintels of grey stone, and are oblong in shape 
except at the top where the side posts project in the usual fashion. 
About the actual doorway, is a narrow line of plain blue encaustic 
tiles, and below two full blown lotus flowers in white marble. A 
short approach from this gate leads to the tomb itself, a massive 
octagonal building constructed of the grey stone of the country. 
It stands on a plinth, approached by an ascent of two steps with a 
sloping way of stone between. The tomb is surrounded by a 
covered colonnade ; the pillars, twenty-four in number, stand on the 
edge of the plinth. These pillars are of a highly peculiar form, 
being oblong, and so cut as to present the appearance of two oblong 
shaped pillars joined by a narrower belt ; at each corner of the 
octagon, the outer pillar is strengthened by a buttress of solid stone, 
which greatly contributes to the general appearance of strength 
and solidity which characterize the building. The dome springs 
from a low cylinder, ornamented with colour and with sixteen tinials. 
The dome itself is crowned with an open octagonal lantern of red 
stone ; around the dome are eight octagonal cupolas resting on 
low pillars. There is only one door into the tomb, that to the 
south, which is of similar construction to the one in the outer 
court. In the space between the lintel of the doorway and the 
apex of the arch in which it is set, is a fan-light of lattice work in 
stone. The other six apertures, except the west one, answer to this 
south doorway, except that the doorway in their case is filled up 

1870.] Notes on Old Delhi. 83 

with stone lattice work, divided by two horizontal bars of solid 
stone. The west side is filled up with a handsomely carved qiblah- 
gah, also in stone. This niche wall is also carved on the reverse. 
Above the range of the doors are four arched windows in stone 
openwork and over them springs the dome. This is of ample 
diameter and is painted with belts of colour running diagonally 
from the bottom up to a circle of colour which fills the centre. Im- 
mediately under the centre of the dome is a tomb of a man, and to 
the right two women's graves, while in a row nearer the south 
door, are the tombs of two females, and two male children. All 
these graves are of stone ; but owing to the tomb having been 
formerly utilized as a dwelling-house, I was unable to discover the 
stone of which the tombs and the qiblahgah were constructed, but 
I rather think it was marble. At a short distance to the south- 
west inside the court-yard stands a three-domed mosque evidently 
of the same period. The wall of this building is pierced with five 
arches resting on low square pillars of grey stone plainly cut. 
There is a second row of columns running down the centre of the 

This tomb is considered to be that of Mubarik Shah, the second 
of the Sayyid dynasty ; Sayyid Ahmad, however, doubts whether this 
be the tomb of the king, as the town which he was building when 
murdered, and where he was buried, was on the banks of the Jam- 
nah, which Mubarikpur never can have been. Unless indeed, the 
historical evidence be express that the monarch was buried actually 
within, and not in the vicinity of his unfinished town, I think the 
tomb itself affords strong evidence that the tradition is right, and 
that the name of the site relates to the hapless Sayyid. The shape 
of the dome, the limited use of encaustic tiles as a decoration, the 
fashion of the door ornaments, all point to the early part of the 
fifteenth century as the date of the building, while the costly 
nature of the tomb, the ample court in which it stands with its 
accompanying mosque, seem to place it beyond the means of a 
mere nobleman, especially at a time when Delhi was at its lowest 
point of depression. Unless therefore there be strong contemporary 
evidence against it, I am inclined to think that the principal tomb 
is that of the second Sayyid king. 

84 Notes on Old Belli. [No. 2, 

At a short distance from f afdar Jang's tomb, close to the road 
leading to Nizamud-din, is the tomb of Muhammad Shah, the next 
Sayyid. It resembles, however, Mubarik Shah's so closely, as to call 
for no special description. The surrounding court here has perished. 

Tomb of Buhlul Lodhi. 

This tomb stands close to the shrine of Nacirud-din Eaushan 
Chiragh i Dihli, and is now unfortunately occupied by the lomberdar 
of the village. The interior is therefore dark and dirty, but the 
gravestone of carved stone is still visible ; it is now a dark brown 
colour, the result I presume of discoloration. Above, the tomb is 
surmounted by five domes, the centre one being somewhat higher 
than the rest and ornamented with vertical flutings. 

Tomb of SiTcandar Zodhi, 
About a quarter of a mile from fafdar Jang's tomb, close to an 
ancient bridge which probably stood on the road leading from 
Firuzabad to one or other of the towns stretching from Siri to Lal- 
kot, stands the mausoleum of this greatest of the Lodhi's, who, though 
he died at A'grah, is said to have been buried here by his son and 
successor. The tomb closely resembles in style that of Mubarik 
Shah, but the increased perpendicularity of the dome indicates a 
somewhat later period. There is a large court surrounded by a 
battlemented wall, with a gate in the south wall. This gate is 
protected by a square outwork in front, the means of egress being 
by turning to the right and passing through an aperture in the 
west side of this advanced work, the south side being a continuous 
wall. At each end of this last named wall, are two cupolas adorned 
with encaustic tiles. 

Dihli Sher Shah. 

In regard to the southern limits of this city I entertain great 
doubt if, as General Cunningham considers, it ever reached so far 
as to include within its walls the Mausoleum of Humayun. My 
reason for holding this view is, that just opposite the west gate of 
Purana Qil'ah stands a gate, now known as the Lai Darwazah, in 
the same style, though larger and finer than the Lai Darwazah 
opposite the jail, which latter is generally admitted to be a north 

18 70.] Notes on Old Delhi. 85 

gate of this city. On both sides of this southern gate, are protect- 
ing towers and a little of the wall, both the gate and the walls 
being to all appearance those of an important city from the size 
and appearance, and yet their direction is such as to make it in- 
conceivable, especially as Purana Qil'ah was then standing, that 
they could have been part of an enceinte including Humayun's 
tomb ; this argument rests on the narrowness of the space between 
the gate and the old course of the river compared with the distance 
southerly to Humayun's tomb, and also on the fact that the wall 
to the east of the gate turns northward and not southward. If too 
I be right in identifying the masses of masonry between the north 
gate of Purana Qil'ah and the road as being a part of the wall of 
Dihli Sher Shah, the argument is considerably strengthened, as 
then the wall would be found running more than half a mile north 
of the mausoleum. I think too the authorities quoted by General 
Cunningham at p. lxxix of his paper maybe interpreted consistently 
with the view I am taking. Finch's statement of ( two kos' was 
undoubtedly his own approximation, or else the popular distance, 
and I think if allowance be made for the windings of the streets, 
for there seems no reason, from the nature of the ground, for 
believing that the two gates which chance to remain were connected 
by a straight road, the distance between them might be set down 
roughly at two kos, though undoubtedly somewhat less. Again 
it seems a somewhat arbitrary assumption, that the gate near the 
jail was the chief north gate : there can be no doubt that many of 
the gates must have perished, and this particular one is by no means 
on so grand a scale as the one opposite Purana Qil'ah. The bridge 
might well be said to be only a short distance from Dihli, even if 
the walls stopped at Purana Qil'ah, as the suburbs would beyond 
question extend some way beyond the wall along so important a 
road as the Mat'hura one must then have been ; and this considera- 
tion seems to meet Purchas' statement that Humayun's tomb was 
in the city. At any rate before the southern limits be fixed below 
Humayun's tomb on the authority of this writer, for the quotations 
from Finch seem quite inconclusive till we know where his 
north gate stood, it seems to me essential that some satisfactory 
account should be given of the great gate opposite Purana Qil'ah 

86 Notes on Old Delhi. [No. 2, 

and its adjoining walls, as well as of the wall opposite the N. W. 
corner of the just named fort. 

Pur and QiVah. 

Although the walls of this Fort are attributed to Humayun, both 
the buildings now remaining in it, are attributed to Sher Shah Sur, 
and exhibit Pat'han architecture at its highest perfection. 

The Jami' Masjid which has recently been repaired by Govern- 
ment with great success, is a large building of grey stone, of five 
arches. These arches are all more or less elaborately adorned with 
inlaid stones of marble, red sandstone and a kind of black basalt, 
the stone-work being elaborately carved with passages from the 
Qoran, and scroll work. Nothing but a painting can do full justice 
to a result in which colour and workmanship alike contribute to the 
charm which the spectator cannot but feel. The qiblahgahs are 
also carved in marble and adorned with inlaid patterns and red sand- 
stone, the ceiling and dome have been covered with painted patterns. 
It may suffice to point out certain characteristics of this style of 
mosque. Above the doorways, in the upper portion of the arch in 
which they are set, are introduced small arched window-like aper- 
tures : at the north and south sides, oriel windows are constructed, 
surmounted with cupolas resting on pillars. These oriel windows are 
also introduced into the back wall of this mosque, while each end of 
the back wall terminates in a rounded tower running to the top of 
the building. Mosques belonging to this period and exhibiting 
the style, will be found in the Jamali Kamali mosque at the Qutb, 
in the North Masjid near Mubarikpur and in a nameless mosque 
at Khairpur, about a third of a mile from f afdar Jang's tomb. 
This last mosque is noteworthy, as being perhaps the finest 
remaining specimen of the success with which the Pat'hans worked 
inscriptions and tracery in stucco. 

The other building in Purana Qil'ah, the Sher Mandal, which 
derives its interest from being the place where Humayun met with 
the fall which caused his death, is an octagonal building of red 
stone standing on a plinth. The first story is solid, but in the 
second there is a room panelled with encaustic tiles to the height of 
about 3 feet and painted above. This room is a square from which 
lesser squares have been cut off at the corners, as shown in the 

1870.] Notes on Old Delhi. 87 

- figure. On the roof is an octagonal cupola ; the supporting 

- pillars of red sandstone have their shafts richly carved with 
chevron work, and the bases are also worked with an elegant 

Proposed Criteria towards fixing the dates of Pat'han buildings at 


Although there is a very wide difference indeed between the 
barbarous simplicity of the Sultan Ghari mosque, and the stately 
Jami' Masjid of Sher Shah's days, a very little observation will 
show that these changes have taken place in successive periods and 
not arbitrarily, and so regularly as to enable the date of any 
building of size to be very closely approximated to. 

One of the most conspicuous parts of Pat'han building is the 
dome, and in the shape and fashion of the dome, these successive 
developments of Pat'han architecture are very clearly marked. 
I have already pointed out that the first conquerors were compelled 
to use Hindu builders ; accordingly, the dome of the early slave - 
kings is constructed of successive concentric rings of stone, the 
diameter of each layer being somewhat less than that of the layer 
below it, the whole being capped by a circular stone, covering the 
small remaining aperture. This Hindu looking dome, which is 
of small height and usually of trifling base-diameter also, is coated 
on the outside with masonry and stucco. Instances are the domes 
on the Qutb mosque and in the tomb of Nacirud-din at Sultan 

I conceive it was the coating just mentioned which taught the 
Dihli Pat'hans the secret of building their domes on truer principles. 
They found that this masonry coating would stand without the 
layers of projecting stones below ; and then I assume that all 
subsequent advances were mere questions of the natural develop- 
ment of the secret just obtained. Accordingly in the lower part of 
Mihrauli is now standing an old mosque rudely built, in which the 
domes resemble in diminutiveness those of the Qutb mosque, but 
are constructed without any under-coating of stone-work. 

Towards the end of the slave dynasty and in that of the Khilji 
princes, the dome is broader and higher in a considerable degree. 
It springs, however, still directly from the flat roof, without any 
intervening cylinder. The remains of Balban's tomb and the 

88 Notes on Old Delhi. [No. 2, 

gateway of 'Alaud-dm Khilji at the Qutb may be instanced as 
shewing the style of this half century. 

The dome of the early Tughluq period is marked by the intro- 
duction of a low cylinder of a slightly larger diameter than that of 
the dome, from which the latter springs : the domes too are of a 
somewhat peculiar shape, as seen in the well known tomb at 
Tughlaqabad, and in that of Shaikh £alahud-din between Shahpur 
and Khirkhi. In Firuz Shah's time, the cylinder has considerably 
increased in height, and becomes a conspicuous object in the 
dome-construction ; the curved portion of the dome is still continued, 
however, down to the place where it springs from the cylinder. 

Under the Sayyid and Lodhi lines (the fifteenth century), the 
changes consist in increasing still more the length of the cylinder, 
which is now adorned with dimunitive pinnacles, and in bringing 
the dome down to the cylinder by a curve which for a greater and 
greater distance from the base tended, as time went on, towards a 
straight line as its limit. 

I may add that this lengthening of the cylinder and strength- 
ening of the lower lines of the dome, was the direct cause which 
led to the introduction of the "false dome," (witness Humayiin's 
tomb, and those standing near it) ; the graceful forms of Shah- 
jahan's day being a later improvement. 

Among the other criteria may be mentioned the doorways, and 
these are often useful in distinguishing between buidings from 
Firuz Tughluq' s time and downwards ; the aperture was always 
oblong, though usually set in an arch (I do not now speak of the 
arches in mosque walls), and ornamented at the top by side-posts 
being made to project. These doorways, which are wide and 
ample in Firuz Shah's days, became subsequently more and more 
narrow, while the ornamentation at the top became more finished 
and elaborated, until specimens are found to rival even the 
beautiful workmanship of Fathpur Sikri and the Agrah Fort. 

Besides the foregoing tests, buildings belonging to the Tughluq 
dynasty, may be recognized usually by the slope of the walls, 
described by General Cunningham ; those of Jahan Khan by the 
sloping walls and multitudinous small hemispherical domes, while 
during the fifteenth century, there was a gradually increasing use 
of encaustic tiles. 

1870.] Notes on Archeologieal Remains at Shah hi Dheri. 89 

Notes on ArcTieoT'ogiml Remains at Sheik 7ci Dheri and the site of 
Taxila. — By J. G. Delmerick, Esq. 
[Received 18th April, 1870. J 
{Vide Proceedings for June and July, 1870.) 

I have the pleasure of sending you a photograph of certain heads 
and images recently dug up-near Shah Id Dheri/ 

The images are of stone, but the heads are of common plaster, 
and are evidently those of Buddha ; for they closely resemble the 
figure of Buddha as depicted on the cover of Beale ? s new transla- 
tion of Fa Hian's pilgrimage. 

Shah ki Dheri is about three miles from Kala Serai on the La- 
hor and Peshawar road. Near it are. still to be seen the remains 
of fortifications several miles in circumference. The area enclosed 
within the walls is known to the people as Kot Atial* The soil 
is rich and is covered with mounds and the debris of ancient habi- 

Indo-Scythic and Indo-Bactrian coins are commonly turned up 
by the plough, and on former occasions very interesting Bactro- 
Buddhist relics have been brought to light by actual digging of the 

In 1859, a plate or plates of copper covered with Bactro-Pali in- 
scriptions were found by Nur, a khddim or servant in the masjid 
of Ghila adjoining Shah ki Dheri. Nur presented this plate to the 
late Mr. A. A. Roberts, then Commissioner and Superintendent of 
the Kawal Pindi Division. 

Again in 1861, the same Niir found a stone trough, a crystal 
figure, representing a duck or a turtle and a gold leaf bearing a 
short Bactro-Pali inscription, all of which are fully noticed and de- 
scribed in the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, No. 2 of 1862. 

* Probably Atelites. " According to De Guignes, their name was properly 
u Te-le or Tie-le to which, from their inhabiting the banks of the Oxus, the 
" syllable db, " water" was prefixed. They are commonly confounded under 
" the denomination of Indo-Scythi with their predecessors, the Sakas, and 
" Yu-Chi ; as is done by Gibbon when he observes that the Indo-Scythao 
n reigned upon the confines of India from the time of Augustus to that of 
" Justin the Elder, A. D. 530" (vide note 3, page 388 of Wilson's Ariana Anti- 


90 Notes on Archeological Remains at Shah hi Dheri. [No. 2, 

In 1863, Nur likewise discovered a bar of pure gold, worth about 
400 Bs. which, although it was not interesting in an archaeological 
point of view, led to the inference that the city, which once existed 
in the neighbourhood, had not only been very large but very weal- 

The plate of copper discovered in 1859 was sent to Calcutta by 
Mr. Roberts, and was described by him to have been found at 
Hasan Abdal. I am not aware of the reason why Hasan Abdal 
was selected above all other places, perhaps because, though sever- 
al miles away from the place of discovery : it is on the Grand Trunk 
road, and is the nearest town best known to Europeans, or more 
probably because Nur brought this curiosity to Mr. Eoberts, while 
he was encamped at Hasan Abdal. 

I have visited the locality, and have personally inspected the 
mound where the plate of copper was found. The name of the 
place is Topi, a small tope having existed here once. It is situated 
midway between the village of Mohra Moradu, and Mohra Mal- 
liar, and is on the boundary of the lands belonging to the village 
of Gangu Jumma. It is about two miles to the north-east of the 
ruins of Kot Atial. 

Professor J. Dowson of Sandhurst College, in a letter*" address- 
ed to Mr. E. Thomas, translates the inscription on the plate as 
follows : — 

" In the year seventy-eight (78) of the great king Mogo on the 
" fifth (5) day of the month Panaemus, on this notable occasion the 
" satrap of Chhahara and Chukhsa by name Liako Kusuluko de- 
" posits a relic of the holy Sakyamuni in the Sepatiko, which he had 
" established in the country called Chhema, north-east of the city 
u of Taxila in honor of the great collective body of worshippers, 
lt and of all the Buddhas, for the honoring of his father and mo- 
<l ther, for the long life, strength and prosperity of the satrap's son 
" and wife, for the honoring of all his brothers and relatives and 
<( for making known his great liberality, fame, and success. " 

The great king Mogo is identified by General Cunningham and 
Professor Dowson to be the same as the Moa or Mauas of the coins 
which are frequently found in the neighbourhood. 

* Published in the Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal, No. 4 of 1863. 

1870.] Notes on ArcJteological Remains at Shah hi Dheri. 91 

Liak, the name of the satrap, is still a common name among the 
Hindus of this part of the country. 

Kusuluko represented probably the family name or title a Kusu- 
lu Kadphises. 

General Cunningham believes Chharhara and Chukhsa to be 
Chuch and Huzara. There are, however, about 15 miles to the 
north-west of the spot where the inscription was found, in the 
Mlaqah of Haroh, two villages within a couple of miles of each other, 
still known by the name of Chahar and Ohukshaia or Shai. There 
are extensive ruins near both these villages, where Indo-Bactrian 
and Indo-Scythian coins are often found. I am of opinion there- 
fore that Liako Kusuluko was the satrap or governor of the 'Ilaqah 
or district of Haroh, of which Chahar and Chukshai were the chief 

Moreover I think that the ruins near Shah ki Dheri can be 
no other than those of the celebrated city of Taxila, and, in addition 
to what has been stated above, my reasons for believing them to be 
so, are as follows : — 

I. — According to Menu,* the King is recommended to fix his 
capital in a fertile part of his dominion, but in an immediate neigh- 
bourhood, difficult of access, and incapable of supporting invading 
armies. Any one looking at the site of Kot Atial would at once 
preceive that the city must have been built in strict accordance with 
the precepts of the Dharraa Shastra. 

II. — Taxila is described by the Greek writers! to have been 
the largest city between the Indus and the Hydaspes. The ruins 
are very extensive, having still the appearance of a very large forti- 
fied town. There are no ruins at any other spot in the Sind Sagar 
Duab covering even half as much ground. 

III.— PlinyJ calls Taxila a famous city lying on a low, but level 
plain, the general name of the district being Amenda. Chhema was, 
however, the name of the country where the relics, according to the 
inscription, were deposited. No such country is now known, but 
chhema is a Sanscrit word, signifying pardon, forgiveness, absolu- 

* Chapter VII. of the Code. 

t Arrian, Chapter VIII, Book V., et passim. 

i Book VI., Chapter 23. 

92 Notes on Archeological Remains at Shah ki Dheri. [No. 2, 

tion. Perhaps then the locality or country was expressly set apart 
for. the deposit of propitiatory offerings " to all the Buddhas" par- 
ticularly as the whole of the surrounding country from Khurram 
Gujar on the one side and Khanptir on the other, is dotted with 
small topes,* the majority of which have heen almost entirely de- 
molished by zamindars and others, in search of coins and relics 
which are eagerly bought by dealers in the town of Kawal Pindi. 
IV. — General Cunningham has translated the word utarena pra- 
ehu in the inscription, as North West, for no other reason as far as 

I can see, than because the inscription was stated to have been 
found at Hasan Abdal, north west of Manikyala, which he thenf 
believed was the site of Taxila ; but the inscription was not found 
at Hasan Abdal at all, as has already been stated, but at a place 
called Topi to the North East of Kot Atial, which is now believed to 
be the spot where Taxila once existed. Professor Dowson asserts 
that the letters " of the word prachu (east) are as perfect and dis- 
w tinct as any in the whole inscription and they form most unequi- 

II vocally the word^>rac/m." 

V. — In the itinerary of the Chinese traveller, Hwan Thsang, Tan- 
chashilo, or Taxila, is described to be on the boundary of India 
towards the north, and a dependency of Cashmere. Certain slokas 
in the Paniayana also allude to Taxila (Taksliilla) as a dependency 
of Cashmere, and in the latter it is stated that the name of the 
town is derived from the founders of it, viz., Takshan, the son of 
Bharata ; but it is possible that the name may be derived from 
Tahsh, a celebrated serpent-god, and rila a stone or rock : the hill 
overhanging the valley of Kot Atial having a serpentine appear- 
ance, as viewed by me from Khurram Gujar. Or the name of the 
town may have originated from a passage cut through the hill like 
the Margalla Pass in the vicinity, from tahsh, to cleave, and sila, 
a stone. 

VI. — When Alexander the Great halted at Taxila to refresh his 

* General Cunningham in 1864 found the remains of 58 small topes at and 
near Shah ki Dheri. 

f Subsequently in a letter, dated 23rd January, 1864, to the address of Col. 
E. Maclagan, Secretary to Government, P. "W. D. } Punjab, the General declar- 
ed that the ruins in the neighbourhood of Shah ki Dheri were almost certain- 
ly the remains of Taxila. 

1870.] Notes on Areheological Remains at Shah hi Dheri. 93 

army, the brother and ambassadors of Abisares* who was king 
of Abisara (the Abhisara of the Hindus) or the modern Hazarah, 
waited upon him with tribute, and Plinyf distinctly states that 
above Taxila, among the mountains, is the territory of Abisares. 
It is therefore apparent that Taxila must have been near Hazarah 
to menace the safety of his kingdom, and to render it expedient for 
Abisares to propitiate the Macedonian. It is hardly worth while 
to mention that Shah ki Dheri is on the borders of the Hazarah 

VII. — In excavating a mound near Mohra Malliar, there was re- 
cently found part of an upright column of a temple, probably the 
temple of the sun which Apollonius after crossing the Indus is 
said to have visited at Taxila. The column was of sandstone and 
clearly belonged to the Grecian style of architecture, and it has 
been ascertained that General Cunningham discovered in 1864 at 
this very spot the remains of a similar pillar which was removed 
to Lahor, and is now on the grass plot in front of the Museum. In 
describing the pillar, the General in a letter dated 23rd January, 
1864 to Colonel Maclagan, states " that the base is a specimen of 
" what is called the Attic base, and as it is unornamented, I believe 
" it to have belonged to an Ionic column. The only difference 
" between this Taxila specimen and those of Greece, is in the upper 
u fillet which at Athens was made of smaller diameter than the 
11 upper torus, but which in this specimen is made of exactly the 
** same diameter as the upper torus." 

VIII. — Hwan ThsangJ states to the south-east of Tanchashilo 
.at 30 li (5 miles) was a monastery built by Asoka. 

To the south-east 5 miles from Kot Atial near the village of 
Khurram Givjar almost half way up the hill, there are ruins still 
existing, probably of this very monastery. These ruins are called 

Hwan Thsang further adds that to the south-east of the town 
-was a stupa built by Keu-lang-nu, the son of Asoka. 

* Arrian, Chapters VIII. and XX. Book V., and Quintus Curt. Chapter XIII. 
Book VIII. 

t Sec. 28, Chapter XXVIII. Book XV. 

% Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for July 1848. 

94 Notes on Archeological Remains at Shah hi Dheri. [No. 2, 

To the south-east of Kot Atial near the village of Shahpur a 
large tope still exists. It was opened by General Ventura in 1832, 
with what result is not known. 

IX. — Fa Hian* a Chinese traveller in the beginning of the 5th 
century after Christ states that " at this place (TakshasilaJ and at 
another place to the eastward, two days' journey from it, the people 
have raised great towers, adorned with all the precious substances.'' 

The second tower to the eastward is very probably the Great 
Tope of Manikyala which is at the present time by the shortest 
route over the Shah Aladitta hill, not less than 35 miles or two 
days' journey from Shah ki Dheri. 

X. — Plinyf gives the distance of Taxila from the Indus to the 
Hydaspes at 120 Eoman miles or 110 British miles. By the 
ancient road of the country abandoned for the present Grand Trunk 
road, the distance from Shah ki Dheri to Eawal Pindi was 30 
miles, avoiding the old Margulla cutting which, according to the 
inscription still existing there, was completed in A. H. 1083 cor- 
responding with A. D. 1672, or about the time when the Emperor 
Aurangzeb marched to Hasan Abdal and sent his son Prince Sul- 
tan with an army against the Khattaks and other Trans-Indus 
tribes ; and from Eawal Pindi to Jhelam, the distance was 80 miles 
via Manikyala, Dhamak and Eahtas. The whole distance there- 
fore exactly agrees with Pliny's statement. 

* Beale's Fa Hian, Chapter XI., page 32. 
f Book VI. Chapter 21. 

1870.] List of Kashmiri words. 95 

List* of toords and phrases to be noted and used as test words for the 
discovery of the radical affinities of languages and for easy comparison, 
drawn up by Mr. Justice Campbell. — Translated into Kashmiri, by 
W. J. Elsmlie, Esq., M. D., Brinagar. 

Rules for the pronunciation of the vowels and consonants made 
use of in this list. 

a as the u of ' but/ 

a represents a sound which must be learned from the lips of 

a native of Kashmir. 
a as the a in ark. 
a nearly as the au of l cause.' 
ai as ai in aisle, 
au as ou in sound. 
ai as y in my. 
d in sounding this letter, the tongue is turned back and made 

to strike the roof of the mouth, 
e as e in pet. 
e as a in spade, 
f as f in fall. Kashmiris nearly always change the sound of 

f into that of p aspirated. 
g as g in goat. 
gh as g aspirated. Kashmiris cannot pronounce the letter 

gham correctly. 
i as i in pin. The Final i is pronounced very slightly. 

1 as ee in glee. 

kh as k aspirated ; kh is generally incorrectly sounded by the 

n as n in the French mon. 
n as ii in the Spanish Coruiia. 
o as o in not. 
6 as o in tone. 

* The two Kashmiri and Gond Vocabularies given in the following pages 
have been drawn up according to Mr. Justice Campbell's Model Vocabulary. 
Their distinguishing feature lies in this that the words are expressed in 
the Persian and Nagiri characters, which removes every doubt as to the correct 
pronunciation. The Editor. 


List of Kashmiri words. 

[No. 2, 

ph. as p aspirated. 

r in pronouncing this letter, the tongue must be rolled back 

upon itself. 
t in sounding this letter correctly, the tongue is rolled back 

and made to strike the roof of the mouth. 


as in cots. 


as in pull. 


as u in rule. 

Meanings of Contractions. 




used chiefly by Hindus. 




used chiefly by Musalmans. 










past or perfect participle 




present participle. 



Numerals, 1 


























( > 









*y [ t 






List of Kashmiri words. 


Of me or mine ^ 


Of us or our 


Of thee or thine 



Of him or his 


Of you or your <J 


r >*» 
J ■«** 
1 «»«* 

V ... 

r *v 



These are 
)>used adjec- 
I tively. 

Y Used ad- 
j jectively. 


Myon (n. s. m.) 
Myaiii (n. pi. m.) 
Myaiii (n. s. f.) 
Myaiiih (n. pi. f.) 

Son (n. s. m.) 
Saiii (n. pi. m.) 
Sani (n. s. f.) 
Saiiih (n. pi. f.) 

Ohon (n. s. m.) 
Chani (n. pi. m.) 
Chani (n. s. f.) 
Chanih (n. pi. f.) 

Tuhund (n. s. m.) 
Tuhandi (n. pi. m.) 
Tuhanz (n. s. f.) 
Tuhanzah (n. pi. f.) 
Su (when a person is absent and out 

of sight. 
Tasund n. s. m.) 1 
Tasandi (n. pi. m.) 
Tasanz (n. s. f.) 
Tasanzah (n, pi. f.) 

Y Used ad- 

y Used ad- 
I jectively. 


y Used ad- 
' jectively. 


Other forms of the above genitive are 
al^S Tahund, &c. 

£A M +X> 


Of them or their ^ 



Taimsund, &c. 

Tim (m.) 
Timah (f.) 
j^IaA^^j Timanhyund(n. s. m.)^| 
I ^Lfc^ Timan hindi (n. pi. m.) I 
j.Ia^+3 Timan hinz (n. s. f.) f 
(^xyA^^ Timan hinzah (n. pi. f.)J 

j Used ad- 
j jectively. 

Used ad- 

98 : 

List of Kashmiri tuords. 

[No. 2, 

Another form of the above genitive is 
«xu 4 3 Tihyund, &c. 


Of him or his 


Of them or their 

Of him or his 


Of them or their 

Hu and yih are also used as demonstrative pronouns for 
and " this" respectively. 

Hu (where person spoken of is pre- 
sent, but distant from the speaker). 

Humsund, &c. 

Hum (m.) 
Humah (f) 

Human hyund, &c. 
Yih (when the person spoken of is 
present and near the speaker). 

Yimsund, &e. 
Yim (m.) 
Yimah (f.) 

Yiman hyund, &c. 

















Air p. 


^« 5 



Khor (M.) 
Khor (H.) 






Eum (H.) 









List of Kashmiri 


( dy* 




Bab (M.) 

' «* 

Pita (H.) 


i £■»* 

M6j (M.) 






Mata (H.) 






[ "eH 





r >«*> 





Mard (M.) 

Porush (H.) 

^ J^ 

Manush (H.) 


*il*3 P, 














<^y p. 

Farzand (m.) 







Ghul&m (m.) 
Tsonz (f.) 









i^ p. 





Dai (H.) 


Ujliaxu> -4. 



v tfif 1*. 

Aftab (M.) 




Seri (H.) 







Tsandramah (H.) 





jU A. 




List of Kashmiri words. 

[No. 2, 



Poin (H.) 

Water j 

ji p. 

Ab (M.) 




House i 




jt p- 

































( t55) 



i > 









( **$ 






( *%^ 





1 ^>. 


Near . 






| o* 



l o^ 



List of Kashmiri words. 






A father 

Of a father 

To a father 
From a father 
Two fathers 

Of fathers 

To fathers 
From fathers 
A daughter 

/ What 

1 What? j / 



U| A. 
*& P. 


^JJBJM»3| P. 



Kyazih ? 












Of a daughter <{ 



Mali sand (n. s. m.) "| 

Mali sandi (n. pi. m.) ^ Used ad _ 

Mali sanz (n. s. f.) | jectively. 

Mali sanzah (n. pi. f.) J 


Malis nishih. 

Zah Mali. 


Malin hyund(n. s. m.)"^ 

Malin hindi(n. pi. m. \ } ^^ ^ 

Malin hinz (n. s. f.) | jectively. 

Malin hinzah(n. pi. f.) J 


Malin nishih. ^ 


Kori hyund (n. s. m.)^ 

K6rihindi( > - Used ad . 
Kori hinz (n. s. f.) | jectively. 
Kori hinzali (n. pi. f. ) J 


List of Kashmiri words. 

[No. 2, 

To a daughter 
From a daughter 
Two daughters 

Of daughters 

To daughters 
From daughters 
A good man 
Of a good man 
To a good man 
From a good 

Two good men 
Good men 
Of good men 
To good men 
From good men 
A good woman 
Good women 
A bad boy 
A bad girl 

A horse 
A mare 


Kori nishih. 

Zah korih. 



K6rinhindi( I __ , 

"/ Used ad- 
Korm hmz (n. s. f.) | j ect i V ely. 
Korin hinzah(n. pi. f . ) J 

Korin nishih. 
Rut niohnti. 
Eatis mohnivisund, &c. 
Eatis mohriivis. 

Eatis mohiiivis nishih. 

Zah rati mohnivi. 

Eati mohnivi. 

Eatin mohiiiven hyund, &c. 

Eatin mShiiiven. 

Eatin mohiiiven nishih. 

Eafo zananah. 

Eafoah zananah. 

Yachh nechii. 

Yachh kur. 


Sethah rut, (when Ichotah (than) 

is expressed, sethahis dispensed 

Yats rut. 

Sethah thod. 
Yats thod. 


List of Kashmiri words. 


A bull 


A cow 


A dog 


A bitch 


A he-goat 

A female goat 


A male deer 

A female deer 


I (m.) am 

I (f.) am 

Thou (m.) art 

Thou (f.) art 

He is 

We (m.) are 

We (f.) aro 

You (m.) are 

You (f.) are 

They (m.) are 
They (f.) are 

I (m.) was 
I (f.) was 
Thou (m.) wast 
Thou (f.) wast 
He was 
We (m.) were 
We (f.) were 
You(m.) were 
You (f.) were 
They (m.) were 






















Tshawajih (pi. f.) 






Bus kachih (pi. f.) 

crt 4 ^ 

Boh chhus. 


Boh chhas. 


Tssih chhuk. 


Tsah chhak. 


Su chhu. 


Ais chhih (ih = e anglice.) 

& tv*U*l 

Ais chhih (ih = e in pet anglice.) 


Tohi chhiwah (i = e anglice). 


Tohi chhiwah (i = e in pet ang- 


*t^f j 

Tim chhih (ih = e anglice.) 


Timah chhih (ih = e in pet ang- 


Boh osus. 


Boh asas. 


Tsah osuk. 


Tssih asak. 


Su 6s. 


Ais ais. 


Ais asah. 


Tohi asiwah. 


Tohi asawah. 


Tim ais. 


They (f.) were 


To be 


Having been. J 

List of Kashmiri words. 
«x.«jY A+3 Timah asah. 

[No. 2, 

I (m. & f.) may be 
I (m. & f.) shall be 
I (m. & f.) should be 


To beat 


r r 


As (s.) 
Asyii (pi.) 

Asan (present participle, inde- 
Asit (conjunctive participle, in- 

O'smut (n. s. m.) f ^ or 
* lit i v perfect par- 
Asmati( I ticiple. 

Asma&s (n. s. f.) j 

Asma&ah (n. pi. f.) ! 

a.*,f<Xj Boh asah. 

<jr3f Lae (s. m. f.) 


Having beaten ^ 



I (m.) beat ejl^^^&J 

I (f.) beat et&irt*** 

Thou (m.) beatest <jU^uJ^*J 

Thou (f.) beatest &bj£\^*J 

He beats cjIj^^u* 

"We (m.) beat c^^u*' 

We (f.) beat ii>y**t*.j4 

You (m.) beat 


Layii (pi. m. f.) 

Layan (present participle, inde- 
Loemut (n. s. m.) ^ Past or 

Laemati (n. pi. m.) I P e ^ ct P ar I 

Laemafo (n. s. f.) | a djectively. 

Layimafoah n. pi. f.J 

Layit (conjunctive participle, in- 

Boh chhus layan. 

Boh chhas layan. 

Tsah. chhuk layan. 

Tsah chhak layan. 

Su chhu layan. 

Ais chhih layan (ih = e anglice.) 

Ais chhih layan (ih = e in pet 

Tohi chhiwah layan (i = e anglice.) 


List of Kashmiri words. 


You (f.) beat 

They (m.) beat 
They (f.) beat 



I (m.) am beating &\j$ ^^to 
I (f.) am beating (jbiljj^a.&j 
I (m.) was beating iV^ L y^ a j\ Sj . 
I (f.) was beating ub^^^f*? 
I (m. f.) had beaten **«yfo»*JjJ 

I (m. f.) may beat *:$&j 

I (m. f.) shall beat *jjto 

I (m. f.) should beat *#* 

I (m. f.) am beaten j*f*-S>^ 

I (m. f.) was 

beaten ^ojfo*/of<Uj^ 

I (m. f.) shall be beaten fU^i! 
I (m.) go 
I (f.) go 
Thou (m.) goest 
Thou (f.) goest 
He goes 
I (m.) went 
I (f.) went 
Thou (m.) wentest 
Thou (f.) wentest 
He went 









%h f^ 

Tohi chhiwah lay&n (i=e in pet 

Tim chhih layan (ih= e anglice.) 
Timah chhih layan (ih=e in pet 

Boh chhus layan. 
Boh chhas layan. 
Boh osus layan. 
Boh asas layan. 
Loemut osum. 
Boh layih. 
Boh layih. 
Boh layih. 
Layinah am. 

Layinah. amut osum, 
Layinah yiyam. 
Boh chhus gafohan. 
Boh chhas gafohan. 
Tssih chhuk ga&han. 
Tsah chhak gafohan. 
Su chhu gafohan. 
Boh gos 
Boh gayas. 
Tsah gok. 
Tsah gayak. 
Su gau. 

Gafoh (s. m. and f.) 
Gafohyu (pi. m. and f.) 

Gafohan (present participle inde- 
Gomut (n. s. m.) "j 
Gamati( I ^ ast or 
Garna** (n. s. f.) [g^plo* ***" 
Gamafoah (n. pi. f.)J 



Lint of Kuslnitii'i words 

[No. 2, 

What is your 

name r 

r Aa.Aj^LJ^j.a. Chon nao kyah \ 

" " v chhu ? f Not idio- 

a^AaS'jIj^j Tuhund nao kyah I matic. 
^ v * chhu? J 

^b^^Aji'sJ Tsih kyah ehhui \ 

nao ? ' Idiomatic. 

jU^a.4^*3 Tohi kyah chhu- i 
wall nao. J 

How old is this 

j 10rse ? **-j*j * h f£ *i Yih gur kafoah wohur chhu ? 

How far is it from 

here to Kashmir ? -o^b^AljAiu Yitih pethah Kashiri tamat 
^a^Ajy kotah chhu dur ? 

r-ai* JU^JU. Chanis mali sandi gari^ 
s^^jts^J kstf s nechivi chhih ? «. . 

4 5Ju«JUo u «.^U^j Tuhandis mali sandi Li d i o- 
^^/J erari kate nechivi | matic. 

y^JU^^JU. Chanis malis ka£s^| 
*^*.js^ nechivi chhih ? I 

y^j^JU^ji^j Tuhandis malis kate f ma ti c . 
**-j^ nechivi chhih ? J 

I have walked a ^*jjA<*» L /4-}jl Az pokus boh durih pethah. 
long way to -day. 

fj^&*jtydL&° Myani pitar sandi nechivi chhu 
- w e; J j'^ A t tahanzi bini set nethar 

On^/^IjJ kurmut. 


How many sons 
are there in your .4 
father's house ? 

The son of my un- 
cle is married to<( A^^byocjU* Myani pitar bayi chhu tahanzi 

her sister. 

biiii set nethar kurmut. 


^ j^-^x^UciL^ Myani mamasandi nechivi, &c. 

In the house is the J**&&^y** L j»jf Garas manz chhu nilah guri 

saddle of the ^j) 4>i-w sund zin. 
white horse. 


List of Kashmiri words. 


Put the saddle 
upon his back. 

^jj^i^j.$'iy\& Tahanzi thari pet thau zin 
(not idiomatic), 

Zin kar tas. 

_ _ _ ) Idiomatic. 

Zin ladus. 

I have beaten his 
son with many ^ 

Sethah kamchih la- 

yim tahandis ne- 


Sethah kamchih di- 

tim tahandis ne- 


Su chhu gupan ra- 
chhan koh-kalas 
Hut kulas tal chhu 

guris khasit. 

i He is grazing cat- 
tle on the top of 

the hill. 
He is sitting on a 

horse under that 

His brother is taller ^sS^^^y^^ (jjl^& 

than his (not his 

own) sister. 
The price of that is 

two rupees and 

a half. 
My father lives in <jl~^/o^^Jo^&^ Jy°c^o My on mol chhu hut 

&J.J x <Xj|3 Aa^Jl/OtjLfrA 

Tahund boe chhu- 
tahanzi biiii kho- 
tah thod. 

Humyuk mol chhu 
dayih ropayih. 

that small house. 

Give this rupee to 

Take those rupees 
from him. 

Beat him well and I -•* ' . 

with<j ^°~-a| , 


larihani manz basan . 
^♦A td^j&i Yih ropai dih humis. 
(JM +a^j.> L ££ ) <Xj Yihropai diyu humis. 

Humah ropayih hih humis. 

bind him 

^♦a ajt &XSJ&+& 

Draw water from 

the well. 
Walk before me. 

Zabar chob dih humis biyih 

razau set gandun. 

Zabar layit razau set gan- 
dun (more idiomatic). 

Krerih andrah khar ab* 
Mih b 6nth pak. 


Gondi Words and Phrases. 

[No. 2, 

Whose boy comes &\^*£*££Xj*^y* i **4f Kohund nechu chhu tsih 
behind you ? patah patah yiwan ? 

From whom did cuIa &^ IJt Ji Hu kas nisbib hetut ? 

you buy that ? 

From a shop-keeper &^o L yJ|y|j u> J\ ut S^ Garnakis akis wanawalis 
of the village . n i shih. 

Gondi Words and Phrases. — By Eev. James Dawson, Missionary to the 
Gonds, Chindwara, Central Provinces. 

[Received 7th June, 1870.] 





































A hundred 



1st Personal Pronoun, Sing. 

Nom. I 



Gen. Of me, 


nawor, nawork, 



«... "* 

nawa, nawang 


Dat. Ace. 

nak, nakun 

TT^T ^Tfrsr 

1870.] Gondi Words and Phrases. 109 

The G-enitive has four forms which are determined by the Gender 
and Number of the noun following, e. g. : — 

Nawor tammur «rr^TT WW^T my brother. 

Nawork tammurk *TT^T^f <T^^\ my brothers. 

Nawa selar «rT^T %*TPC my sister. 

Nawang selark *TT^tJT *?^rra» my sisters. 

This rule is applicable to the Genitive case of all nouns and 







of us, our 

mawor, mawork 

vnhx ^TipR 

mawa, mawang 

W^T ^T^fT 

: Ace. 


mak, makun 

^T3f iTTf^T 

2nd Personal Pronoun, 






I Gen. 

of thee, thine, 

niwor, niwork, 

^K, -sft^T^T 

niwa, niwang 

*f^T, iffafl 

i Ace. 


nik, nikun 

^R"? ^rtfffi" 






of you, 


miwor, niwork 
miwd, niwang 



mik, mikun 

*fV«*r ^tf *r 

3rd Personal Pronoun, Sing. Masc. 






of him 

, his 

onhor, onhork 
onha, onhang 



Plural Masc. 






of them, their 

orknor, orknork 

%^rc %*£%^ 

orkna, orknang 

^T^^TT %^^ft*I 

Ace. them orkun 



Gondi Words and Phr 

[No. 2, 

Third Personal Pronoun, Sing. Fem. 






of her, hers 





tannor, tanna 

addenor, addena 


Plural Fem. 

cn^KrTT^T, or 

au ^T 

aveknor, aveknork ^i^TC, ^ri^'T^ 

avekna, aveknang ^f^^cn", ^i^rjffji 

avekun ^R^i«r 





































sono H. 



chandi H. 
































Gondi Words and Phrases. 





not known 
































^5 T 










not known 





























sasi han 

^TT^t f « 








The above are in the singular, as, Go thou, imma han, x*qj ^«r. 

PL Go ye, immat hant, T*$J& ^^. The plural imperative is 

formed from the singular by adding t, <r. 

Up parro iJTT 

Near karrum ^*r 

Who bor ^K 

And unde v3*ii 


Gondi Words and Phrases. 

[No. 2, 































hai hai 

Declension of Nouns. 



. a father 




of a father, 

m. dhaunor-nork 


of a father, 

f. dhauna-nang 



to a father 



from a lather anaunsm 






of fathers, m. anaurKnor-norK 

tii^«frvfi : c-"5rr£R 

of fathers, f 




to fathers 




from fathers 

There is no dual. 


A daughter 



Of a< 

laughter, m. 



Of a< 

laughter, f. 




a daughter 









Of daughters, m. 



Of daughters, f. 



To daughters 








Gondi Words and Phrases. 


A good man 
Of a good man, m. 
Of a good man, f. 
To a good man 
From a good man 

Sing, ivitli adjective. 
chokho manwal 
chokho manwanor 
chokho man w ana 
chokho m-dnwan 
chokho manwansin 

The Plural of Genitive as above. 
Plural Noun with Adjeetive. 

Good men 

chokho manwalk 

%*ST TTFWT^fi 

Of good men, m. 

chokho manwalknor 

%*iT ^T^T^FC 

Of good men, f. 

chokho manwalkna 

^r^T ^T^T^^TT 

To good men 

chokho manwalkun 

%*3T ^F^f^T 

From good men 

chokho manwalksin 

%% W^^ffa 

The Plural of Genitive as 


A good woman. 

chokho ar 

-41^1 ^n: 

Good women 

chokho ask 

%iT ^T^» 

A bad boy 

burtor pedgal 

A bad girl 

burtai pedgi 

«J^ ^TJft 





tan sin chokho 

«tr" €tar %% 


sabrot sin chokho 

w<r *fta ^mj 





tan sin dhongal 

fTT^r ^>r i'fJiT^r 


sabrot sin dhongal 

to«t w>r iw^r 

A horse 



A mare 












A cow 



1 Bulls 





i A dog 


j Dogs 








Gondi Words and Phrases. 

[No. 2, 




A lie goat 






A female goat 



Female goats 



A deer 






A female deer 



I am 

anna andan 

^^t ^t^t 

Thou art 

imma andin 

T*w ^t^^t 

He is 

or andur 

We are 

ammot andom 

^rz ^T^TH 

You are 

immat andit 

TWFZ W5<trr 

They are 

ork andurk 

I was 

anna niathona 

^slT WT^TT 

Thou wast 

imma mathoni 

T'WT TT^T^t 

He was 

or mathor 

%it ^rc 

We were 

ammot mathoram 

^W^ OTTC* 

You were 

immat mathor it 

T^T3 WlTta" 

They were 

ork mathork 

%^ ^ilT% 




To be 




ateke, or 

^rr?#, or 



Having been 



I may be 



I shall be 



I should be 

aiata (?) 





To beat 





Wt^% and c^jri" 

Having beaten 



I beat 

anna jiatona 

^ ?TT ^'tWTTT 

Thou beatest 

imma jiatoni 

xm mtwm^X 

He beats 

or jiator 

^k ^t^r^n: 

We beat 

ammot jiator am 

^T^r 5Tt^TmriT 

You beat 

immat jiatorit 

TfKZ ajt^T^KtrT 


Gondi Words and Phrases. 


They beat 
I am beating 
I was beating 
I had beaten 
I may beat 
I shall beat 
I should beat 
I am beaten 
I was beaten 
I shall be beaten 
I go 

Thou goest 
He goes 
I went 

Thou wentest 
He went 


ork jiatork 
anna jiatona 
anna jindan 
anna jisi mathona 
anna jiaka 
anna jiaka 
anna jiatona* (?) 
anna mar tindatona 
anna mar titan 
anna mar tindaka 
anna handatona 
imma handatoni 
or handator 
anna hatan 
imma hatin 
or hatur 

hateke, and 

^ttt sfmrmsTT (?) 
%*: ^^ 

^"^ and 

What is your name ? 
Miwa parol bang andu ? 

How old is this horse ? 

Id koda bachale warsan na andu ? 

T% ^tct *p^t% ^t?t ^cr ^r*$ ? 

How far is it from here to Kashmir ? 
Igatal Kashmirtun bachale lakh andu ? 

How many sons are there in your father's house ? 
Mfwor dhau na rot te bachale mark andurk ? 

I have walked a long way to-day. 
Nend anna lakh taktona. 
^ ^*fT <^ crmT^fT. 

116 Oondi Words and Phrases. [No. 2, 

The son of my uncle is married to her sister. 
Nawor kaka nor marri tanna selana manning kitur. 
•srHTT ^T^fT ^TT *TCf WT^f *TT %<^ TT *Tf *ffa ^XrfK. 
In the house is the saddle of the white horse. 
Papdri koda ta khogir rot te andu. 
qT^\ %T^T <TT %iftT TTcT 7T ^[^. 
Put the saddle upon his back. 
Tan na murchut parro khogir ira. 

I have beaten his son with many stripes. 

Anna onhor marrin walle korang jitan. 

^?TT %*%TT ^Tff^T TO ^T^fJT sftrTPT. 

He is grazing cattle on the top of the hill. 

Or matta ta chendit parro murang kondang mehtator. 

%T iTIT fTT ^T^7{ TO H^TH OT^f JT ^rTmTT. 

He is sitting on a horse under that tree. 

Or ad marrat khalwa kodat parro uditor. 

<i|PC ^H2[ vhff ^.^F ^T^T<T TO ^f^TT. 

His brother is taller than his sister. 

Onhor tammur onha selan sin dhongal andur. 

The price of that is two rupees and a half. 
Tan na mola arhai rupiang andu. 

My father lives in that small house. 
Nawor dhau ad chudor rot te mandator. 
THTT ^r3t ^ ^K TTff ^ ^^mTT. 
Give this rupee to him. 
Id rupia on sim. 

Take those rupees from him. 
Au rupiang on sin yena. 

%r ^^fi %*r ^rt^r ^t. 

Beat him well and bind him with ropes. 
On walle korang jisikun nune te dohat. 

1870.] Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathurd. Ill 

Draw water from the well. 
Kiia ta yer umat. 

Walk before me. 

Na munne takat. 

^JJ TH <TT3rre. 

Whose boy comes behind me ? 

Miwa pija bonhor chauwa waiator ? 

From whom did you buy that ? 
Immat tan bon sin mola te yetit. 

t^i^ <rnr ^r*r €fa ^t^tt w ^rftcr. 

From a shopkeeper of the village. 
Natenor undi baniyan sin. 
Tt£ ^TTT ^^ ^f^n^r ^r. 

Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathurd. — By Bdhu Ka'jendra- 

[Bead 2nd September, 1868.] 

In the Proceedings for May, 1862, mention is made of some sculp- 
tures and inscriptions which the Lieutenant-Governor of the N. W. 
Provinces had placed at the disposal of the Society. These had been 
found by Mr. Best, Collector of Mathura, while engaged in clearing 
away, in 1860, a large earthen mound for the site of a new court- 
house at the entrance of that station by the main road leading from 
it to Agra. 

At one time there stood on this mound " a masjid of some anti- 
quity which had been blown down for military reasons during 
the mutiny," and under it there existed the remains of what was 
once a Buddhist monastery. No attempt was made to ascertain the 
extent of the building or to trace its ground-plan, but from the 
size of the mound, and the quantity of stones and building materials 
found, it was evident that the monastery must have been a large one, 
and included at least two temples dedicated at different times. 
Among the articles found, were a number of scidptures in the coarse 

118 Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathura* [No. 2, 

red sandstone, so common in Delhi and Agra, and including a lot 
of statues, cornices, bas-reliefs and pillars. " These were," accord- 
ing to Mr. Best, " all more or less mutilated, and appeared to be of 
varying antiquity." " It was probable," he therefore thought, " that 
the building had passed through several stages of decay, repair and 
additions, before its final destruction." Although most of the sculp- 
tures are of very inferior workmanship, " they are," says General 
Cunningham, " very interesting on account of their variety, as they 
comprise statues of all sizes, bas-reliefs, pillars, Buddhist railings, 
votive stupas, stone umbrellas, and many other objects peculiar 
to Buddhism, of a date as early as the first century of the Christian 
era. Amongst the broken statues, there is the left hand of a colos- 
sal figure of Buddha, the teacher, which measures one foot across 
the palm. The statue itself, therefore, could not have been less than 
from 20 to 24 feet in height. Stone statues of this great size are so 
difficult to move, that they can be very rarely made. It is 
true that some of the Jain statues of Gwalior are larger, such as 
the standing colossus in the Urwdld of the fort, which is 57 feet 
high, with a foot 9 feet in length, and the great-seated figure on the 
east side of the fort, which is 29 feet, with a hand 7 feet in length. 
But these figures are hewn out of the solid rock to which they are 
still attached by the back."* * "I look therefore with great interest 
to the discovery of other portions of the Mathura colossus, especially 
to that of the pedestal, on which we may expect to find the 
name of the donor of this costly and difficult work."* Some of 
them are interesting also, from the circumstance of their bearing 
inscriptions in the ancient Gupta character with dates in figures of 
a new type. One of the sculptures is thus described by General 

"The most remarkable piece of sculpture is that of a female of 
rather more than half life size. The figure is naked, save a girdle 
of beads round the waist, the same as is seen in the Bhilsa sculp- 
tures and Ajanta paintings. The attitude and the positions of the 
hands are similar to those of the famous statue of Venus of the 
Capitol. But in the Mathura statue, the left hand is brought 
across the right breast, while the right hand holds up a small portion 
* Archaeological Report for 1862-63, p. 4. 

1870.] Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathurd. 119 

of drapery. The head is slightly inclined towards the right should- 
er, and the hair is dressed in a new and pecidiar manner, with 
long curls on each side of the face, which fall from a large circular 
ornament on the top of the' head. The back of the figure is 
supported by a thick cluster of lotus stalks covered with buds and 
flowers, which are very gracefully arranged and boldly executed. 
The plump face with its broad smile is the least'satisfactory part 
of this work. Altogether this statue is one of the best specimens 
of unaided Indian [art that^I have met with. I presume that it 
represents a dancing girl/'* 

, Mr. E. C. Bayley who was, at the time of the discovery, Judge 
of Mathura, had the inscriptions removed to his bungalow, andfacsi- 
i miles prepared of some of them. These were early placed at my dis- 
posal. Major General Cunningham who saw the inscriptions soon 
after, also prepared reduced transcripts of a number of them, and 
placed them in my hands. I had been assured by Mr. Bayley that 
he had taken immense pains in transcribing the inscriptions with 
his own hands, after testing each letter by holding the unwieldy 
j stones in different lights, and I well knew the care and attention 
I which General Cunningham devoted to such work ; I was prepared 
| therefore to find that the two sets of facsimiles would prove to be 
exactly alike. But on examination, I found them to differ in 
some material points ; and I was obliged to lay them by, until I 
got an opportunity of comparing them with the originals, which I 
expected would soon be sent to the Society's museum. These were 
received in 1863,f and on comparing them with my facsimiles I 

# Ibid, p. 5. 

f These include — 

1st. The feet of a large image supported by male and female figures at the 
sides and smaller figures between the feet (No. 830 A.) 

2nd. Figures representing portion of a procession in honor, apparently of 
Buddha (No. 830 B.) J ' 

3rd. The feet of a small image, apparently, of Buddha, bearino- an inscription 
(830 C.) F 

4th. A stone ladder which, apparently, had been used as a drain-pipe, bear- 
ing part of a very interesting inscription (876 A.) 

5th. Twelve bases of round pillars beai'ing inscriptions. 

6th. A fragment of red sandstone about 3 feet high with Buddhist figures in 
relief on two sides. One of these sets of figures represents the°birth of 
Buddha, No. 880 A. 

7th. A very perfect figure of Buddha, about 6 feet in height, the head 
encircled by an ornamental halo (887 A.) 

120 Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathura. [No. 2, 

found that out of 10 facsimiles of Mr. Bayley, the Society had 
received the originals of only 8, and out of 18 transcripts of 
General Cunningham, only 11 were forthcoming, the rest being 
missing, most probably converted into ballast for the repair of 
roads by some Benthamite overseer in the Public Works Depart- 
ment ; for in reply to my enquiry on the subject, Mr. Bayley wrote 
to me, "I fear some of Cunningham's are hopelessly gone, as I 
could not find them, and a good deal of stone-breaking had gone 
on in the meanwhile." 

Among the missing stones was a most important dated one, 
which in the two sets of facsimiles appeared to differ in their details. 
There were, however, among the stones sent to the Society, two 
originals which were not included in either set of the facsimiles. 

The inscriptions were all more or less defaced, worn out and 
smudgy, and it was by filling up the interstices of the letters with 
powdered black-lead, that I could read some of them. Others it 
was impossible to decvpher, and the facsimiles now presented to the 
readers of the Journal (plates IV, V, VI and VII.) are, to a great 
extent, imperfect. They are taken from General Cunningham's tran- 
scripts, with such corrections and emendations as a careful ex- 
amination of the original and comparison with Mr. Bayley's 
transcripts would warrant, leaving all doubtfid letters as they 
were read by the General. 

Fourteen of the inscriptions are inscribed on bases of pillars, 
three occur on the pedestals of statues, one on a stone ladder, one on 
an oblong slab, and one on a stupa or chatty a, i. e., model of a funer- 
al monument. According to General Cunningham " altogether 
the bases of 30 pillars were discovered, of which 15 were inscribed 
with the names of the donors who presented the columns to the 
monastery." But, he says, " as one of these gifts consisted of 6 
pillars, a second of 25 pillars, and a third of 26 pillars, there still 
remain 40 columns to be discovered, which will bring up the total 
number to 70."* The inscriptions from which these facts have been 

8th. A figure similar to the above, but with the halo broken, about 5| feet 
( 887 B.) 

9th. A Buddhist naked female figure about 4 feet high. 
* Loc. cit. p. 4. 

1870. J Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathurd. 121 

collected are, however, not before me, or if they be mentioned in 
any portion, of the inscriptions communicated. to me by the General, 
they are not legible to me. 

The plinths of the pillars- are* squares of 23£ to 24 inches 
each side, having on each corner the figure of a lion, half pro- 
jecting from the base moulding. Little can be said of the exe- 
cution of these figures, but their style is characteristic. From 
above their body rise the shafts, which are not, as is usual among 
purely Indian, columns, polygonal and. cylindrical at intervals, 
but cylindrical throughout, as is the case in some of the columns 
in the temple of Martand and other structures in Kashmir. The 
diameter of the shafts may be roughly given at 1 8 inches. Ordinarily 
the length of Indian pillars varies from. 7 to 9 diameters, and 
taking 8 at an average, the height of the veranda to which the 
pillars were attached, may be assumed at 16 feet. The temples 
themselves must have been considerably higher to make room 
for statues, one of which was 24 feet in height. 

The inscriptions on the pillars are in several instances repeated, 
first inscribed on the torus and then on the plinth. But in more 
than one instance, the two inscriptions appear to be different. 

The statues call for no remark. They are of the usual Sarnath 
type, two being standing figures with one hand lifted as in lec- 
turing, and the other holding the hem of a, light drapery thrown 
over the person ; the third is a seated figure : the head in all the 
three instances is encircled by a halo. 

The stone ladder is peculiar. Mr. Bayley describes it to have " ori- 
ginally formed, part of a. sculptured drain pipe, which was subse- 
quently made to do duty as part of a stone ladder, and the ruthless 
hands which fitted it' for the latter purpose, had unfortunately hacked 
away a great portion, of a very interesting, inscription which it 
originally bore." Possibly it was originally a drain pipe ; if so, it 
could not have then borne any inscription, for the inscription ap- 
pears to have been incised after its conversion into a ladder, be- 
ginning at the bottom of the left hand bar and carried from above 
downwards on the right hand side, the feet of the letters on the 
opposite sides being reversed. Had the inscription been cut be- 
fore the making of the steps, the writing would have all run in the 

122 Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathurd. [No. 2, 

same direction. The ladder as we now possess it (Plate VL Fig. 
xiv) is only a fragment, the upper half being lost. This circum- 
stance, and the injuries which the letters have received from time 
and ill-usage, render the complete decipherment of the record 
quite out of the question. From the few words that I have been 
able to read, I take the steps to have been presented by a mendi- 
cant, named Buddha-dasa, for the use of the pious, or, to quote his 
own words, " for the good of all mankind" (sarvasatta hitdya). 

The inscriptions on the pillars are likewise records of gifts 
to the monastery, and in language, style and grammar differ not 
in the least from similar records in Sanchi and other Buddhist 
sanctuaries. The shortest inscriptions of this class simply say " the 
gift of so and so ;" others add the purpose for which the gift is made, 
being the good of one's ownself, or that of his parents, or of mankind 
at large ; and the more elaborate include the date of the gift, 
the name of the monastery, and perhaps the name of the reigning 
sovereign. The nature of the gift is sometimes mentioned, but 
not often ; and the question may be raised as to whether in the 
case of inscriptions, recording gifts fddnaj without specifying their 
nature, they are to be taken as mere records of gifts, or of the gift 
of the objects on which they occur? General Cunningham is in favour 
of the latter alternative, and is of opinion that the things on which 
donative inscriptions occur, are themselves the objects of these 
inscriptions. There is generally, however, no pronoun of any kind 
in such inscriptions to fix such a meaning, and it often happens, that 
a single bar of a railing, records two or three or more gifts of 
different dates, each in the usual form of gifts of so and so 
— amuhasya ddnam. Of the two inscriptions given on plate V. (No. 
vj that on the torus records the gift of some Dasa, the son 
of Vasumihira, while the one on . the plinth, gives the name 
of Vis Vasika Vikramahara, son of Sinha. They cannot possibly 
be intended to record the gift of the pillar, but of some gift 
in money or other article to the shrine. Had the object been 
the joint gift of two or more persons, their names would have 
been given, not in separate inscriptions, but in one record, as 
is the case in many inscriptions which have come under notice. 
I am disposed to think, therefore, that the ddna inscriptions were 

1870.] Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathurd. 123 

designed partly by wily covetous priests who, for a consideration, 
dispensed sanctity to ordinary mortal names by recording tliem on 
sacred edifices, and partly by a desire to buy celebrity or immor- 
tality at a cheap cost by having one's name recorded on buildings 
frequented by millions, and which were supposed to last to all but 
eternity ; a counterpart of that feeling which makes the modern 
tourists scribble their names under the dome of St. Peter. The late 
Major Markham Kittoe availed himself of this idea, and recorded 
the name of each subscriber to the Benares College Building Fund 
over or around a separate arch or doorway of the College Budding 
1 as the donor of that particular object, and not as a contributor to 
the general fund. 

In the case of the inscriptions on statues (Nos. xn. xiii. xvn. 
, the language is throughout different, and they leave no doubt in 
the mind as to the object of their writers. 

One of the pillar inscriptions describes the edifice in which it was 

j found as the monastery (yihdra) of Huvishka, whose titles were " the 

great king, the king of kings, the son of God," following closely 

the numismatic Greek legend Basileus Basileun theodotoy. Major 

, General Cunningham first identified this prince with the Hushka of 

, the Rajatarangini and the Ooerki of our Indo-Scythian coins. He 

i reigned in Kashmir in the middle of the first century before Christ, 

I and from the circumstance of a monastery dedicated by him existing 

in Mathura, we may fairly infer that his dominion extended, at least, 

I as far down as that ancient city. 

A second inscription (Plate XI. No. xv.) gives the name of 
another prince with the same ultra regal titles of Maharaja, rdjdtirdjd, 
and devaputra, but owing to a lacuna in the stone, it cannot be fully 
read. The first two syllables are unmistakeably Vdsu, after which 
there is space in the facsimiles for three letters which Mr. Bayley 
thinks were either mitrasija or devasya, making the whole n-ame 
either Vasumitra or Vasudeva. As the mark of the long vowel is 
distinct and Vasumitra is not strictly correct, I take the name to be 
Vasudeva. That this prince was a successor of Huvishka, must 
follow as a matter of course, if our inference about the date of this 
inscription be correct : if it be doubted still, judging from the 
character of his inscription, his time was not much removed from 
that of the S 'aka king. 

124 Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathurd. [No. 2, 

Some of the inscriptions, as already stated, are dated, and the 
figures of these dates are by far the most interesting, and at the 
same time the most puzzling elements in their composition. Ge- 
neral Cunningham, some time ago, commented on them at great 
length in this Journal,* but without coming to a satisfactory con- 
clusion. Nor can I congratulate myself upon having raised the ques- 
tion much above the region of mere conjecture, though the conclu- 
sions I have come to, appear to be much more probable and consistent. 
After the decypherment of the dated inscriptions of Nasik by the 
learned Dr. Bhau Daji,f the values of most of the figures must now be 
accepted as settled ; but they cannot be read in the ordinary decimal 
style, without producing very doubtful results, I propose, therefore, 
to read them from the right in arithmetical series as numerical 
notations without reference to their local values. This may, at 
first sight, appear objectionable in a writing which proceeds from 
left to right, but seeing that the Arabs and the Persians read their 
figures, borrowed from the Hindus, from left to right, though their 
writing proceeds from an opposite direction, it may be presumed 
that the ancient Buddhists, who evidently took their figures from 
the Aryan type, did not alter the original style of the figures 
and wrote them from right to left. Hence it is that even in modern 
chronograms, a rule is observed which says " figures, proceed 
to the left." ^^T ^T^Plf^T ' Eaghunandana, the author of the 
28 Tattvas y in his treatise on astrology, Jyotis Tattva, three 
hundred years ago, quoted a s'loka to the effect that " in writing 
many figures of one denomination the progress should be to the left." 
^rsn^T^^r^jTs^TT ^Wni ?rf?P ; and to this day all chronograms 
in Sanskrit are read in that way. Brown, in his Essay on Sanskrit 
Prosody, notices the practice, though he does not quote any autho- 
rity. Following this rule, the four figures of No. 1, (plate IV.) 
may be read as 40 + 10 + 5 + 4 == 59 - Reading from left to right 
the result would be 4 -f- 5 -\- 10 -|- 40, which would be absurd as 
progressing from small to large figures. If the third and the fourth 
letters be taken for 9 and 6, and the whole be read decimally accord- 
ing to their relative position, the date would be 4596, which would 

* Ante Vol. XXXI, p. 426. 

f Journal, Bombay Branch Koyal Asiatic Society, Vol. VIII. p. 228. 

1870.] Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Matkurd. 125 

correspond with no known or probable era. The value of the first 
figure is unquestionable ; the second is somewhat like a 7, and the 
counterparts of the third and fourth are so exactly reproduced in the 
Nasik records, that they cannot be gainsaid. Beading from right 
to left, I am unwilling to read the third letter as a 7, for it is not 
at all likely that eleven would be indicated by 7 -f- 4 when a figure 
for 10 was in use. The only material objection to this reading 
would be, the figure for day, which looks very much like the last 
figure of the year read from the left. But the difficulty is not in- 
superable. Something very similar to it occurs in the Nasik caves 
for a 6, but the two are not exactly alike. I am disposed, however, 
to take it to be the same figure which occurs in the year, i. e., 40. 
Such a figure for the day of the month would, no doubt, be in- 
admissible, but as no month is named in the record, the 40th day 
of the year 59, would not be an unreasonable way of expressing 
the date. 

Inscription, No. n, read from the right in the way indicated above, 
would give the date the 80th day of the year 59. In No. vi 
there are only two figures, one of which is the same which I have 
taken for 40 in Nos. 1 and 2, but the other is very doubtful and 
I cannot positively say whether it is that figure or 100. It looks very 
like a 7, but a 7 before a 40 would be inconsistent, and it is probably 
therefore a mutilated remnant of the figure for a 100. If so, the date 
would be 140. No. xiv has a single figure which occurs repeatedly 
in the Nasik caves No. 23, for 10, and its date therefore may be 
without any hesitation taken for the year 10. No. xv has two figures, 
one of which is 40 and the other 4 = 44. The word for the era 
in it is given in full, samvatsare, and then follows the word varshe " in 
the year," very much in the same way, as if a man were to say " in 
the year 44 Anno Domini" This repetition, however, is common in 
India, and such a mode of expression as ~w*f X^i^i ^T^T is frequently 
met with. The last letter in the third line is ma, after which, three 
letters are missing, which contained the name of the month, on the 
1st of which (prathama divas' 'e) the record was inscribed. The sub- 
sequent lines are so full of lacunae, that it is impossible to make out 
the purport of the document. The last three lines (8th, 9th, 10thJ 
are completely obliterated. 

126 Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathird. [No. 2, 

The era to which these several years belong, would at first sight 
appear to be the same which is used in the Wardak, Manikiyala, 
Hidda and other Aryan inscriptions ; but No. vi has the word, s 'alee, 
" in the year of S'aka," distinctly given, the h being indicated by an 
upright cross with a mark on the top for the vowel-point, differing 
thus from the figure for 4 which is formed like an oblique cross in 
Nos. 1 and 2, and it may be fairly asked if the word san in the 
other cases is not an abbreviation of s 'ake, the usual mode of indi- 
cating the elision of a letter being a dot or an anusvara after the 
preceding letter : in many instances, the s alone is given without 
the dot. No. xv uses the word samvatsare which means " in the full 
year," probably of the prince named, or possibly, but not likely, in 
the samvat year. 

It is not at all likely, however, that different eras would be used 
in documents of one class, and arguing on this premiss, it would not 
be unreasonable to conclude the dates of all the inscriptions to refer 
to the S/aka era. The character, style, language, the princes 
named, and the circumstances detailed, all point to the first two cen- 
turies after the birth of Christ, and by reading the dates as belong- 
ing to the S'aka era, we bring the documents exactly to that epoch ; 
the earliest 44 being equal to 120 A. D. and the latest 140, to 216, 
A. D. Dr. Bhau Daji, in his valuable paper on the ancient Sanskrit 
numerals in the cave Inscriptions, has already pointed out that the 
S 'aka was a Scythian era, and if this inference be tenable, and, as far 
as I am aware, there seems to exist no very cogent argument to 
bring against it, the Aryan records may all be assigned to the same 
epoch. No. xv would suggest the idea of that document being dated 
on the 44th year of Vasudeva's reign, but the record is so full of 
breaks that we cannot by any means positively declare that the 
genitive Vasudevasya relates to samvatsara and not to some other 
word. If it be excluded as belonging to the era of Yasudeva, still 
the argument would remain unaltered in regard to the others. 

I have appended to the plate a reduced facsimile of an inscrip- 
tion on the pedestal of a statue of Buddha found in the village 
of Sahet Mahet in Oudh. The village has been identified by Ge- 
neral Cunningham with the S'ravasti of the Buddhist records. It 
bore a date, which is now completely obliterated. The General reads 

1870.] Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathurd. Ill 

the last word of the first line as S'ravasti, but it appears to me to be 
very unlike it. After a very careful study of the original for some 
hours, I make it out to be bhihslmsya, the last two letters correspond- 
ing with the sadya of the next line. The figure is 7 feet high, and is cut 
in the same material (red sandstone) of which theMathura sculptures 
are formed. It was dedicated by two Buddhist mendicants, Mihira 
and Tripitaka, with funds received for the good of mankind from 
one Bakrateya. The grammatical connection of the third line with 
the second is not obvious, and the meaning had therefore to be 
guessed from the instrumental case of the phrase Bakrateya 

Transcripts and Translations of the Metthurd Inscriptions. 

Plate IV. No. i. — Bound the base of a Pillar (deposited in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society.) 

nef^8° *?^HJ5TO T^ITf?KaFST t^pTO ^f^PS f^TT ^T^f 

A present, on the 40th day of the year 59, to the Yihara of the 
great king, the king of kings, the divinely born (or the son of a 
Deva) Huvishka, by the mendicant (Bhikshu) Jivaka Udiyanaka, 
known by the name of the breath-suspended.* May it prove a 
blessing to all mankind I The fourteenth congregation. ' 

Plate IV. No. n. — Eound the base of a Pillar (deposited in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society.) — 

The gift of Devili of the race of Dadhikurna Devi, on the 80th 
day of the year 59. 

Plate Y. No. in. — Eound the base of a Pillar (deposited in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society.) — 

1W It « 

The gift of the mendicant (Bhikshu) Buddha-dasa Saiigha- 

* The words in the original are Kubhaka soma, which I take to be a corrup- 
tion of Kumbhalca-saujna from KumbhaTca, suspension of breath in religious 
meditation, and sanjnd a name. 

f The reading of the figure is doubtful. 

X The reading of the last word is conjectural. 

128 Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Matkwd. [No. 2,. 

mitra, (or the friend of the congregation), (and) of the Devi 
Parosapachatris 'a * * * * 

Plate Y. No. iv. — Pound the base of a Pillar (deposited in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society.) — 

K^ f^W^T ^l^iW "^ * * 

The gift of the mendicant Buddha-ghosha. The fruit of — 

Plate V. No. v. a. — Pound the base of a Pillar (deposited in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society.) 

•^f ^% faf%T M^m <re (?) *f K^ l 

The gift of Patrama (?) the son of Yasu-mihira. 

Plate Y. No. v. b. — Pound the Plinth of the same Pillar. 

K\^ f^fTO^r ^(^?,fa f%w fWg^ * * t*jto * * * * ^ ^r ^*te- 
*jre f< <r*r * * * 

The gift of Yis'vasika, and Buddba-mihira, the sons of Sinha — 
Plate Y. No. vi. — Round the base of a Pillar. 

* * irej^Tfa^ * * * 

The gift of Budha-inihira, son of Sinha, on the 140th S'aka year. 
Plate YI. No. vn. — On the base of a Pillar (deposited in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society). — 

The gift of the mendicant S'akya Bhiksku, the protected of 
Buddha — or of the mendicant Buddha Eakshita a mendicant of 
Sakya Buddha. 

Plate Y. No. vm. — On the base of a Pillar. 

^T*f W tre * * * I The gift of Sangha-putra. 

Plate Y. No. ix. — On the base of a Pillar. 

^*f ^'^f^^l * * * | The gift of Sangha-pravira. 

Plate Y. No. x. — On the base of a Pillar. 

The gift^of the mendicant Mabhikshu, the protected of Buddha— 
or of Buddha Eakshita, the unworthy mendicant.* 
Plate Y. No. xi. — On the Pedestal of a statue. 

* The word mabhikshu translated " unworthy mendicant" is ungrammatical. 

1870.] Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from Mathura. 129 

This virtuous dedication to Sakya Bhikshu, (is) by Bhidatta 
Brahma Siiiha. Whatever fruits will proceed from this act of 
religion, may be for the acquisition of a hundred-fold knowledge on 
the part of all mankind, 

Plate Y. No. xii. — On the Pedestal of a small statue. 

^■q 'sr^rRJ ?u^ ft?% *H?^;t^t "9^ J^ *rfa^T (*rr)rj *4s#?r ^r. 

This virtuous dedication to Sakya Bhikshu (is by) Dharma-dasa. 
Whatever fruits will proceed from this may be enjoyed by my 
father, mother and all mankind. 

Plate Y. No. xiii. — On a small stupa. 

The gift of Surana* to Nasapriya. 

Plate yi. No. xiv. — On the side of a flight of stone steps 
(deposited in the Museum of the Asiatic Society). 

In the 10th year : the gift of the mendicant Buddha-dasa, to 

Buddha for the good of all mankind and . 

Plate yi. No. xv. — On a block of sandstone. 
fl^rcsrTO T (onfriTTw) 

*R r^T 8 8 ^5 *T * * * 

^r sr«w fx"*r% * * 
f% w -mc£ ^f% 

Here three lines are illegible. 

The text is too corrupt to admit of an attempt at translation. 

Plate yi. No. xvi. — On the Pedestal of a seated figure. 

The first line of this record is illegible, the second has the words 
WFOsra T^TfTTT^^r ^r<T33? ^ * *, " of the great king, the king 
of kings, the divine born yasu," shewing that it was inscribed in the 
time of the same prince whose name has been conjectured to be 
Vasudeva in No. xv. 

* The reading of this word is quite conjectural and very doubtful, 

130 Notes on Sanskrit Inscriptions from jlatlmrd. [No. 2, 

Plate VI. No. xvn. — On the base of a Pillar (deposited in 
the Museum of the Asiatic Society). 

Grift of the mendicant Dharma-datta to ? Purva, on the 5th 

day of . If the compound letter before Purva, be read as sha- 

shtha, the meaning may be the nth preceding the sixth, a form of 
expression still current in Nagari hundis or drafts, but this form 
would scarcely be used in monumental records. 

Plate VII. No. xvm. — On the base of a Pillar (deposited in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society.) 

^rpr t *rc (a a ?) f^* * sre(?)ir*? ^f IV W ^^T^^ 

Gift of the mendicant Dharma-datta to the great Buddha 

on the 5 th day of ? 

Plate VII. No. xix.— On the base of a Pillar. 

The gift of the mendicant Buddha-bhima the unworthy 


Plate VII. No. xx.— On the base of a Pillar. 

^Trfar^ ^T^f wnra ^TT f^irf * 

* * 

* * * 

The gift of Datta-bhikshu, son of Sangha, the rest illegible. 

Plate VII. No. xxi. — From the base of a colossal statue found 
at Sahet Mahet, and deposited in the Museum of the Asiatic 

****** f^^ra inre fv^^T SQJ 

The gift of the mendicant (Purya Sadya) Mihira and the noble 
mendicant Tripitaka, for the relief of involved mortals, and the 
attainment of the fruit of (such a) gift, (as also) for the enjoyment 
(lit. movement) of Bhagavan — (from) the donation of the well-be- 
haved Bakrateya for the good of mankind. 

The document is very puzzling ; the translation here given is a 
mere guess. 

Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XXXIX. for 1870, 

Parti. Plate IV. 

K?ll. Base of Pillar 

1 4 ^3 ^&^i^3ff££ x^^2^4 

»l»CK fcC» 

Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XXXIX. for 1870, 

Part I. Plate V. 

N.°ltL Base of Pillar 

N°]V. Base of Pillar. 

N°V. Base of Pillar. 
N?V. Plinth of Base 

N?Y1 Base of Pillar. 

N°VU.Base of Pillar. 

N?VHl.Baee of Pillars TC°]3L 
N°X. Base of Pillar. 

N° XI Square Pedestal of Statue . 
M?XU. Pedestal of Small Statue 

N°Xlll. Small Stupa 



tf* XIV. 

N° XVI. Pedestal of Seated Figure. 
vJT^v< j^fl"X ^Nt u f *J0iufy±^f ^bfrXSA K*^—Lh +i& z-i ~-^iy 

K°XVU,:Base of Pillar. 

Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XXXIX. for 1870, 

Parti. Plate YI1 

N° XVIII. Base of Pillar. 


WgJX Base of Pillar, 

^ 7 $W 

-*' Ss^/js^f 

N°XX. Base of Pillar 

N- XXI. From Base of a Colossal St&lue ir&in Sahet Maliet. 

a, ^c^u yx&x tf V&H&' 

1870.] Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. 131 

Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography , JVb. L—By 
Babu Prata'pachandra Ghosha, B. A. 

[Received 19th May, 1870; read 1st June, 1370 ] 
Like other subjects of study regarding the Hindus, the history 
of the Bengali language and literature is obscure. There is 
however, no lack of internal evidence to lead if not to an 
accurate at least an approximate idea of the real state of things 
in the earlier days. The science of the history of language 
is of modern date, and even if it had been in existence in 
the days of the rshis and munis of ancient India, their habitual 
silence with regard to history would have added but little to 
our meagre knowledge of the subject. The Muhammadans in 
painting the portrait of a prince give a minute representation of 
the dress and the ornaments, but they scrupulously avoid giving 
any features to the face, which they leave blank, an oval space 
without eyes or nose. The Hindus in the same way are prolix in 
poetical and other irrelevant descriptions, but when they come 
to historical facts, they are studiously silent. A dull description of 
sober and unexaggerated facts is not compatible with their highly 
imaginative and over-poetic disposition. The wonderful and mar- 
vellous is the back-bone of their themes. Exceptions are rare and 
unique, but even in them, foreign influence is not unfrequently seen. 
The inquisitive eye of the antiquarian, however, penetrates the 
thick veil of the marvellous and the hyperbolic, and grasps at once 
the real image. Facts are chained together in the relation of 
cause and effect, and the willing mind with a little labour traces link 
after link, and thus reaches the first cause. Experience of modern 
events in the way of analogy leads much to the elucidation of 
antecedent facts. "Written history may sometimes mislead, but 
internal evidence cannot be altered by the prejudices of contempora- 
neous historians or by the colour of legendary tales. Internal 
evidence, however, is weak on some points. Several dissimilar 
causes sometimes lead to the same or apparently the same conse- 
quence, and considerable judgment and discrimination is therefore 
required "to connect the sequel with its real and only cause. Hasty 

132 Confrihttions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 

generalization and faint analogy are serious impediments to this 
mode of enquiry. Serious consideration and careful weighing of 
the evidence ought always to accompany the tracing up to real 
antecedents and the distinguishing of proper relationship. Paucity 
of language and tho frequent occurrence of synonymous terms cloud 
the real meaning in obscurity, and alliteration in sound is a great 
misleading element in the feminine language of the Bengalis. 

Theories often precede the actual collection of facts, and the 
brilliant ideas once taken hold of, are seldom abandoned till there is 
an absolute dearth in the finding of the most distantly related sup- 
porting facts. Every flutter of the wing or the rustle of the leaves 
is an alarming sound to an imaginative mind. Indeed theories 
are first formed and facts are next collected and twisted and turned 
to suit or to support or prove the foregone conclusions. 

Bengali works earlier than the fourteenth century after Christ 
are not to be met with, and inscriptions and MSS. in the present 
Bengali character scarcely go back earlier. Tradition in this parti- 
cular is silent, so much so that there is no legend pointing directly 
or indirectly to the relation of the Bengali to other languages. The 
compound word Vangahhasha is so recent, that a distinct name of the 
Bengali language cannot be found in earlier works. Abul Fazl 
once uses it, but it is not certain whether any books were then in 
existence in the language. Bdngla is an older term, it stands for 
the name of the country, as well as for the dialects spoken by its 
people. These dialects were numerous in earlier days, and traces of 
their differences may still be seen in the language of obscure villages 
of distant districts. The gradual extension of commercial inter- 
course has introduced changes in the spoken language of the 
people, and differences in accent, pronunciation, and terminals, 
and initials, slowly but steadily disappeared, till all became one and 
identical. Badical changes in the orthography, proper pronun- 
ciation of words, go on increasing till people settle into a habit of 
writing, the inconvenience of the want of which is felt with increas- 
ing intercourse and business. Private, and lengthy messages are 
better sent in writing than by verbal instructions. It is superfluous 
to dwell here on the circumstances and necessities which led to the 
practice of giving ocular shape to the meaning of sounds uttered by 

1870.] Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. 133 

man for conveying his ideas to his fellows. Ocular evidence is 
more easily comprehended, and is less liable to be misundersto ocl 
than auricular ones. Permanent marks or an enduring collection 
of signs conveying ideas are more advantageous and useful than 
temporary and evanescent figures by a move of the hand or 
a nod or a wink. Words are permanently fixed by writing, 
and then they are susceptible of such changes only as the forms 
of the characters admit of. Boughly speaking, however, the 
Bengali language and the Bengali characters are contemporane- 
ous, they are derivations of the Sanscrit and Nagari respectively, 
and the difference between the derivative and the original languages 
is so well proportionate to that between the original and the deriva- 
tive characters, that excepting a few exotics and lately introduced 
foreigners, the progress of the language may be said to be always 
cotemporary with that of the characters. 

The characters, as they are now, are more true to the original 
stock, the Nagari of the Gupta type, from which they have been 
derived, than the language ; and the reason for this difference is 
obvious. The Bengali recension of the Nagari characters is of later 
date than the Bengali recension of the Sanscrit language. Both, 
however, have gradually receded from the original stock, and this 
difference in the degree of divergence in the two, the language and 
the characters, can only be explained by supposing that the charac- 
ters were later adopted than the language. The characters again 
were less frequently used, and this, though true of all the languages 
of the world, speaks of a low state of civilization in the earlier history 
of Bengal. Since the breaking up of the petty Hindu dynasties that 
ruled in Bengal, and the arrival of the Muhammadans in this country, 
it sank into the position of a third class subordinate province. 
Excluded from the sunshine of the Emperors of Delhi and governed 
by everchanging Subahdars and Nawabs, Bengal occupied an 
obscure corner in the empire of Hindustan, and would have dwindled 
into a jungly forest, had not fate brought the Briton to its shores. 
Energy had failed the Bengalis for some centuries, and literature 
was a mere name. 

The signs are about eighty in number, and are therefore quite 
sufficient to represent all the sounds which had to be represented. 

134 Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 

When the people came in contact with the Muhammad ans who 
were then the rulers of the land, sounds like <3, '?, j puzzled the 
people, and they would have been obliged to invent if not now 
letters, at least such modifying signs as to indicate the peculiar 
sounds, had the real pronunciation of the same been preserved. The 
Urdu had occasion to represent the Hindi sound 1* and it soon 
adapted itself. The enervating influence of the climate, however, 
so far affected the Hindus, that soon after the period of the 
Vedas, the big 3R" that guttural sound so much resembling the Ara- 
bic <3 was lost, and not even a trace of its existence could now 
be found except in the very oldest works of Nirukta. It is not 
for me to trace the several shades of change through which the Na- 
gari has passed before it assumed the Bengali form. Suffice it to 
say that the connecting link is the character known as Gaudhja 
found in some inscriptions. 

The language, however, has undergone serious changes, and in 
its way has adopted so many foreign elements, that to eliminate 
them now is more than impossible. As the adoption of foreign 
words to represent new and foreign ideas rests with the common 
people, they are faster adopted and modified in sound than the 
adoption of foreign characters. All new words of a scientific or 
philosophical nature are formed in the laboratories of the learned, 
and the Sanscrit roots are the elements of which they are com- 
pounds. Every nation with which the Bengalis came in contact 
contributed more or less according to the duration of contact, to the 
enrichment of the language. 

The great bulk of the words of the language is Sanscrit, so 
slightly modified that the original Sanscrit words are in many in- 
stances identical with them, and in some may be easily detected, 
there being only three cases in the Bengali and scarcely any varia- 
tion in the terminal modifications of tenses or persons of verbs. 

It is not very far from the truth to say that the Bengali language 
originated in the hearth with the illiterate women of the country, 
whose shortness of breath and ignorance of the laws of grammar 
and untrained tongue and hasty utterance soon modified the original 
Sanscrit into a distinct, coarse and feminine dialect. The Pali and 
the Prakrit are the immediate degenerated descendants of tho 

1870.] Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. 135 

Sanscrit. And to these we must look for a clue to the inexplicable 
forms of modern Bengali words. The Gatha language, however, is 
found useful to explain such cases where the segregation of the 
consonants of a compound and the interposition of an W after "^ 
occur. Thus "STsi is *r?rsr m Gatha, Prakrita and Bengali, ¥W — ST<rsr, 
^^" — sp^ttt, *f^ — *T3"3T. "5T?"^r, ^^ and such forms are evidently 
much older than ^"SST and '<fSr. of which I shall speak hereafter. 
Properly speaking, they are the real Bengali forms of the Sanscrit 
words and these contain in them a more permanent form than 3>"5sr 
and *fSSr which are slang, provincialisms or effects of bad pronun- 
ciation. To the Gatha* may be traced all the variations of the 
verb to be, which the several derivative dialects of the Sanscrit have 
given rise to. Sanscrit ^<rfs is in Gatha C^tfs, in Magadhi C^T1%, 
in Kharikoli C^TC"?T, in Maharashtri ^Tre. in Hindi c^Tsi fc, and in 
Bengali ^?. Can we trace to the Gatha the Bengali case ter- 
minations ? 3*^1% in Gatha is #*(/», ?"W1 is 3"TRC3. The Hindi xfi® 
and the Bengali ^f^C? are derived from the Gatha. VHW., is it 
from the Gatha fsferTWl and Sanscrit gttcsfl ? 

The Pali and the Prakrita were in use as early as the second and 
third centuries before Christ. They have their distinct grammar, 
though in many instances the grammarian has failed to point out the 
reasons for modifications in several words. They have derived all 
their words from the Sanscrit, though many of them have lost the 
original import, and it is difficult to explain how the later meanings 
have arisen. 

Opinions differ as to the proper limits of the Bengali language. 
"With some every Sanscrit word or compound without the case affix 
is Bengali. Others again confine themselves to the more commonly 
used terms. From the general tendency of modern Bengali writers, 
it appears that the former opinion has the greater number of sup- 
porters. With reference to the words imported or derived from 
foreign languages, some writers eliminate them altogether. Thus 
the word CSTT^sfl is rejected by the more orthodox writers, while 
others of a more utilitarian tendency adopt it for the sake of its 
common and frequent use. Indeed it involves a serious linguistic 
question which has yet to be solved. Excepting the slang and the 
• * J. A. S. vol. XXIII. p. 604. 

136 Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 

technical terms of the poorer trade, are words of other than Sanscrit 
origin, used by the people generally, to be considered as legiti- 
mate Bengali or such of them only as are in use in writing by the 
learned and the pedantic ? It must be noted here that the learned 
and the higher classes use in ordinary conversation many words which 
they would not like to see in writing. The discussion has hither- 
to been limited to the use of Persian and Arabic words, but if those 
which have been long incorporated in the language, are to be con- 
sidered as part and parcel of it, surely it cannot be right to condemn 
the use of words which have come into fashion, simply because 
they have been derived from foreign languages other than Persian 
and Arabic. The Bengali language is so very modern, and the 
works written in it are much more so, that the length of the period 
of the use of a particular word cannot be considered an argument 
either for or against its adoption. 

The oldest works in Bengali are the Kavikankana Ohandi, the Chai- 
tani/acharitdmrta, and the abstracts of the Mahdbhdrata and the Rd* 
mdyana. The first two contain a great many words so awkwardly 
distorted that to a Bengali of the present age, they are unintelligible. 
Many of these monstrosities have too much of the Udid and Rddha 
form in them. The refined composition of Bhdratachandra, the 
popular poet of Bengal, who flourished in the beginning of the 
present century, is not free from such barbarisms. The tendency 
of present compositions, however, is towards purity. 

Lexicography in the true sense of the word is unknown in the 
Bengali language. Several dictionaries have been compiled within 
the last sixty years, and only a few can be said to go back still earlier. 
The idea of preparing a dictionary of the Bengali language, and 
that alphabeticaly arranged, was derived from the Europeans, 
who felt the want of it in studying the language. Before the advent 
of Europeans in this country, there was no dictionary, in short no 
literature except a dozen commonplace books. Short vocabularies 
were first formed, and they were in Bengali and English. An exclu- 
sively Bengali dictionary originated with the School Book Society, 
and it was more of an elementary nature than of a comprehensive 
character. Within the last twenty years we have been furnished with 
several volumes of dictionaries of the Bengali language. In the 

1870.] Contributions toicards Vernacular Lexicography . 137 

formation of these, no system or plan has been followed. Princi- 
pally they are compilations from Sanscrit dictionaries, and the com- 
mon colloquial distortions of many Sanscrit and foreign words have 
been inserted, without rhyme or reason, to swell the bulk of the 
work. Indeed so little attention has been given in the selection of 
words, and so little care has been taken in arranging them, that the 
several modifications of a word as pronounced by the illiterate have 
been put in, as so many distinct and independent words. No compiler 
of an English dictionary would dare put in idear as a distinct word 
from idea, though it is so pronounced by many. The compiler of 
a Bengali dictionary, however, puts in the following %T^1, ?fas1, 3Tt5f, 
^5», 3"f3»1, and ?rfsf1 as so many distinct words. Words that have 
not retained the entire Sanscrit form have been by some regarded 
as Prakrit, though such forms are never to be seen in that lan- 
guage and others with equal carelessness been introduced as original 
Bengali. Indeed the negligence is so great, that in one dictionary 
I find the word W^sr (wine) marked as a Prakrit word. 

It is held by some that the language of the aborigines of Bengal 
has largely contributed to the formation of modern Bengali, and 
that though Sanscrit forms the nine-tenth part, or even a greater 
proportion, of the whole bulk of the language ; the case -terminations 
are the relics of the aboriginal Bengalis. This is not the place to 
discuss the origin of the language ; it must, however, be admitted 
that many of the case-terminations can be traced to the Prakrit, 
a derivative of the Sanscrit, and the rest may be explained without 
recourse to fanciful suppositions. 

With these few prefatory remarks on the formation of words in this 
language, I propose to give here a list of derivations which I 
have endeavoured to trace to the Sanscrit or other languages, 
and from time to time in subsequent papers to discuss the genealogy 
of different words. 

In common conversation, it may be observed that the illiterate, 
and especially the women of the lower classes, eliminate the r 3" 
from words which contain it, or insert one in words having none. In 
Prakrit this is arrived at by a more comprehensive rule,* viz., that 
sharp consonant compounds are filed off by the elision of the final 

* Cowell's Prakrit Grammar. 

138 Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 

letter and the reduplication of the second. Thus for ^^g? in Sanscrit, 
we have ^^i in Prakrit, as well in the older dialect Pali ; so for 
^fr-^'Sr ; StTW-^f^r. In short, this application of the laws of eupho- 
ny is to be found in all strong vocalic languages, and in those in 
which pronunciation is slurred, indistinct, and hasty. And though 
we know every educated Bengali calls the mirror in common con- 
versation ^rT3"PT, from ^TW*f, the vulgar pronounce it as ^srnrf*T. 
Some again go so far as to transpose the r and call it 3"f <Tf*T. Simi- 
larly ^IT<R1 becomes ^TT?^1. *f^ is common both to the high and the 
low, though it is derived from Prakrita *n§, Sanscrit c*f1. Here it may 
be noticed that in Prakrit and Bengali, the diphthong vowels ^ and 
^ are simplified into distinct sounds of ^^ and "^^ constituents 
of the compound sound, and sometimes one of these simple sounds 
is even elided, as ^Tf*? in Sanscrit is ^t" in Prakrit, and %i$ in 
Bengali. This elimination of the 3", as in ^t^f^T, is used by the 
very lowest classes. The 7[ is left out in such words as 2JJft*T and 
3Tf3£, and they are in Bengali f*T^*f, f*t^"sr, *f*ft*l, and TT'Jr or 3l*T, 
as also ^Tt^ ^T^T or n5JT3\ The double Tf in f*f5fr*f is evidently 
owing to the rule of pronunciation in Sanscrit, which lays 
down that the consonant preceding a compound is always to 
be doubled ; so also consonants following a visarga. As regards 
3l*f from 3JT3J", in Bengali sf and "5T are generally interchan- 
geable, as c^rrsrijl from ^3"3"«^. The same may be said of $ 
and Tf, T> and \Jj. Compounds of a liquid and an aspirate are gene- 
rally modified in Pali, Prakrit, and Bengali by elision of the former. 
The Sanscrit ^tr becomes ^^ in all three, as also ^PiST, *\*a, and 
^f^gl, ^f^}^1. Here in the derivation of the dialectic form *f*»t we 
find a clue to the custom peculiar in Bengal of pronouncing conso- 
nant compounds of n in a manner so as to give a nasal sound to 
it. The only exceptions to this are ^P*ft?r, "*Tt«TsrcTt, 3"TcTsft3>. In 
Sanscrit and modern Hindustani, the "sr after ff is distinctly pro- 

To the Prakrit many of the Bengal forms may be traced which 
cannot be so easily referred to the Sanscrit. 

Thus the Bengali numerals : — 

1870.] Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. 139 








Such words as 4f*T and <rft*T are evidently derived from 4*ft\*T 

and Tl"ft Vf. In 4^*f the anusvdra is first elided as in ^*t from 

frvtft, and the final vowel of & being elided, it assumes the 

form of 4f^*T (4<^*f). This form is found in Hindustani, 

i which has 4**W for twenty-one. In Bengali, a less masculine 

f and more euphonic language, in the strong sound of hoi the long i 

j is slightly and gradually flattened, till it becomes 4f *T, which again 





140 Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 

by a slight modification becomes ^3>"*f . Indeed, when the Bengalis 
speak amongst themselves, it is very difficult to catch the very flat 
sound of u, which they simply use to connect the consonants ^ 
and *f. 3lt*T is *tft\*f or ^"Tt*T, where W is elided. The numerals 
from fifty-one to fifty- eight are all formations with *fT*, standing for 
fifty and ^, t£ (*1-*T), fo* (fil fl),^J (l>>) &c, preceding. In eu- 
phony *f after &, if, 3", and 5 is harsh, and hence instead of 4 WIST 
we have 4*5TW, *t^t3 f%*«ffa ST^T* <WH{ &c. In f3**fte the *T is 
doubled as the original form fig^ffa had a compound f3f preceding 
*fl^. The Prakrit rule is : before two consonants a long vowel is 
sharpened, and if the long vowel is retained, one of the consonants 
is elided as W>f for Jlltf, ft $t*r for wt-tf, ^ for *J#, and ^«f?T for 
^3", and a short vowel before two consonants is occasionally 
lengthened, and one of the consonants omitted, as lifel for fsi^L The 
Hindustanis, however, have retained the forms ^3>*R\3l?;T^,^* *f3» 
*ti5*f*T. Tne Bengali form «J©t (a group of five) is evidently a 
corruption of the Sanscrit *f$£t ; of such forms as sf!3l,3»T5»r 9 ^'5% &c, 
more hereafter. From the above derivations, it appears that the 
Hindi has derived all its numerals from Prakrit, while the Bengali, 
though not from the Sanscrit direct, yet not from the Prakrit either. 
It has to be decided whether it is justifiable to draw the conclusion 
that Bengali is a language independent of the Prakrit and con- 
temporaneous with it ? But the mass of evidence on the other side 
is so great as to leave no doubt whatever of its drawing largely 
from the Prakrit. That the Bengali is an independent derivative 
of the Sanscrit, is tenable under the supposition that the rules of 
derivation in Bengali are similar to those of the Prakrit. At all 
events the subject is open to discussion. 

Many distortions met with both in Prakrit and Bengali words 
may be traced to the laws of Sandhi of Sanscrit grammar. Thus, 
when an aspirate consonant becomes doubled, one of them becomes 
a simple one. 

Sanscrit ^TFJ, in Prakrit instead of being ^TFCFl is ^t^jnrl, and 
in Bengali ^T$ — so is ^5R*f — ^W3T! — *r«TO, wlfsfol — W$tf?I<l1 — 
fiffsr, \^ x — 5^~~^* Similarly, a simple consonant is changed 
into an aspirate, ^ — "5TC^"1 — "ST^". 

In the Bengali numeral *IT^ derived from 43>, the vowel ^ in 

1870.] Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography, 141 

Prakrit or ^ in Bengali has taken the place of o9. Thus ii}<Pt^ — 
^K^^ — tiic^fl — ^cfl— 'SJT^I. The study of these forms is to Phi- 
lology what the science of Embryology is to Natural History. The 
classification into genera is greatly assisted by the embryonic forms 
which the animals undergo, and it is then only that their resemblance 
to the allied genera or species is most vividly exhibited. The 
other day, some small seedlings of Artocarpus mclicus, the Jack- 
fruit, in my garden threw out leaves so perfectly serrated in the 
manner of those of the bread-fruit, that I was at once struck with 
the similarity, and on exhibiting it to a friend of mine, he observed, 
that though not himself a scientific man to appreciate the close re- 
lation which existed between the two dissimilar leaves, it had always 
been a puzzle to him. Returning to ^rT3» from <43», this form can be 
explained as in Sanscrit Sandhi ; for "3" is formed in the place of v*i and 
there is a rule in Mugdhavodha, stating that the consonants formed 
in places of vowels can again be transformed into those vowels. 
For ^ we get ^r - for $,^ -for |l, $, for ^, cT as also conversely for 
St.— ^, for 3" — i§. It is interesting to note that ^-H^^?! is pronounced 
as ya and \§ + ^ = ^ va. From this it may be observed that the 
sound of <r is not /, but ya, and that the Bengali custom of pro- 
nouncing it as/ is to be traced to the Prakrit where ^nr*f is ^^C3i1 ; 
and though in Yajurveda the <T is always pronounced as/. May we 
hazard a suggestion that since the aboriginal brahmans of Bengal 
were wholly Yajurvedic, they have given to the Bengali the j sound 
of <r ? A learned brahman being asked why j[ in Sanscrit became 
1? in Prakrita, very coolly replied, " It is because the women were so 
much addicted to pan-chewing." Thus again ^IWJ — ^i^f~^Tt®f, — 

It has been noted above that the Sanscrit f%$t?"5j is Ift^s in 
Prakrit. Instances of such breaking up of the particles of a word 
are not rare. They are in conformity with Prakrit rules. Thus 
the Sanscrit Tpfsfs? is in Prakrit ^ ^f%f£rd>1, and 2fT«i is *f?TT«i in 
Bengali and £ftf% is f*f<ftf3, *pf«f srft is *f <r^srR also *rc3"3T *fH?T, 
C2f<T7rT is f*f <TT1? and C^^ is •STC^C^I. Similarly ^ is ET^?1 
in Prakrit and 5T*rv5l in Bengali. cWt^, is ^ft^T, *rT«^ is ^t^"^, 
9 $Je'% is *J1?5T, ^?B, ^Tt?" is ^ei^H^T and ^"^ is ^?JI>, <$?[?{ from $fT*J 
and f^?1 from Prakrit f^foi'S and Sanscrit ^"Ff<]"SJ. 

142 Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 

Then by Sandhi forte consonants are changed into lenes as also 
fortes or lenes of one class into lenes or fortes of another. 

HFC*!! from Prakrita faJTOTI from Sanscrit f>W*T;4t*f3"— 4CWfa\— 

— ^TC3l— ^te, ^Tl% is Hindi, 3^1—^51, 3»3>C\F1— ^3>$re1 — 
fW^, f*r<r— f^Tc^l— f^t? - , ftt-c^tc^1— c<pT&, ^rtsr — *<— 

In many of the above, Hindi forms may be detected, several of 
which point to a greater intimacy with Prakrit than Bengali. The 
Hindi form *Qj1, meaning snb-acid in taste, has a close resemblance 
to «4fT^ meaning to eat. The word appears to have been extended 
to the later meaning snb-acid in taste, as to the Hindustani it is a 
stimulant to eating. The word T5H? ^ literally means that which 
is to be eaten or licked. Its present meaning, however, is a sub-acid 
acrid pie. In Bengali, words are easily contracted and harsh 
sounds often eliminated, ^fofl is from the Prakrit *ferfCffIl from the 
Sanscrit SfaltfT, C^) from ^ and *T*R> from <n^«ft. 

Words ending with a compound consonant and the vowel i, in 
passing from Sanscrit to Prakrit and Bengali generally drop the 
consonant ; as, tfYt from 9ft J%, $rft from srt?t§, <\t from •tfTwf^, "3Tf 

— n^tt— - ^st% ; thus srt"— ^fs?n— ^r<si, sw— ^r^t— ^**t?1%— 
^t^m<il^ w$— wf$— wfV, lj-sr^T^— y^^tt— ^s<r^t*ft, *rt^— 

In compliance with the general rule about the fortes and 
lenes of one class changing into fortes or lenes of another, 
the following changes may be observed ; \S»Tft«l1 — ^Tf^«l1 — wf^L 
The Hindi form C^T*R1 is evidently from the Prakrit C^FT^Tl, 
Sanscrit cWt^Tl. It is important to notice how the original 
meaning has been lost. Again \5tf»to — T?fTfi f T"sr — Jftf^H" are in- 
stances of ^ substituted by ^. The Prakrit has only changed 
the \5 into c? ; such change is still observed in Sanscrit grammar, 
and several Sanscrit words up to the present day are spelt in 
both ways t^i" ^fTf*r is also ^f, and very often the W stands for ?:, 
as inTT*T«. and %T?W As an instance of ^==5T, we have the word 
3^"te (Hindi) from the Prakrit vgvST'G, Sanscrit 5\$T$f. In this 
we find that «>f in Sanscrit is changed to ^3 in Prakrit. But 
most peculiar is the change of v\ into st, and i> into ^. In tracing 

1870.] Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. 


the change of v\ to 9T, we have to suppose an intermediate step 
viz., that of changing it into \$. Now amongst the cerebrals \$ has 
the same value that ?f has amongst the gutturals and, as stated 
before, lenes of one class are changed into lenes of another. Now 
since v£ == «r, and 9f being equal to \£, sf is also equal cf. In the 
change of $f to \g" we have only to notice that the fortis is 
changed into a lenis of the same class. Thus the Sanscrit TjtfrsiwT is 
\F9firsf in Prakrit and Bengali. 

The following is a list of words similarly derived : — 










L ' 




























In deriving Tft^1 from the Sanscrit ff\^l, we observe that the 
Sanscrit T> is changed into \5 in Bengali and T> in Prakrit, and 
that both derivative languages have elided the anusvdra, the 
liquid 7[ after I>, as well as ^, and have instead lengthened the 
vowel into n5jT ; TfT\5l Bengali, *rt^1 Prakrit. 

From the word sj"5 is the Bengali infinitive *T$T1, and "ST^Sl is 
exclusively used to indicate, a dead body. 

In the following the aspirate §, a dental fortis, is changed in- 
to the simple T>, a cerebral fortis. 

In the following, ^ and the liquid <jr are eliminated. 

144 Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 

^^>— ^— -3itT>, 3§— ^— ^,^^1%— ^1 ^1— ^IT^ ^^ft, 
^^^ — ^T^fl'—'^'tTj. Here the sloha for which the poet Kalidasa was 
abused by his spouse may be cited as an example of bad pronuncia- 
tion " %V§ cj**ft% s%\ •%*%} v&n PToST fr*t*r f^WU" 

The following is an instance of a lenis standing for a fortis, viics- 

The aspirate ^ is sometimes found to stand for the aspirate <3- 
$T#t?"sr— sffe?^ — 9fc^?"1 ; and in some instances for of, ^Wlf^f— 
^^ejr — <«^ or 3^ 

Sanscrit Prakrit Bengali 

5$«f1 <»?! 3>sl 

fsrtf*f 3>f§ *Jf§ (Hindi) 

W1 *51 ^T51 (Hindi) 

In Sandhi, ^ takes the place of the palatal *t. But as in Pra- 
krit a great confusion exists between the three ses, we have the 
following — 














The compound W 

is pronounced in 


ways, as ksh, kkh, and 

chchh, i. e., <$^, ^<T V 

and as v%. 

Thus we have : — 



B engali 











5T?r, ^Ts 









In i^Tf , the w is changed according to the rule above mentioned 
into 15 and the liquid ^r is dropped. 

As stated before, such harsh compounds are softened in the 
derivative languages, as — 

1870.] Contributions towards Vrvnacnlar Lexicography, 145 

^^T<* 3TT<J>^ITcJ 

j In the word nffmw , or «ftoT^SF 9 the law of transmutability of letters 
is carried to the maximum : it is evidently a corruption of jft*f*ter, 
where jf is changed to *f, and *f to c*, and lastly c^to^for®; some, 
however, derive it from ^3^ *f?T. 

In some cases, v$ stands for 5, as *pj\ 7[^\ ^TS, and in others for 
$T, as sTT^I from 9j"Wi" — i^t% 

The 3" is changed into $ or ^, as — 

^ In the following <r stands for ^— *>T31 — <rttf <r, ^T?1. In the word 
fasrc the second 3", being 00, is changed into *n in Bengali, fa*T^ 

The following is a list of some words traceable to the Prakrit. 







3^51 eft 

f 3 








<pS[ (:«(«" 




Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 






C3S*tf?T > (Hindi) 




w " 




f%f*f (<p?t) 








<5?$T<r, c«TsiT?r, ret? 




l^ 1 

r <jtEW1 t**r (Hindi) 


towards Vernacu 

?«r Lexicography, 












I? 5 * 











srt^, cto 



sir 9 

























^TTO, ^T*T 


sftsi (Hindi) 















Contributions t 

owarch Vernacul 

«r Lexivoyraphy. [IS 






c?TT«l1 (Hindi) 







c^ 6 ! 


















faafir (Hindi) 


















*r\*7i, *inr 






PW^, *tJT*T 






fa 51, C^51 






«??, c*u<r 

































1870.] Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. 149 

In the following the original meaning has been lost. Thus 
TTC^*t literally means 'information,' and its present meaning is 
a kind of sweetmeat, a confection of chhdna, which is always 
carried by persons sent to enquire after the health of friends and 
relations residing at a distance. Similarly, the word W^. meant to 
enquire, but it now means ' presents of sweetmeats, fruits, clothes, 
&c, made to friends or relatives.' 

Amongst five brothers, the first is designated 3"\5, meaning eldest, 
the second c^rif literally intermediate, the third (WW (is it a derivation 
from the Persian sM/wm=third ?). The fourth is ST, evidently derived 
from ^3"= new, and the last c^TT?. It is interesting to notice how 
the word ^ came to be applied to the fourth of a group consisting 
of more than four members. 

The Sanscrit word *ri> as well as its two derivatives *rft, "5T\51 
are in use in Bengali, but they indicate three distinct objects. The 
"5n> , the original Sanscrit word, is applied to 7 the old form of the water- 
pot now in use, only for religious purposes. "STfft is a metal water-pot 
smaller than the "Wl, andSH#t, C^Tl>1, ^T«"Sn5l. ^1^1%, C^C<Tl, and 
^TTjC^TI are differently formed water-pots. £"5T^t is derived from 
T^5T to kiss, to drink with the lips or rather to sip, £3>\ff a pe- 
culiar sound used for quieting horses by drawing air through tightly 
closed lips. The infinitive issr^fiR is evidently a contraction of 
TpT^it, though some by a slight modification in spelling make it 
lpr<si1, and have tried to derive it from 5T*r?T, and the proverb rfc\5C^ 
l|src?r5TvS3l being misunderstood has caused the idea. 3lT>C*Tl comes 
from tost spherical, the shape of the pot. ^TSff^ appears to be the 
oldest among these, and this form of a pot is out of fashion. It 
means sweetened, and the brim of the vessel being turned into a 
lip, it sweetens as it were the liquid drawn from it. f*Tc^ and C^tT^I 
(c*J1^) both literally mean pieces of stone, their present application, 
however, is to a set of grinding apparatus, the slab of stone is f*T5F 
and the grinding roller C^tSl. ®f$1 again, a derivation of ^ a ma- 
chine, is a pair of circular grinding stones. 

^fsfft and J|T> are from ^"5<f1" and \§fa^ respectively, meaning 
made by one's own hands, and the offals of one's dish. Boiled rice 
is therefore ^iSfvfT, and a remnant of a piece of bread after a part of it 
has been eaten is j\^ (^1 in Hindi). 


Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography. [No. 2, 

cffvSl, as stated before, is a corruption of the Sanscrit ^>^, a 
water-snake. It is now used to indicate the innocuous water-snake 
as well as a powerless man. <&]*i\5 comes from 3»T*fT*T, cotton, and 
here the material has given name to the cloth made from it. Its 
present signification, however, is more extensive. It is in Bengali 
a generic term for cloth. $f3t means that which is washed, and as 
the piece of cloth round the waist of a Bengali is the only part of his 
dress which he has to change about four times or oftener in a 
day, that piece of cloth is by par excellence called ^f\. ^"31 comes 
from *£5 a thread. It is now used exclusively to represent cotton 
thread, and cloth made of cotton is *jret?T 3>T*T ?, as distinguished 
from C?T"CT?r <$t*fv5. 

^[31 is C®T\51 in Hindi, and appears to be part of the Sanscrit 
word Trfft *TTTf3?1, a pair of shoes. 

"^fa1 means cassien of milk, separated by boiling it with an acid. 
It is derived from f%% to break up, to tear asunder, and the com- 
pound dt)5l w% supports this derivation. 

fl>C^?T ^Tiffa" (Chinese almond), tt^TTt% ^jsnpl (English gourd), 
£"WT>t ^tt% (Guzrat elephant), appear to be misnomers. The first 
is no more an almond than it is Chinese. Its more rustic name 
is 3TtT>*T?tsr or srTl> ^ft" (field almond, or field lentils), which ex- 
presses its nature better than the other term. The 13©Tlf5 <5F*T$1 
is called t^tf^, because crews of vessels store them up before they 
leave the port for the sea, as it can be preserved as long as the 
potatoe without getting rotten. The name, however, may mislead, 
were we to consider it as an introduced fruit, as also the word f^cTt1% 
«d> (Indiarubber tree). The Hindi word *T*pf?r ^"Sq^l (traveller's 
gourd) is a clue to its origin. The people of obscure villages have 
preserved its real name fsrc^^nsl, sweet-gourd. 

C^vSl and C5<|r1, as stated above, are both derived from the Sanscrit 
f^rw, but CW5\ in Bengali is ' to tear,' and C5?T1 is to divide lon- 
gitudinally. Thus the slit of a pen is its ft<jT. tpfi>1, ^ft c*pTT>1j 
TpTj-^wtT^ are derivatives of the Sanscrit *$$$. *pTt>1 to crack, 
C*FIT>1 to boil, as also to break by frying, as in lpl>^f^, a kind 
of lentil that cracks when fried. Tpff is a cucumber which bursts 
when ripe. 

1870.] Contributions towards Vernacular Lexicography . 151 

W3>$^ and *t$f\$ are derived from *T^T> , which word is also in 
use in Bengali. W^3>^ in Bengali is a hackney — carriage, and *fsff 
a cart on two wheels drawn by bullocks. 

I will conclude this my first paper on vernacular derivations with 
a few words derived from the modern European languages. 

From the Portuguese, *ftfj, ^T"5?T, C^fT?r1, VX%M\ and i^Tfo 

From the French, ^T^5<?^ {pain = bread). 

From the English, ^rt^T^, ^fffi, If®?, "fcf^fiprfil*!, 1%T> , *R*[T>, 
f^T>, ^T^IT, and ^T«ft»T. 





No. III.— 1870. 

Extracts from letters addressed by the Rev. T. Foulkes, Chaplain of 
Vepery, to the Chief Secretary to Government, Fort St. George, dated 
29th May, and 26th June, 1869, regardiny three sets of Copper 
Sasanams discovered in the Vizagapatam Districts* 

11 1 have the honor to return the three sets of copper-plates and 
the package of printed impressions, together with the letters of the 
Collectors of Vizagapatam and Nellore, which were sent to me with 
that memorandum, and to send herewith, a translation, of the oldest 
of the three copper-plate inscriptions which accompanied that letter. 
11 In referring to these copper-plate sets in this letter, I will call 
them No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, in the order of their date. 

" No. 1, which may be distinguished by its thinner plates, and 

the greater boldness of the characters inscribed on them, is a grant 

of a village called Kalvakonda, in the district of Dimila, made by 

! Vishnu Vardhana Maharaja to two brahman brothers, Vishnu 

! Sharmma and Madhava Sharmma, to be converted into a brahman 

| settlement, in commemoration of an eclipse of the moon. 

* Published in the Journal by order of the Council. Impressions taken 
' from the three Sasanams described by the Eev. Mr. Foulkes, as also a large 
I set of impressions of other copper Sasanams in the Central Museum, Madras, 
! have been received from the Madras Government through the Government of 
i India, and are now preserved in the Society's Library. The Editor. 


154 Notes on Three Copper Sasanams. [No. 3, 

" Several princes of the name of Vishnu Vardhana have reign- 
ed in Southern India ; but the present grantor is identified in these 
plates as the younger brother of Satyashraya of the Chalukya dy- 

" This dynasty was founded by Jaya Sinha, who invaded the Dec- 
can about the beginning of the fifth century, A. D., but was defeat- 
ed by Trilochana, king of the Pallavas, who were then the domi- 
nant race in those parts. Jaya Sinha' s posthumous son, Vishnu 
Vardhana, subsequently reversed his father's misfortune, and esta- 
blished himself in the kingdom of Kuntala, the capital of which 
was Kalyan, which still exists in the neighbourhood of Beder in 
the Nizam's territory, where his descendants reigned down to 
the close of the twelfth century, A. D. His great-grandson, 
Kirtti Varmma, had two sons, Satyashraya, who succeeded to the 
throne of Kalyan, and Vishnu Vardhana, the donor of inscription 
No. 1. 

" On the death of Kirtti Varmma, there appears to have been 
some political disorder at Kalyan ; for Satyashraya did not succeed 
his father until after his uncle, Mangalisa, had reigned for some 
time. It was probably in consequence of this usurpation, that the 
younger son, the grantor of No. 1, was induced to push his o^ 
fortunes at a distance from the scene of the family troubles. What- 
ever may have been the cause of the emigration, this Vishm 
Vardhana, who is surnamed Kubja, or Little, went eastwards inl 
the Telugu districts below the ghauts, and conquered Vengiparai 
the capital of the country, between the rivers Grodavery and Kistm 
and founded the dynasty of the Western Chalukyas, whose capita 
was subsequently fixed at Rajahmundry, and whose territory ulti- 
mately extended from Ganjam to Nellore, over which they reign* 
down to the latter half of the eleventh century A. D. 

" The Agraharam of Kalavakonda which was bestowed by grant 
No. 1, appears to have been swept away during this long interval, 
or its name has been changed. I have made several inquiries 
about it, from persons acquainted with the neighbourhood of its 
probable site, but unsuccessfully. 

(i My search for Diniila, the district in which this village was 
situated, has been more successful. The Collector of Vizagapatain 

1870.] Notes on Three Copper Sasanams. 155 

lias been kind enough to make inquiries for me in his district, and 
I have received the following letter from him : — 

' Vizagapatam, I2tk May, 1869. 

' After making all inquiries on the subject of your letter of the 
4th March, I regret to be unable to assist you in your researches. 
The Sasanam in question was found near the village of Cheeparu- 
pilli, but there are no traces in the neighbourhood of any Agraha- 
ram called Kalvakondah. 

' There is a village called Dimila in the talook of Sarvassiddy, 
about five miles from the coast, and about eighty-five miles to the 
south of Cheepurupilli, which at one time was of more importance 
than now, and may have been the head-quarters of a district.' 

"The present grant is not dated, but the period of Vishnu 
Vardhanna's conquests is ascertainable from other sources. A 
grant made by his grandfather Pulakesi, which is in the British 
Museum, bears the date 411 of Salivahana's era, corresponding with 
489, A. D., and a similar grant by his own brother, Satyashraya, is 
in the possession of a Jaina Guru at Haidarabad, and bears the 
date 534 of Salivahana, or A. D. 612. The date of No. 1 may 
thus be fixed about the beginning of the 7th century A. D., and 
this set of copper-plates will, therefore, be about twelve hundred 
years old. 

" The language of this grant is Sanscrit, and the character in 
which it is written, is a developed form of that which is found in 
the inscriptions on the topes and caves of Central and Western 

11 It appears from Mr. Master's letter to Government of the 30th 
October, 1867, forwarding these copper-plates, that he had ' tried 
every means of deciphering the characters by sending them to some 
of the learned Pundits in the Maharaja of Vizianagram's service, 
but without success.' Before attempting to decipher the plates 
myself, I also similarly tried to find some one in Madras or the 
neighbourhood who could read this character ; and I have been 
equally unsuccessful. It is much to be regretted, that this and 
other cognate ancient alphabets of India, should have become so 
generally a dead letter, and that consequently the inscriptions on 
grants like the present one, and on the walls of temples, &c, should 

156 Notes on Three Copper Sasanams. [No. 3, 

be incapable of being read by learned natives, who could most 
readily turn these almost solitary memorials of the ancient history 
of their country to proper account. 

" Plates No. 2, and No. 3, are similar grants of villages to 
brahmans. Both of them are written in the Sanscrit language, and 
the mixed characters used in them are of two somewhat later forms 
of that in which No. 1 is written ; but the engraving of No. 2 and 
No. 3, is of an inferior kind and carelessly done, and, therefore, 
the forms of some of the letters cannot always be fixed with cer- 
tainty. Several of the letters are also partially or wholly obliter- 
ated. Some of the letters of the Devanagari character are intro- 
duced in these two grants, while the corresponding letters of the 
c cave alphabet,' seem to be quite familiar to the engraver. This 
seems to show that, at the time when these grants were made, the 
Devanagari alphabet was growing into use, but had not yet super- 
seded the older characters. 

" No. 2, which is the shorter of the two inscriptions on the 
thicker plates, having only three sides of writing, is a grant of a 
village, the name of which I have not been able to make out, by 
Shri Ananta Varmma Deva, the son of Shri Jaya Varmma Deva, 
to a brahman named Vishnu Sharmma of the Gautama Jatra, to 
commemorate an eclipse of the moon. 

" No. 3, is a similar grant of the village of Pankipachri to 
Ajyashthamayya Sharmma, the son of Susugaya Sharmma, of the 
Sohita G-otra, by Shri Rajendra Yarmma Deva Raja, the son of 
Ananta Yarmma Deva, (the donor of No. 2,) the son of Jaya Yarm- 
ma Deva, to commemorate an eclipse of the sun. 

"I have not been able to identify the series of princes here 
named. A king of the name of Jaya Yarmma Deva, the only one 
of this name which I can find, reigned in Malwa in A. D., 1143 J 
but his pedigree does not correspond with that of these grants. 
1 Deva Raja' was a common title of one of the dynasties of the 
Orissa princes ; but the donors of these grants are not amongst 

Translation of Inscription JVo. 1. 

Prosperity. The royal moon risen above the ocean of the 
glorious Chalakya race, whose two lotus-like feet glitter with the 

1870.] Notes on Three Copper Sasanams. 157 

radiance of the gems of the crown of rival kings bowing clown 
before him like creeping plants, defeated by his frowns, is the illus- 
trious Satyashraya Yallabha Maharaja. 

His beloved younger brother, the surmounter of difficulties, who 
has succeeded in penetrating inaccessible fortresses situated in the 
midst of plains, lakes, forests, and mountains ; the cow of plenty, 
raining down showers of wealth upon distressed and poverty- 
stricken brahmans ; the crocodile bannered one, (the Hindu Cupid,) 
who by his beautiful form inspires young maidens with love ; the 
destroyer of the spirit of misery, (Kali) drowning it in the whirl- 
pools of the ocean of his benefactions ; adorned with unsullied and 
highly distinguished glory arising out of its many wars and con- 
quests ; reverenced throughout the world like Manu, full of renown 
like Prithu, and accounted wise as Yrihaspati ; an orthodox wor- 
shipper of supreme Brahma, the illustrious Vishnu Vardhana 
Maharaja issues his commands in this present matter to the assem- 
bled heads of families inhabiting the village of Kalvakonda, in the 
district of Dimila, as follows : — 

In order to promote his own religious merit, length of days, 
good health, and fame, on account of the eclipse of the moon which 
took place in the month of July, the above-named village has been 
granted to Vishnu Sharmma and Madhava Sharmma of the Gautama 
tribe and the Jaittiriva sect, of the village of Chejhuplara in the 
district of Plaiki, learned in the Vedas, Vedangas, Itikasas, Pura- 
nas, Dharma Shastras, and many other technical books, the sons 
of Durga Sharmma, zealous in the performance of the rites of his 
order as prescribed in his own section of the Veda which he has 
thoroughly studied, and the grandsons of Brahma Sharmma, a 
successful student of the Vedas and Vedangas, to be converted 
into a brahman settlement (Agraphara) free of all taxes. 

Let no one molest them in the enjoyment of it ; in accordance 
with the following two verses of the Jyana Gita : 

First, Lands have been bestowed by many persons ; 

By many also they have continued to be protected ; 
Whosoever and whatsoever those lands may have been, 
He has obtained a corresponding reward. 

158 Antiquities of the Cuttach Hills. [No. 

Secondly, The bestower of land shall be happy in heaven, 
For sixty thousand years : 
And both he who resumes it, 
And he who concurs in the act, 
Must dwell in hell for the same number of years. 

Notes on the Antiquities of the Nalti, the Assia, and the Mahdbindyaha 
hills of Cuttach. — By Bdbu Chandras'ekhara Banurji, Deputy 
Magistrate, Jdjapur. 

[Read 3rd August, 1870.] 

The following notes are taken from my diary of an official tour 
during the last cold weather, when I had scarcely any leisure to 
devote to antiquarian researches. My object in putting them 
together, is more to stimulate, than to satisfy, the curiosity of the 
reader regarding a few of the out-of-the-way antiquities of a dis- 
trict which has been, for the last two thousand years, famous for its 
peculiar architecture and unrivalled temples. 

The ruins inspected, occur on the summits of three ranges of 
hills, two of which are situate in the centre of the district, and the 
other on its western border. The names which the natives give 
to these ranges are — (1) Assia (marked Assiah in the maps). (2) 
Nalti, and (3) Mahabinayaka. 

The Assia range runs in a south-easterly direction in the 
'Alamgir estate of Parganah A'lti, throwing out spurs towards 
the west and the east. Near the centre of the range, there is 
an open space, lower than the surrounding heights, and which 
communicates with the plains towards the east. This passage 
forms, as it were, the key to the fortified places on the peaks. 
The rangs is accessible from the village of Bar-chana on the Trunk 
Eoad, and is about 27 miles to the N. E. of Cuttack. 

The Nalti Hill is merely a spur of the Assia range, but is 
separated from the latter by the stream of the Birupa, which flows 
between them ; the hill stands on the north-western borders of the 
Matcadnagar parganah. 

1870.] Antiquities of the Cuttack Hills. 159 

The Mahabinayaka Hill lias also another name, Barunibanta. 
This is the high hill of Qil'ah Darpan which, in almost all weathers, 
is visible from the banks of the Mahanadi near Cuttack. 

Ndlti Girt. The name Nalti is said to be merely a corruption 
of the Arabic word la'nat (o^*J) or " curse," so named from a tra- 
dition hereafter detailed. The hill has two peaks of unequal 
height, bearing little vegetation, except a few sandal trees, being 
the only places in Orissa where that valuable plant is met with. 
On the lower peak, I found the ruins of two very ancient struc- 
tures, placed at the distance of about four hundred yards from each 
other. One of these stands on a bold prominence, the heads and 
sides of the rocks around being bald, moss-covered, and jagged. The 
ruins appear to be the remains of an old Buddhist temple ; they con- 
sist of massive slabs of granite whitened with age. The ' ' mandapa' ' 
or porch, is a complete ruin, portions of monolithic pillars 7 to 8 
feet in height, only standing on the corners of the basement with the 
figure of a Hindu (?) god cut in the pedestal of one. The structure 
had been raised on a substantial foundation, and it is probable 
that some other force than the wasting influence of time only, has 
been at work to pull it down. This appears the more probable 
from the ruins of a Musalman's tomb standing by, perhaps built 
from the debris of the more ancient building. 

The other structure, which stands on the pass between the two 

j peaks, was built on precisely the same plan as the first, consisting 

of a porch and a cella, surmounted by a small pyramidal tower. 

This is in a better state of preservation. The roof of the porch 

has given way, but that of the cella still stands. It has no 

i columns, and is formed of solid walls with niches in the interior 

| for the figures of Buddha or " Ananta Purushottama," as the people 

, on the spot call them. The figures are all erect, about five feet in 

j height, holding in the left hand a lotus with a long stem, cut in 

' high relief. The other hand is mutilated ; so is the nose. The 

! eyes have all a meek expression, and the curled hair is tied with a 

I fillet round the middle of the head. The ears, breast, arms, 

I and wrist have ornaments similar to those of the figures in the 

( Bhubanesvar and other old temples of Orissa ; the style of their 

| execution point clearly to the same age and the same state of the 

160 Antiquities of the Cuttack Hills. [No. 3, 

art. There are inscriptions on the stone behind the shoulders, 
and in one instance near the feet. I found it difficult either to 
decipher or to copy them, but I thought the style of writing to be 
the same as I found in another part of the hill and which will be 
noticed below. In front of this temple, there is a brick pillar. It 
is round, but encircled at places by raised rings, and has also small 
niches, and projecting bricks intended for ascension. 

On the higher peak and on the highest point of the Nalti Griri, 
at an elevation of about 1000 feet above the surrounding country, 
I found the ruins of a round building. Three circular layers of 
stone are alone to be seen now, which formed the base of the 
temple. In the middle of this platform, there are traces of three 
other layers, and a number of cut stones lie scattered round it, 
among which I found a slab, bearing an inscription often lines. I 
had not time enough to copy the inscription, but I found no diffi- 
culty in removing it to my tent, and hope to submit it to the Society 

About five hundred feet below the above point on the western 
slope of the hill, there is a place called the " Hathi-khal" or the 
elephant hole or cave. I have no doubt there was formerly a large 
cave cut in the rock at this place, the roof of which must have 
come down, the hill itself having been disturbed by an earthquake 
whence the tradition at this place of its being cursed. I saw six 
figures of Buddha of the same size and height, standing in a line, 
portions of their legs up to the knee having gone down or been 
filled up by the fall of the cave, in front of which they must origi- 
nally have stood. These figures are four feet in height (from knee 
to head) and cut in slabs of sandstone, two feet three inches in 
breadth. They appeared to be very old, and enveloped in milk- 
white moss that had very nearly filled up the lines of an 
inscription which, after some difficulty, I succeeded in recovering 
from one of the slabs. The inscription contains the Buddhist 
creed Ye dharmaVhetu, &c, in the Kutila character. 

A few yards from the above figures I found a broken pedestal 
ornamented with two lions-couchant with a lotus in the middle, on 
which a Devi was sitting whose feet and dress up to the waist 
only were visible. The pedestal is elegantly cut and exhibits a 

1870.] Antiquities of the Cuttach Hills. 161 

good style of art. There can be no doubt that more images are 
concealed in the brushwood and jungle around. 

The people in the vicinity informed me that the images and the 
temples on the Nalti hill had been constructed by Raja Bashokalpa ; 
but I should think, that was an attempt to transfer the tradition of 
another (the Chulia) hill, and localise it in this place. The inscrip- 
tion, being unmistakably Buddhist, leaves no doubt as to the origin 
of the shrine. 

Evident traces of buildings, scattered bricks, broken capitals, 
cornices, and images of gods with inscriptions now daubed with 
vermilion by the villagers, lie scattered on and at the foot of the 
hill, which clearly shew that a better people once lived there than 
those who at present inhabit it. 

Assia Giri. These hills cover a larger extent of the country 
than any other in the district. The locality is now known as 
'Alamgir, a name given to it by its Muhammadan conquerors. The 
ancient Hindu name was Chatushpitha, subsequently corrupted 
into Chdr-pulie, or the "four seats" or " shrines, " and was so 
called after the four highest peaks of the chain. One of these 
peaks, which overlooks the stream of the Birupa, is now known 
as the 'A'lamgir hill, on which stands a mosque on the summit 
of a precipice, about 2,500 feet above the level of the country, 
one of the most prominent and commanding spots in Orissa; 
The mosque is a plain building, consisting of a single room, 
29 X 19 X 9*4, surmounted by a dome, and bearing an inscription 
of three couplets in Persian engraved on three slabs of black 
chlorite which form the freize. 

The inscription has been partly read by Mr. J. Beames, and from 
his reading, it would appear that the Tdrikh of the Mosque is given 
in the words 

Rashk i Firdaus i barm. 
1 It vies with Paradise.' 
The sum obtained by adding the numerical values of the letters 
composing the Tdrikh is 1132 of the Hijra era, corresponding with 
A. D. 1719-20, when Shuja'uddin reigned in Orissa as Deputy 
of Nawab Murshid Quli Khan. 

162 Antiquities of He Cuttach Rills. [No. 3, 

The tradition connected with the building of the mosque runs as 
follows : — 

Once upon a time the prophet Muhammad was winging his way in 
mid-air on his celestial throne, with a large retinue. When the hour 
for prayer arrived, he alighted on Nalti Giri. The throne was too 
heavy for the hill, and the hill too small for the retinue. Hence the 
hill commenced to shake and sink. The prophet got annoyed, pro- 
nounced a IcCnat, or curse on it, and repaired to the more elevated 
and spacious mount of Char-pitha, on the precipitous rock, where 
the mosque now stands. There he addressed his prayer, and the 
print of his knees and fingers are pointed out on the stone which 
is preserved in the shrine. His followers rested on the four peaks. 
No water being accessible on the hill, Muhammad struck the rock 
with his wand, and a bubbling spring of pure water at once rose 
up ; traces of which are still shewn to pilgrims. A darvish, by 
virtue of his prayers, came to know this sacred spot, went up to it, 
and, on a lOiirni tree which stood close by and still stands, 
hoisted the prophet's flag made of his handkerchief. 

When Shuja'uddm was marching to Cuttack, ho was encamped 
at Erakpur, whence he heard the voice of prayer chanted on the 
top of the hill at the distance of six miles. The followers of Shuja' 
became anxious to visit the shrine, but he dissuaded them, taking 
the vow at the same time to come back, and pray on the spot with 
them, should his march prove successful. Successful it proved. 
Shuja' returned, made the road of about two miles in length up the 
hill on foot, through one of its easy slopes, and built the mosque 
which still bears his inscription. 

The mosque faces the East. In front there is a platform sur- 
rounded by a thick wall with a gate. Towards the west, high 
and rough rocks overlook the building. But to its north, a high 
terrace has been raised for the reception of darvishes and 

The tradition narrated above, may be construed merely to refer 
to the conquest of the Moslem over Hinduism, the demolition of 
Hindu temples, the mutilation of Hindu gods and goddesses, and the 
reduction of the Hindu supremacy on the Nalti hill by the followers 
of the prophet, and the hoisting of the prophet's flag on a rival and 

1 870.] Antiquities of the CuttacTc Hills. 163 

more elevated spot, perhaps already sanctified by the residence of a 
pious Musakaan : the old name Nalati affording- an easy transition 
to Wnat. But whatever might have been the origin of the tradition, 
the popular belief still remains, that the bald and barren Nalti Giri 
is a cursed hill, and the prophet still reigns on 'Alamgir. The 
expense of the shrine is covered by the profit of sixty acres of land, 
endowed by Shuja'udclin. The mosque is lighted every evening, 
the rocks resound with the voice of prayer every morning and 
evening, and the people in the neighbourhood, both Hindu and 
Moslem, offer homage at the shrine. 

The Hindu name of the 'Alamgir peak was Ilandaha, from the 
village of that name at its foot, where the manda or the primitive 
system of ordeal by fire or boiled oil, &c, was held during the 
Hindu period. 

JJdaya Giri. This is one of the Char-pitha or four peaks of the Assia 
group. The spur on which old ruins are found, is an elevated ter- 
race, sloping from one hundred and fifty feet above, to the level of 
the plain. It is situated towards the north-eastern extremity of the 
group, surrounded by a semicircular range of pointed boulders, 
leaving an opening towards the east. On the latter side it overlooks 
the Kalia river, which runs about two hundred yards from its base. 
It appears that this, the only side from which it was accessible from 
the plain, was at one time protected by an entrenchment cut in the 
rocks from precipice to precipice. It was appropriately termed 
Udaya Giri or the " Sunrise Hill," from its being the most eastern 
extremity of the group and of the Cuttack district. At one time 
the sea, according to local tradition, laved its foot. This tra- 
dition is still preserved in a saying which the Uriyas repeat, to 
signify an impossibility : " You cannot expect it. The sea is now 
far off from Udaya Giri," The soil beyond the Udaya Giri is pure 
alluvion. Between it and the sea, scarcely a stone can be seen. The 
country is a flat, arid, sandy plain, in most places devoid of all 
vegetation, and the tradition, therefore, appears very probable. 
The more so, as it receives peculiar support from two passages in 
Messrs. W. T. and H. F. Blanford and W. Theobald's Eeport on 
the Talcheer Coal Field. " From this plain, the alluvion from 
the coast to the foot of the hills in Cuttack," say those gentlemen, 

164 Antiquities of the Cvttack Hills. [No. 3, 

small isolated and steep hills rise in a few places to the north 
of Outtack and, taken in connection with the bosses and whale-back 
ridges which stud the surrounding country, present all the features 
of an upraised archipelago, and lead to the belief, that, at no very 
remote geological period, the water of the western portion of the Bay 
of Bengal dashed against many a rugged cliff, and rolled around 
clusters of islands which studded over what is now the Province of 
Cuttack : indeed a comparatively trifling depression of the country 
might reproduce the same phenomena." In a subsequent part of 
their report, they state " around the gneiss hills which have been 
mentioned as rising suddenly from the alluvial plain, a quantity of 
water-worn pebbles are always found, evidently the remains of an 
old beach. Although, owing to weathering, these pebbles have 
somewhat lost their rounded form and smooth surface, yet this 
mode of occurrence and the absence of large angular blocks, prove 
that they are of beach origin, and not merely rolled from the 

It must be added, however, that what the men of science suppose 
to have accrued at a former geological period, the tradition brings 
within the history of man. Anyhow the table-land of Udaya 
Giri must have been peculiarly adapted to the Buddhists for a 
sanctuary ; a variety of hills and dales, green-woods and plains, 
a limpid stream in front, combined with the solitude of the place, 
amply inspiring a devotional feeling, " the vision and the faculty 

At the foot of the hill, the eye is caught by a colossal image of 
Buddha, half covered in jungle, and a portion buried under the earth. 
It is fully nine feet in height, the length from the knee to the head 
being seven feet. The figure is cut in high relief on a single slab of 
rough chlorite, holding a large lotus in the left hand ; the nose and 
the right hand are mutilated. The ear, arms, wrist, and breast are 
decorated with ornaments, and the cloth round the waist is fastened 
with three chains answering to the gote of the present day, worn 
tight like a belt. The breast-plate furnishes an excellent pattern, 
more elegant than any that I remember to have seen in the 

* Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, I. pp. 33 and 70. 

1870.] Antiquities of the Ctdtack Hills. 165 

Bhuvanesvara, Khanda Giri, or any other temple in Orissa. 
Between this image and the Bapi or large well, situated about 
fifty feet higher up the ground, the place is spread with the 
ruins of ancient edifices, the ground plans of which may still be 

Passing over the ruins we come to the Bapi or well cut in the 
rock. The Swarga Ganga on the Khanda Giri hill is insignificant 
compared to this reservoir. It is 23 feet square, cut 28 feet deep 
from the top of the rock to the water's edge, surrounded by a stone 
terrace, 94 feet 6 inches long, and 38 feet 11 inches broad. The 
entrance to the terrace is guarded by two monolithic pillars, the 
tops of which are broken. The edge of the well and the extremity 
of the terrace are lined with battlements of large blocks of 
wrought stone, rounded on the top, and three feet in height, 
leaving a wide passage or walk behind. The well is situated 
towards the southern extremity of the terrace. From the north 
and in the middle of the terrace, a few yards off the en- 
trance, a flight of steps (3 feet in breadth, and 31 in number) 
runs down the rock as an approach to the water. The rock be- 
tween the lowest step and the well has been cut into an arch, and 
on its face there is an inscription of which a transcript is given 
below — 

The same inscription appears in another part of the rock on the 
right side of the steps, and also on the eastern wall of the terrace. 
The rock appears to have been quarried, marks of the chisel 
being evident ; but I should suppose from the cracks and smoky 
stains on the rock down the well, that fire or some other force was 
also used to split it. 

About fifty feet higher up in the jungle, there is another platform 
on which once stood a sanctuary of Buddha. Numbers of images 
of gods and goddesses, engraven on slabs of different shapes, are 
scattered around. A group, with the heads and arms mutilated, 
is still worshipped by the people who had succeeded in effacing 
all trace of its original character, by painting the figures with 
repeated layers of vermillion and turmeric. These images, no 


Antiquities of the Cuff ad- Hills. 

[No. S, 

doubt, belong to a subsequent period, when Buddhism hail lost its 
influence, and was passing into Brahmanisni. The chief interest 
of the place, however, lies in the ruins of a gate and the figure of a 
Buddha. The place was so enveloped in jungle, and the ruins so 
buried in earth, that it was difficult for me to form an idea of the 
edifice which once stood there, but from the gate in front and the 
rock in the rear to which the figure of Buddha is engaged, I 
have little doubt that the sanctuary was partly constructed and 
partly excavated. ■ 

The Gate is composed of three heavy rectangular blocks of 
stone. One of them is placed transversely over the other two, to 
form an entablature. The height of the gate, omitting the 
portion that has been buried by accumulation of rubbish, is 7 feet 
8 inches. 

The upright blocks have been cut into five bands highly ornament- 
ed with sculpture, which appears fresh and sharp as if just cut by 
the chisel. The innermost band contains wreaths of the true lotus 
{Nelumbium speciomm). There are altogether 12 groups of the 
flower. The second band is divided into 
pannels, bearing male and female figures 
in armour. The middle one contains a 
wreath of flowers. On the fourth band 
there is a continuous winding wreath, 
encircling figures of men and women. The 
last or the outermost band is a wreath 
of large flowers of great beauty. The 
middle band is capped by a capital, of 
which a rough sketch is shewn in the 

The architrave and the freize are em- 
bellished with a great number of grotesque 
figures. On the middle of the frieze, there 
are two niches containing figures of Buddha, In the middle of the 
architrave, another figure of Buddha appears, over whose head two 
elephants twist and wave their trunks from opposite sides. On 
both sides of the group, small, grotesque male and female figures 
have been cut into the form of a wreath ; the waving hand and 

1870. J Antiquities of tlie Cuttach Sills. 167 

forefinger of eacli touching a point on the shoulder of the figure 
preceding, and the toe placed on the projected knee of the one 

I am disposed to think that this gate was provided with doors. 
There are two big holes in the corners, which were no doubt intend- 
ed to receive the hinges. 

The image of BudUa. About 16 feet beyond the gate, behind a 
narrow passage blocked up by brambles, I came to a cell, 9 feet 
square and as many feet deep. In this a large image of Buddha is 
placed in a sitting and meditating posture. It is 5 feet, 6 inches 
long from waist to head. The face itself is 1-6 by 1-5, and the 
breast, 3 feet 6 inches broad. It is made of three pieces of 
bluish chlorite. The head is formed of one piece, the neck down 
to the breast of another, and all below of a third. The joints have 
cracked a little now, but they could not originally have been dis- 
cerned. I paid a passing visit to this image, nearly three years ago, 
when employed in enquiries connected with the late famine, but I 
do not remember to have then observed these joints. The rock 
behind the image has been smoothed with layers of small bricks. 
There are four huge stone pillars, two standing near the cell, and 
two near the gate, which must have at one time supported a roof and 
formed a porch in front of the cell. 

There is an expression of strength and boldness about the 
straight gait and broad breast of the image which contrasts stri- 
kingly with the meekness of the eyes. The left arm has been 
placed carelessly over the thigh, the palm being visible ; the right 
hand has been mutilated ; so is the nose. 

Scarcely one image was met with on these hills, which had 
escaped the ravages either of time or of fanaticism. The tradition 
regarding the mutilation of the nose, is the same everywhere. Ask 
the humblest Uriya of the cause, and the reply is : "it drop- 
ped at the sound of Kalapahar's kettle-drum," thus significantly 
pointing out the origin, but superstitiously veiling the manner of 
its destruction. One thing, however, is certain, that there is no 
spot in Orissa, however remote or secluded, to which the arms of 
the Moslem conquest did not reach, or which did not suffer from 
its ruinous influence. The lover of antiquity cannot turn to these 

168 Antiquities of the Cuttack Hills. [No. 3, 

images, without wishing confusion on the Moslem banner, and ruin 
on those fanatic hands which raised it. 

The two other peaks of the Char-pitha are Achala Basanta or 
"Eternal Spring," so named, perhaps, from the luxuriance of its 
ever-green trees and flowers ; and the JBaro Dehi, or " seat of the 

At the foot of Acliala Basanta lie scattered the ruins of 
Majlii Pura, the residence of the brethren and the relatives 
of the old hill-chief. Dilapidated remains of old gates, stone 
platforms, and broken walls are all that are now visible : they do 
not suffice to give any idea of the size of the original edifice. 

The Baro Dehi, or the seat of the chieftain, is at the foot of 
the highest peak. There are the ruins of an old fort in the jungle, 
which I had not an opportunity to visit, but the tradition connected 
with it, as given to me by a native, runs as follows : — 

In olden time, the fort was held by a chief who was a washerman 
by caste. From Khalicoti (Calicut) in the far south, came an out- 
law, by name Lokanath Bhumija. He besieged the fort by night, 
surprised the old chief, put him with his family to the sword, and 
established his sway over the hills. He then assumed the name of 
Bali from the fact of his having taken possession of Baro Dehi by 
mere bal, or strength, a name yet retained by his family. During 
the Musalman and Mahratta periods, the hill estate of ' Alain gir 
ranked among the QiVlahjdts of the permanently settled estates 
of Cuttack. At the time of British settlement, the Raja proved 
recusant from a mistaken notion of his own superiority, and the 
estate was therefore included within the Mughalbandi, or revenue- 
paying temporary settled estates. It is stated that the Raja 
subsequently made his submission, but his title could not be 
recognised by the Settlement Commissioner as his title-deed ap- 
peared to be suspicious. The 'Alamgir estate has now been split 
up, and has passed into the hands of different purchasers, and the 
representative of the old Raja's family is a pauper, living on the 
produce of a few acres of land, which has been assigned to him by 
the gratitude of an old servant of his family, the Garh Ndyaka or 
governor of the fort. 

1870.] Atitiquities of the Cuttack Hills. 169 

Amardvati. This Hill is now known as the Chatia Hill from its 
proximity to the village of that name on the Trunk Eoad to Cut- 
tack. Its ancient name was "Amaravati Kataka," and I am 
disposed to think that this was one of the Katakas, or fortified 
places of the Ganga, Vansa kings of Orissa, to which Mr. Sterling 
assigns no locality. On the eastern foot of the hill there are the 
remains of an old fort, the broad and extensive rampart of which ? 
made of the laterite of the hills, forms the most prominent 
feature of the ruins. The stone wall is 4 feet deep, and the people 
say it ran one cos square. Within the rampart there is a high 
platform, accessible by a flight of steps. The wall over it, made 
entirely of stone, is broken. A number of broken pillars and capitals 
was also observed, but the place on which the inner apartment 
stood, is covered with such thick jungle and thorny brambles that I 
could not form a conjecture as to the plan of the edifice. On ano- 
ther platform, I observed the images of two goddesses (Indrani) 
cut in alto relievo out of two blocks of slate-stone ; they are remark- 
able for their elegance and beauty. 

The people in the neighbourhood informed me that before the con- 
struction of the Cuttack Trunk Eoad, the ramparts were in a much 
bettor condition than in what they now are : the Yandals of the Pub- 
lic Works Department having demolished them for the sake of the 
stone, with which they metalled the road. Nor was their conduct 
in this case singular, for, whether at Jajapur, Chatia, or Cuttack, 
they have everywhere proved equally destructive, and what 
escaped the ravages of time and of Muhammadan bigotry for cen- 
turies, have yielded to their sacrilegious hands. This is much to 
be regretted, the more so as it appears altogether inconsistent 
with that enlightened spirit in which Government has called the 
attention of its servants to the collection of facts and traditions 
which may tend to throw light on the past history of the country ; 
any how such conduct, on the part of any class of its officers, 
however unintentional, cannot be too highly reprehended. 

There is a spacious and magnificent tank, covering about 20 acres, 

within half a mile of Amaravati Kataka. The people call it Nilu 

Pu/J>.ar, evidently a corruption of Nilatja Pushlcarini or " tank with 

a dwelling;" for in the centre of this tank, there are the ruins of 


170 Antiquities of the Cut-tack Hills. [No. 2, 

an old building, of considerable dimensions, partly covered with 
shrubs, and partly whitened with moss, and the refuse of aquatic 
birds. There is a curious tradition connected with this building of 
about the age of Kalapahar, the general of Sulaiman Afghan, (A. D. 
1558,) who, it is said drove out Bashu Kalpa, the chief of the 
Barunibanta (Darpan) Hill and compelled him to take refuge in 
the Dhanabanti, hills (Chatia). Bashu Kalpa became subsequently 
the lord of the Amaravati fort. The structure in the tank was 
built to protect his grandson on his wedding-day, when it was 
predicted a tiger would kill him. I do not give the anecdote at 
length, as it resembles in all its details the story of Chand Sadagar, 
as sung by one of our early Bengali poets. The enemy of Chand 
Sadagar of Champanagara was the serpent, as instigated by the 
goddess Manasa ; that of Paddalochan, the Uriya prince, the tiger, as 
instigated by Satya Narayana. Evidently the authors of the Bengali 
and the Uriya poems got the idea of the enemy to their heroes from 
the nature of the country they inhabited : Champanagara stands 
on a flat plane near Budbud, not far from the Damuda, and is 
subject to floods. The serpent is still dreaded there, and a meld is 
annually held to worship it. Chatia is close to the forest, and still 
suffers from the ravages of leopards. It is curious that there is a 
place near Chatia also known as Champai Hat. 

Malid-vinayahi. This is one of the peaks of the highest chain 
in the district of Cuttack, viz., the Barunibanta hills in Killa Dar- 
pan. The country around it is wild, and inhabited by an aborignal 
race known as Sawars, evidently the Savaras mentioned in Menu, 
who, in physical and mental peculiarities, resemble the Sonthals of 
"Western Bengal. The hill is covered with primitive jungle, and sel- 
dom visited by any but pilgrims. It was probably from the beginning 
occupied by the Sivites, no sign of the worship of Buddha being 
traceable on it. The prospect from the top of the hill is glorious. The 
Sivites could not have selected a better spot for their Bhajana Afanda- 
pa or temple of worship. From the point where I ascended, the 
country around seemed a magnificent panorama of light and shade, 
diversified by carpets and crests of evergreens. The sun was just up, 
and under its rays far below in the distance, every patch of water 
appeared like a mass of blazing diamonds ; every running brook, 

1870.] Antiquities of the Cuttach Hills. 171 

a rich gorget on the breast of emerald earth. The high level canal 
with its numerous curves appeared like a silver girdle nicely set 
round the waist of the chain. The course of the Birupa, a distance 
of 24 or 26 miles, through all its windings from Mandaka, perhaps 
Chowdwar near Cuttack, could be traced like a thread of melted 
silver. It appeared to be a spot pre-eminently fitted for " medita- 
tion and sacred song." On the northern slope of the hill, about 
400 feet above the level of the country, there is an Asthala or 
monastery now occupied by Vaishnavas, who have evidently super- 
seded the Sivites of old. The base, formed of a piece of cut 
stone, is all that remains of the original sanctuary of the place. The 
walls and the steeples appear to have been repaired or rebuilt 
after they were destroyed by the Muhammadans. The principal 
curiosity of this place is, the god Maha Vinayaka, which is a 
massive piece of rock over which the modern temple has been 
built. The rock must be more than 12 feet in circumference, it is 
oval at the top, and has three faces in front. The middle one has 
a good resemblance to the head of an elephant with its trunk, and 
is accordingly worshipped as Ganes'ha or Vinayaka. The right 
face of the rock is considered to be Siva, and what it wants in actual 
resemblance, has been made up by paint of sandal and vermillion. 
The left face of the rock has a knot over it, which is fancied to be 
the tresses of the goddess Gauri bound up. The rock is accor- 
dingly worshipped as the union of the gods Siva and Ganesa 
and the goddess Gauri. The place is by no means very ancient, but 
the veneration for it is increasing with the increase of age. There is 
a waterfall about 30 feet higher up, which supplies water to the 
temple and pilgrims. A few steps above this fall, there are a few 
images of Siva, called the " Ashta Lingam" from their number. 
Besides the foliage of the trees and the canopy of heaven, there is 
no other shade over these gods. The ground on all sides is cover- 
ed with dense jungle, high and ancient mangoe trees predomina- 
ting. Considering the insecurity of the place, it displays a steadfast 
devotion, and bold indifference for life on the part of those who, 
centuries ago, first inhabited these hills for the purpose of religious 

172 Additional Gondi Vocabulary. [No. 3, 

Additional Gondi Vocabulary. — By Key. James Dawson, 
Chindwara, C. P. 

(Continued from p. 117). 


Personal Pronouns. — First person. 

^T, anna, I. 


Nom. ^r^T, annd, I. 

Gen. Tfirc, TriHf, TRT, TPrfa, ndwor, ndworlc, ndwd, ndtvang, 

my, of me. 
D. Ac. TRT, «rTfi*r> n &k, or ndhun, to me, me. 
Ab. «TT ^•T, wa sm, from me. 
L. «TT^T T^T^) ndwd ipide, in me. 

Nom. ^*8t3, ammot, we. 
Gen. ^Tirc, *rriT«tf, TTRT, *TRfT, mdivor, m&worh, mdwd, mdwdny, 

our, of us. 
D. Ac. *TRf, ^TfJ^T, male, mdhun, to us, us. 
Ab. VJ ^t«r, md sin, from us. 
L. URT T^^) wawa ?£?«<&> m us. 

Personal Pronouns. — Second person. 
T?S1, immd, thou. 
Nom. "STAT, MfMMfS, thou. 
Gen. ^ftirc, ^ftil^, «fWr, 'fto'R, niwor, niwork, niwa, niwdng, 

thy, of thee. 
D. Ac. <ffaf, «ftf*«T, nik, nikun, to thee, thee. 
Ab. ^t ^ft«T, nt sin, from thee. 
L. ^faT T"fa^> niwd ipide, in thee. 

V. "% T*$T, ^0 immd, thou. 

Nom. T?W^, immdt, you, ye. 

Gen. WRIT, *IT^rar, WTTT, WT^TI, mdwor, mdwork, mdwd, mdwdntf, 
your, of you. 

1870.] Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 173 

D. Ac. *rr3T, IT^ffi, rndh, mdhun, to you, you. 
Ab. ^\ ^rfc, mi sin, from you. 
L. <ffaT xfy^) niiwd ipide, in you. 

V. ^ T*$T&, he immdt, O you. 

Personal Pronouns. — Third person. 
^TK, or, he ; that. 
Nom. ^hr, or, he, that. 
Gen. %i%T, %*%T3f, ^T^T, ifT^fa, onlwr, onlwrh, onM, 

onhdng, his, of him. 
D. Ac. %«r, on, to him, him. 
Ab. ^T*T ^T, on sin, from him. 
L. ^Tf^", dpide, in him. 

Nom. %3f, orh, they, those. 
Gen. %^ ^\X, ^"Hf, TT, Tf*T, orhnor, orhwrh, orknd, orbidng, 

theirs, of them. 
D. Ac. %$5«r, orhtn, to them, them. 
Ab. %«jr €fa, or& saw, from them. 
Ij. ^nf*f^, 4? ; ^> i n them. 

Personal Pronouns. — Third person, Feminine, 
^f^, ad, she, it ; that. 
Nom. ^f^, ad, she it ; that. 

Gen. ?n"irrc, ^TcR", «rT, TTT, tdnnor, tdnnorlc, tdnnd, tdnndng, or 
^^ *hT« ^T={t, «TT, •rfJT, addenor, addenorh, addend, 
addendng, hers, of her. 
D. Ac. rTT*T, fow, to her, her. 
Ab. rTT*r ^1«T, ^w sin, from her, from it. 
L. Wrf^", o^«e^> i n her, in it. 

Nom. ^rr, au, they, those. 
Gen. ^ji^K, ^"RJ, TT, TT1, avehnor, avehnorh, avehnd, avehidng, 

theirs, of them. 
D. Ac. ^R$«T, avekun, to them, them. 
Ab. ^re^f, €1«T, m^£ sin, from them. 
L. ^ifqi"; dpide, in them. 

174 Additional Gondi Vocabulary* [No. 3, 

Demonstrative Pronouns. — Near demonstrative, Masc. Sing. 

^ er, this (man). 
Nom. ^:, er, this (man). 

Gen. TSfTC, •TT3T, «TT, «rfa, ennor, ennorh, ennd, enndag, of this. 
D. Ac. ^«r, en, to this, this. 
Ab. ^r ^ffa", 0» sin, from this. 
L. ^fa^" ipide, in this. 

Nom. ^^f, eric, these (men). 
Gen. H4HK, ^T^T, «TT, «rfJT, erfoior, erhiorlc, erhnd, erbidng, of 

D. Ac. ^f5«r erliim, these. 
Ab. ^ ^t«r, erh sin, from these. 
L. T^f^« ipide, in these. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. — Near demonstrative Fern. 
^ id, this (woman). 
Nom. x^ id, this (woman) or (thing). 

Gen. ?firPC, $T^i, «TT, «rt3T, tennor, teimorh, tennd, tenndng, of this. 
D. Ac. 7?«r, ten, to this, this. 
Ab. $«r ?ft«r, fo» *lw, from this. 
L. T^r^"? y.n'efc> m this. 

Nom. ^3?, /w, these (women) or (things). 
Gen. T;^^r#PC, ^T3i, «TT, •TT*T, ivehnor, ivehiorh, iveknd, iveknung, 

of these. 
D. Ac. T^!^ ivehun, to these, these. 
Ab. T^^ ^*Tj w^ sm i from these. 
L. Tfa^"> (p*V*j in these. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. — Remote demonstrative. 

The remote demonstrative %T or, that (man), ^^ ad, that 
(woman or thing) with their plurals %oR or/c, those (men), ^(T <w*j 
those (women) are declined like the third personal pronoun. 

187o O Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 175 


*^ ^TP^T^T, er mdnwdl, this man. 

^T ^T^T^i, erh mdnwalh, these men. 

W ^TT^T^, or mdnwdl, that man. 

^T3T WP^T^fi, or£ mdnwalk, those men. 

3^ ^1T, «tf ar, this woman. 

^ Wi^i, lu ash, these women. 

^ ^Tt, «<# ar, that woman. 

^IT ^im, au ash, those women. 
When the demonstrative pronouns are used with nouns, they 
are not declined, but are always used in the nominative case 
although the nouns which they qualify are in the oblique case! 
When the demonstrative pronouns are used by themselves, they 
are declined as above. 

Relative Pronouns. 
The Relative pronoun is the same as the Interrogative %*; lor 
who ?, and the correlative is supplied by the remote demonstrative 
^frc or, that ; e. g. — 

frT ** W ^^ ^ ti* W *^T, honU Ion;, anna lenjtan 
onha leng cholho mania. Whose voice I heard his voice is good 
Jlis voice whose I heard is good. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

thuTleiw'^ 68 ^ ^ t0r > * Ud > "* * ** ^ « 

^K lor who ? Masc. Sing. 
Norn, ^k, lor, who ? which ? 
Gen. 5l*m, %<£, *T, ^r, fcwtor, fcaforf; ^w W - 

whose ? - t/ ' 

D. Ac. $r?r, £<w, to whom ? whom ? 
Ah. ^t*T €to, Ion sin, from whom ? 
L. sfTfai 1 , bdpide, in whom ? 

Masc. Plural. 
Norn. ^p£, lorh, who ? which ? 
Gen. ,rf^ ^ ^ ^ bor/cmr} ^ 

whose ? - y ' 

176 Additional Gondi Vocabulary. [No. 3, 

D. Ac. %«F*T, borhun, to whom ? whom ? 
Ab. *Mf ^fcf , for& sin, from whom ? 
L. 3Tf^, bdpide, in whom ? 

The Feminine and Neuter is ^ &«<?. It is declined like the 
3rd person pronoun feminine ^ ad, by the insertion of ^ before 
it ; thus : — 

Nom. ^, bad, who ? which ? 

Glen. sr^TC, ^W, ^TT, TiTT, baddenor, baddenorlc, baddend, badde- 

ndng, whose ? 
D. Ac. 3"^«T, badden, to whom ? whom ? 
Ab. ^«T ^t«T, badden sin, from whom ? 
L. 3lf*re, bdpide, in whom ? 

Fern. Plural. 
Nom. ^T, ban, who ? which ? 
Gen. ^-i^nT, ^T3T, *rT, «rtT, bavehior, bavehwrl; haveknd, lavelc- 

ndng, whose ? 
D. Ac. ^r^*r, bavekun, to whom ? whom ? 
Ab. ^j^» ^*r, J«t'^ sin, from whom ? 
L. ^Tf^pf , bdpide, in whom ? 

3fJT, #w#, what ? 
Singular and Plural. 
N.&Ac.^pr, bang, what? 
Gen. ^l^TT, ^"Rf, ^T, ^rfal, bdndor, bdndor/c, bdndd, bdnddng, of 

D. ^r?3i*r, bdthm, to or for what ? 

Ab. ^T^ft«r, bdtsin, from what ? 
L. ^Tfa^, bdpide, in what ? 

Indefinite Pronouns. 


ilT, bore, any one, some one. 
Nom. ^T^, bore, any one, some one. 
Gen. «T«^TT, ^rar, % ^fJT, bonliore, bonhorh, bonhai, bvnhdnge, 

of any one, &c. 
D. Ac. ^T*f, lone, to any one, any one. 
Ab. ii^" ^«T, bone sin, from any one. 
L. "^t«t Xim, bone ropd, in any one. 

Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 177 

^f 31, bdnge, any thing, something. 
W ^fr, bdnge halle, nothing. 
W TT W, 6<%7tf nd bange, something or other. 
^ ^1X, bdnge di, whatever may happen, come what may. 


^^T*TT hiand, to do. 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. I do or am doing. 
1- ^"ST ;a ^TW'RT, anna Hdtond. 

2. 37UT ^t^JTW^ft, immd Mdtoni. 

3. m. W s^NiT^R, or kidtor. 
3. f. ^ ^t^Trfx, ad kidtd. 

1. ^TWT« ^t^TmTiT, ammot Hatoram. 

2. T*%re ^^Tmtfa". immdt kidtor it. 

3. m. ^ttJ ^^T3W, ork leidtork. 
3. f. ^t ^t^TfTPI, au kidtdng. 

Imperfect Tense. I was doing. 
^"9T ^^T«r, anna hinddn. 
VRT "(Tmi'T imma kindin. 
m. mxK ^I^T, or kindur. 


f. w c^r «^ Tcindu. 

^J'ET^ ^F^T*?, ammot kindom. 

??%1"Z 3fN*lrr MHfrcaf kindit.. 

^VS tfrr^S, m ^Xjt, or£ kindurh, au kindung. 

Past Tense. I did. 
^TCIT ^t<TTW, anna kitdn. 
ST^T ^trffa", dimmd kitin. 
^TX ^rfC, or kitur, ^ etftcj, «^ kitu. 
^l*f(TZ ^t^nr ammot Jritom. 


178 Additional Gondi Vocabulary. [No. 3 t 

Perfect Tense. I have done. 

1. sftWTTT, hitona. 

2. ?fftftT*(\, Utoni. 

3. eft^TT, f. €t«U, Mtor, f. tttd. 

1. ^t^T^T, hitoram. 

2. ^tWTftW, Utorit. 

3. ^f^T^, ^WPT, Mtorh, f. Htdng. 

Pluperfect Tense. I had done. 

1 . '<k\\H U$MI, £f «f mathond. 

2. ^tf^T *r£|T«ft, £w matlioni. 

3. ^tf% ^T^TT, ^tf% WT, &IW mathor, f. £foi mathd. 

1. «ftf% "flilTC^T, iWtf mathoram. 

2. 3Klf% *TSJTft<T, £m mathor it. 

3. ^tf% ijiiraf, *rf fl, 4l«» mathork, Hsi mathdng. 

Future Tense. I shall or will do. 

1. '«tfHll*l, Maka. 

2. ^f^T^t, Uaki. 

3. ^t^T»[T, kidnur ; ^t^T^T, fo'a?. 

1. ^t^T^TT, hiakom. 

2. ^^rr^tfT, kidkit. 

3. •gfl^Tsr^, Mdnurk, vtfV^rWJT, kidnung. 

Conditional Mood. 
Present Tense. If I do. 

1. ^Nl«M, Hdhd. 

2. ^Iwi^t, h'<W. 

3. 3fK, ^t, foV, fo'. 

1. ^rt^T^HT, Mdhom. 

2. ^rV^raftfT, Hdldt. 

3. SRfar, ^fJI, foV/t;, fo'rcy. 

Imperative Mood, 
2. S7BT ^ftr, M»*#a kim, do thou. 
2. S^re ^ffa, immdt kimt, do ye. 

Infinitive Mood. 
^t^TTT, ^ffaT^J Hand or kidle, to do. 

18 70. J Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

Present. ^)w^, ^t^T^", hiteke or kisode, doing. 
Perfect. «fftf%|PT, hisikun, having done. 

^JT*JT«rT ay and to be, or to become. 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense, 
am, or I become. 

1. ^TF^TT dnddn. 

2. WF^fa", dndin. 

3. WT^T, WJ^, dndur. dndu. 

1. ^[T 5 ^^, dndom. 

2. W^rT andit. 

3. ^T^T, ^ItKt, andurk, dndung. 

Past Tense. 
I was, or I became. 
1- ^iru«i, dtdn. » 

2. ^rTfa", dtin. 

3. ^rrgT, ^m, dtur, dtu. 

1. ^rr^T^r. atom. 

2. <^T<fta, dtit. 

3. ^TrJ^F, ^T$pi, dturk, dtung. 

'*^i*rT, manddnd, to be, or to remain. 

Indicative Mood, Present Tense. 

I am, or I remain. 

1. •T'^'RT, mandond. 

2. *F%«ft, mandoni. 

3. 1T=%T, *T^T, mandor, mandd. 

1. *F^1T*T, mandor am. 

2. *!^lTt<T, mandor it > 

3. H^raf, ^^TT, mandork, manddng. 
Past Tense. 

I was, or I remained. 

1. ??ijT«rT, mathond. 

2. **§l«ft, mathoni. 

3. fi^TK, *TOT, mathor, mathd. 


Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 

1. ^TOTK*?, mathoram. 

2. nijrfta", mathorit. 

3. TTOTeff, fl^fJI, mathorfc, mathdng. 

The remaining tenses of the verb "to be" are formed regularly 
form ^TRJT*TT dydnd. The Gonds seem to use ^-^M'l manddnd more 
frequently to express " existence," and "become" they always 
express by ^fT*TT«n dydnd. 

There is also a peculiarity in the language in regard to the use 
of the negative TO halle with the verb. This particle causes a 
change on the form of certain parts of the verb as will be seen by 
using it, along with ^l^fTTT kidnd, to do, which has already been 
conjugated. It affects some moods and tenses, but not others. 

Conjugation of the verb ^Nm Tcidnd with the negation TO halle, 
not to do. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

I am not doing. 
^T3T TO ^t^TT, annd halle Tcion, I am not doing. 
57ET TO #1^1, immd halle Tcivi. 

%*! TO ^t^TT, or halle Trior. 
^K TO ^%j a d halle Hod. 
^f^T^ TO ^t^HT, ammot halle Horn. 
X*9XZ TO o^l^tfT, immat halle kivit. 
%^T TO ^t^T^T, orTc halle Horlc. 
%J TO ^t^fa, au halle Hong. 

Imperfect Tense. Same as the Affirmative. 
I was not doing. 
Past and Perfect Tenses are alike. 
I did not and I have not done. 
^3T TO ^ftrTT, anna halle Tcitd. 
T?S\ TO 3ft <TT, immd halle Tritd. 
^K TO ^\<TT, or halle Htd, ad halle Tcitd. 

^fStc TO ^t<TT, ammot halle Htd. 
'WH'i TO ^<TT, immat halle Tcitd. 
^JTW, ^iT TO «Jfl«TT, ork, au halle Tcitd, 

1870.] Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 181 

Pluperfect Tense. I had not eaten. 

Same form as Aff. 

Future Tense. 

I shall or will not do. 

1 • ^H3T ^ir ^1*TT^T, annd halle kinal. 

2. T'ftT ^ir «frt«TT^r, immd halle kinal. 

3. €ftr, ^^ W *t«il^f, or, ad halle kinal. 

1 . ^fJt^ ^ff #1«TT^r, ammot halle kinal. 

2. 3^5RT^ W ^t«TT^T, immdt halle kinal. 

3. ^"Rf, ^iT W 3Rl«rr^T, ork, au halle kinal. 

Conditional Mood same as the Future except in the third persons 
Singular and Plural which are the same as in the Affirmative 

Imperative Mood. 
2. S^JIT Tf^t'^^rr, immd manni kemd, do not thou do. 
2. 'pare ?T3l ^R^T^, immdt manni kemd^ do not ye do. 

Infinitive Mood and Participles are the same as the Aff. forms. 

Abbreviations used in Vocabulary. 

s. substantive ; a. adjective ; v. t. verb transitive ; v. i. verb 
intransitive ; ad. adverb. 

k. 3f. kidnd ^ffen^TT, to do ; m. fr. mdydnd ^T^T«TT, which seems to 
be another form of manddnd ^F^PTT, to be or to remain ; s. ^r. stand 
^ft^T«rT, to give. H. Hindi or Hindustani. 



Awake, v. i. chaile mdydnd ^"% l?T^n*TT. 

Awake, v. t. chaile kidnd ^% ^t^KMI. 

Afterwards, ad. pijd fa^T. 

Amputate, v. t. narksi wd^dnd •T^f^ 3TCT*TT. 

Alone, a. warror } f. warrai ^TK f. ^T . 

And, conj. unde ^^. 

Acquire, v. t. pdye mdydnd HT*T ^TT^TRT. 

Appear, v. i. disdnd <tanr«l7. 

Altar, s. bhind, pi. bhindng *f\«TT pi. *ft«rf3T 


Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 

Afflict, v. t. tar 8e kidnd 

Ancestor, s. djdl, pi. djdlk 

Almighty, a. sabro-chisfc-fcidnwdle 

Advance, v. i. munne viddnd 

As, conj. bdhun 

Ask, v. t. puchhe kidna 

Appoint, v. t. badhe kidnd 

Appointed, a. badhe- Icitdl 

Alike, a. lelclid 

According to, a. lekhd 

Ashes, s. nir 

Abate, v. i. ghate may and 

Again, ad. mode 

Alas, inter j. hde H. 

Angel, s. ddt, pi. duth 

Anything, s. bdnge 

Archer, s. Jeamtd-irrdnwale 

Arrow, s. tir, pi. tirh H. 

Army, s.fauj, H. 

Ass, s. gadhdl, pi. gadhdng 

Answer, s.jawdb, -pi. jawdbk H. 

Accumulate, v. t. saure h. 

Artless, a. siidJio m. f. 

Among, prep, te and sometimes no 

Affliction, s. duJch, H. 


Blood, s. nathur 

Brother, s. tammur 

Back, s. murchul, pi. murchulk 

Be, v. s. manddnd 

Become, v. i. dydnd 

Behind, prep.^nja 

Bury, v. t. mistdnd 

Bind, v. t. dohtdnd 

Breathe, v. t, dam yetdnd 

Blow, v. t. ukdnd 

rP3 ^t^T^TT. 
^T^TT^r pi. ^TWT^. 

\» • 


ar^fT^r pi. Jref*i. 

W3T3, 5PJT«3f. 

Si ^ 


n^^r pi. -«4^, 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 


Bite, v. t. kaskand 

Begin, v. t. Idgdna 

Belly, s. pir, pi. pirh 

Burst, v. t. ordnd 

Body, s. mendol, pi. mendolk 

Breath, s. dam 

Beginning, s. mothur 

Border, s. siwdr, pi. siwdrh 

Burn, v. t. atdnd 

Because, conj. barihi 

Before, prep, murine 

Barren, a. bahildl 

But, conj. unde 

Bad, a. burtor, f. burtai 

Breadth, s. rundopan 

Broad, a. rundo 

By, prep, sin 

Beneath, prep, khdlwd 

Bring, v. t. tatdnd 

Bread, s. sari 

Bird, s. pitte pi. pitteng 

Bear, v. t. wdhtdnd 

Bear, v. t. sdddnd 

Bosom, s. kordj pi. kordng 

Break, v. t. urutdnd 

Bake, v. t. atdnd 

Butter, s. loni 

Bawl, v. i. hdkd si ana 

Blind, a. sural, andrdl 

Blindness, s. andrdlpan 

Bull, s. kurrd, pi. kurrang 

Bullock, s. kondd pi. konddng 

Bottle, s. bddld, pi. bddldng 

Bow, s. kamtd 

Business, s. dhandho, pi. dhandhong. 

Bush, s. jhur, pi. jhurh 

Brushwood, s.jhiir, -pi. jhurk 

^ rfTC f. S^. 



fat, fai *. 

3TX<TT«TT, to bring forth. 
^rr^T«TT, as a fruit tree. 

^T^sTT, ^T%^T 31, made of 
3TTCT. [leather. 


Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 

Bow, v. i. mursdnd 
Boundary, s. siwdr, pi siwdrk 
Bracelet, s. churd, pi. churdng 
Blame, s. dosh H. 

^ 'A 


Cloud, s. dbhdr 
Cut, v. t. narkdnd 
Cut, v. t. koidnd 

Cut, v. t. askdnd 

Cloth, s. dikari, pi. dikaring 

Come, v. i. wdydnd 

Come out, v. i. pasitdnd 

Creep, v. i. koditdnd, ghurse m. 

Conceal, v. t. murutdnd 

Conceal, v. t. maksutdnd 

Cubit, s. kiita, pi. kiitdng 

Cattle, s. konddng, murdng 

Camel, s. uttum, pi. uttunk 

Call, v. t. kednd 

Choose, v. t. pehekdnd 

Count, v. t. kdhtdnd 

Chase, v. t. pijd yetdnd 

Chicken, s. pildl 

Crow, s. kdwdl, pi. kdwdlk 

Corpse, s. murdd 

Carcase, s. murdd 

Cake, s. phulori 

Cook, v. t. atdnd 

Calf, s. paiyd 

Complete, v. t. piiro k. 

Close, v. t. kehchi stand 

Concerning, prep, hikke 

Cow, s. murd 

Call, v. t. hdkd s. 

Cleave, v. t. pahitdnd 


snFRT, applied to wood. 
#T^T*TT, applied to 

grass, &c. 
^^aiiii, as with a knife. 


•^Tf^fTT^T, *T§ *r 

faoJT ^cTT^TT- 

Ok ♦ 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 


Cave, s. khodro 


City, s. nagar, p. nag ark 

^3TT, -*?[%. 

Concubine, s. irtdl dr, p. irtdlh ash, 

TWM ^TTC, T^l^ ^T^i. 

Collect, v. t. satire k. 


Censure, s. chugli 


Command, s. huhm H. 


Command, v. t. huhm k. 

&W 3T. 

Crime, s. dosh H. 


Cover, v. t. muhtdnd 


Commander, s. of an army, fauj 


■qffisi wrc w^r. 


Descend, v. i. rag and, rait and, 
Descend, to cause to, v. t. rehtdnd 


Drink, v. t. unddnd 


Die, v. i. sdydnd 


Do, v. t. Jcidnd 


Dress, v. i. ponddnd 
Dress, v. t. ponsutdnd 

^^T^TT, (one's self). 

*U*P§<TT^T, (another). 

Destroy, v. t. mite h., ndsh k. 

ftfi ^, *TO ^>. 

Dry, a. watdl 


Deceive, v. t. oahake Tc. 


Daughter, s. midr, p. midrJc 

$\^TK, ift^T^. 

Daughter-in-law, s. kodidr 


Drag, v. t. aritdnd 


Dust, s. dliiildo 


Day, s. din, p. dink 

f^«r, f^j. 

Drive, v. t. jpundnd 

Despise, v. t. utdr k. 


Darkness, s. dnddr H. 


Divide, v. t. juddo h. 


Deny, v. t. ladle m. 


Decrease, v. i. ghate m. 


Dinner, s. jdwd 

SIT^T, p. sn^pr. 

Direction, s. khdk 


Direction, from every, ndlung te khdk 

ndl, TT^j'l ^ *3T3f TT^. 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 

JJesire, v. t. chahe m. 


Draw, v. t. umdnd 

^T«TT, as water from 

Delay, s. jhel. 

iff^T. [a well. 

Delay, v. t. jhel k. 


Dream, s. kanchkdnd 
Dream, v. t. kanchkdnd 



Death, s. say an 

Dig, v. t. kdtdnd, Mode k. 


•MdNI, W^*&. 

Dead, a. murdd, p. murddng 

*^T, ^fw. 

Dismiss, v. t. bidd k. 

Establish, v. t. nilutdnd 



Expel, v. t. tanddnd 


Eight, a. armur 


Embark, v. i. targdnd 

Eye, s. kan, p. kank 

^•r, ^T^. 

Each, a. undi undi 


Every, a. undi undi 

^^t ^^t. 

Eagle, s. gidhdl, p. gidhdlk 

^ter^r, Htm^m. 

Empty, a. siino 


Evening, s. nulpe p. nulpeng 

«jr*l5, ^nfa. 

Eternity, s. letu 


Ear, s. kavi, p. kauk 

^fft, ^rT^r. 

Entertainment, s. jdwd 


Extend, v. t. virsutdnd (as the arm) 


Everything, s. sab-bdnge 


Explain, v. t. vehtdnd 


Enemy, s. bairi, p. bhairirk H. 

*Kt, 81 Ct^. 

Evil, a. buro 


Enlarge, v. t. virsutdnd 


Earn, v. t. putsutdnd, kamdi k. 

^^IrrnrT,. ^r^rrs: ^« 

Envy, v. t. karvitdnd 


Earth, s. thori 


Earth the, s. dharti 


Enmity, s. bair H. 


Fructify, v. t. sddustdnd 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 


.bear, s. warre 


Form, s. chold 


Meld, s. nelij p. neling 

$€l, *ft£in. 

Face, s. tudi 


Fling, v. t. ivatana 


Four, a. ndlung 


Five, a. saiyung 

Fifty, a. pachas, ardho nur 

T^TC, ^T ^T- 

Flesh, s. khdnk, khdndum 

^f^r , ^T^iT. 

Fill, v. t. nihtdnd 


Fall, v. i. ardnd 


Float, v. i. pong and 


Forsake, v. t. chhore k. 


Fire, s. Ms, p. kish 

f%^T, flf^R. 

Father, s. dhdu, p. dhdurk 

«TT^>, *T^. 

Find, v. t. pdye m. 


Family, s. got (tribe) 


Famine, s. kdr, p. hark H. 

*&!% ^T^. 

Flock, s. yeting, applied to sheep or'goats, ij^t'JT. 

From, prep, tdl, sin 

cTT^T, ^t«T. From a per- 

son, sin y ^ft«r, from a 

place, tal cTT^r. 

Flee, v. i. soditdnd 
Food, s. tinddnd, unddnd 


ffT^T^rr, ^^rsrr. 

Fear, v. t. waritdnd 


Fruit, s. kaigdng 


Forefather, s. djdl, p. djdlk 

^t*tt^, ^TTsr ^ 

Fountain, s. jirid 


Fountain, s. monghd (as of a well) 


First, a. pdhilo 


Fish, s. min, p. mink 

^r, +n*<*. 

Fruit-bearing, a. kaiydng-wdld 

Foreskin, s. naddum td thol 

•j^^ft m ^i^r. 

Flour, s. pindi 


Fine, a. chokho 


Finish, v. t. puro Jc. 


Far, a. lakh 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3; 

Feast, s. jaw a 


Fell, v. t. as a tree, arutdnd 


Fraud, s. chhal H. 


Force, s. barbas H. 


Full, a. puro 

Feed, v. t. tihtdnd 


Fault, s. dosh H. 


Farewell, s. bidd H. 



Green, a. hirivo 

Graze, v. t. mehtdnd 


Graze, v. i. mednd 


Go out, v. i. pasitdnd 


Go, v. i. handdnd 


Grave, s. marghat, masonti 

T&Z, W*f*. 

Grow, v. i. borsdnd, as a child 


Grow, v. i. pirdnd, as a plant 
Grow, v. t. pirsutdnd 



Guarding, s. marhhum, applied to men 

Guarding, s. jdgali, applied to fields 

Generation, s. veil, p. veling 

Great, a. paror, f. para 

Get, v. t. page m. 

Give, v. t, stand 

Grass, s. jdri, p. jdring 

Good, a. chokho, m. and f. 

Good, a. bhalo, m. and f. 

Good, ad. bhalo 

Girl, s. turi, p. turing 

Gain, v. t. putsutdnd 

Gain, v. t. kamdi h. H. 

General a, s. fauj tor subdl 

ZWt p. ^fa. 


Hundred, a. niir, p. wwr£ 

Husband, s. rot-tor the man of the house TT<T-WTC. 

Hide, v. i. makdnd 
Hide, v. t. mahsutand 



Additional Gondi Vocabul 



Hill, s. matd, p. matdng 


House, s. ron, rot-te in the house 

T.T*, TTrT-^. 

Herdsman, s. mehtdnwdle 


Hand, s. kai, p. kaik 

3T, ^?3T. 

Hand, left, ddwo kai 

^RT #. 

Hand, right, jeono kai 

^%^T 3T. 

Here, ad. iggd 


Hence, ad. iggdtdl 


Hither, ad. hihhe 


How, ad. bdhim 


Heifer, s. paddd 


Hinder, v. t. roke k. 


Heaven, s. dgds 


Heat, s. adi 


Haste, s. utdwali 


Hasten, v. i. utdwali k. 

^cTT^^t 3f. 

Heavy, a. puhtd 


Heavy, to be, v, i. puhtdnd 


Hasten, v. t. jaldi kisntdnd 

5?^jCt ^^cTTTT. 

Herd, s. of cattle, miirdng 


Heir, s. adhikdri H. 


Horn, s. kor, p. Icohk 

^TT #R^T. 

Half, a. ddho 


Heel, s. dakd 


Happen, v. i. ardnd 


Hatred, s. lair H. 


Increase, v. i. borsdnd 


Increase, to cause to, v. t. 

burs at and 


Inquire, v. t. puchhe k. 


Inform, v. t. kenchutdnd 


Inhabitant, s. manddnwdle 



Judge, v. t. nydo k. 

^T^T 3J. 

Judge s. nydo-kidnwdle 


Judgment, s. nydo 


Journey, s.jatrd H. 


Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 


Jlnow, v. t. pundana 


Keep, v. t. as a garden, sudhare k. 


Keeping, s. mar/chum, jdgali 

W*T, STTJj^ft. 

Kill, v. t. joksi wdtdnd 

^T^t *n^rar. 

Knead, v. t. piskdnd 


Kindness, s. mihr H. 


Knife, s. chhuri 

Live, v. i. piscina 



Leather, s. tol 


Laugh, v. i. kauivdnd 


Leave, v. t. chhore k. 


Land, s. dharti 
Lift, v. t. tdhtdnd 



Light, s., a candle or lamp, divid 


Light of day, s. verchi 


Light, a. halko 


Large, a. paror, f. para 

TJ%R, t*^. 

Little, a. chudor, m. and f. 

IF 1 ^* 

Like, a. lekhd 


Learn, v. t. karitdnd 


Lamb, s. khdlmdnydl nd pildl 

^T^^T^JT^T ^T ^fNjT^r. 

Lead, v. t. munne tdlcdnd 

*}% fTT^T«fT. 

Look, s. nigdh H. 



Middle, s. naddum 


Make, v. t. bane k. 
Morning, s. sakdle 



Mother, s. dhdi 


Meet, v. t. kalitdnd 


Milk, s. pal 


Month, s. tudi 


Marriage, s. inarming 

Marry, v. t. marming 

*re*ff a ^. 

Mock, v. t. thathd k. 


Mocker, s. that hd-kidn-w ale 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 


Master, s. mdlik H. 


Merchant, s. baipdri, baipdrirk 

Wll p- i^Tf^. 


Naked, a. hurdle 



Nakedness, s. kurdkepan 


Nine, a. unmdk 


Not, ad. with. imp. mood, manni 


Not, ad. with other moods, 



Name, s. parol, p. parolk 

*Tf"T^, T%T5sfi. 

Now, ad. ingd 


Nephew, a brother's son, s 

. sanimarri 


Number, v. t. kdhtdnd 


Night, s. narkd 


Nothing, s. bdnge-halle 


Nose, s. massor, p. mass or k 


W&TK, T{^j4. 

One, a. undi, 


Open, v. t. ugare k. 

xiJI^ 3f. 

Open, to be, ugare m. 


Open, a. ugare 


Obtain, v. t. page m. 


Observe, v. t. mane m. 


Obey, v. t. mane m. 
Old, a. sendl, f. seno 


%T*TT^r, ^T, applied to 


Old, a,.junor } f.jundl 

5|^-PC, ^nrTT^T, applied to 
things, sometimes to 

Out, ad. bdliaro 


Outside, ad. Idharo 


Overturn, v. t. ulte k. 

^£ ^r. 

Ox, s. Jcondd, p. konddng 

#T^T, #1^R. 

Outstretch, v. t. virsutdnd 


Occur, v. i. ardnd 



Plant, v. t. lage kidna 

^31 «tf. 

Place, v. t. irrdnd 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 

Pull, v, t. iimdnd, as water from a well 

Property, s. dhan-duiilet 

Pitch, v. t. nilutdnd. (as a tent) 

Pit, s. sor a 

Pursue, v. t. pijd k. 

Persecute, v. t. tarse k. 

Prevent, v. t. roke k. 

Pregnant, a. ranjiwdnd 

Produce, v. t. sdddnd 

Proceed, v. i. munne virdna 

Place, s. thikdn 

Press, v. t. admdnd 

Pillar, s. dhdrun 

Person, s.jan, ^.jank 

Proprietor, s. adhikdri H. 

Prove, v. t. parkhe k. 

Prince, s. subdl 

Price, s. mold 

Pour, v. t. richi Jc. 

Pulse, s. ddri 

Pottage, s. jdwd 

Play, v. i. gar sand 

Plain, s. ch aug an H. 

Pain, s. dulch H. 

Quarrel, v. i. tar id and 
Quickly, ad. japne 

Rainbow, s. hhimdl 
Bernain, v. i. manddnd 
Boad, s. sarri 
Bib, s. panekd 
Pun, v. i. vitdnd 
Baise, v. t. tdhtdnd 
Pise, v. i. teddnd 
Beach, v. i. audnd 
Bain, s. pir 



f^5TT ^• 







Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 


Rain, v. i. arutdnd 

deceive, v. t. paye m. 

Rebel, v. i. ladle mdsi handdnd 

Barn, s. mendhdl 

Return, v. i. malsi way and 

River, s. dlwdd 

Reptile, s. ghurse-mdydnivdld 

Rest, s. dram H. 

Roar, v. i. HUtdnd, as a tiger 

Recline, v. i. lete m. 

Regarding, prep, hikke 

Rebuke, v. t. dapte h. H. 

Right, a. haqq, H. 

Reproach, s. cliugli 

m^ ?T. 

#i ?t. 


Spread, v. t. pongsutdnd 
Sign, s. chahMnd 

Spread, v. t. bagare k. 
Shoulder, bdklid 

See, v. t. hurdnd 


Son, s. mari, p. mark 

*Pft, *fqu 

Say, v. t. inddnd 
Speech, s. loankdnd 

Share, v. t. tustdna 


Separate, v. t.juddo 7c. 
Stoop, v. i. mursdnd 
Surround, v. t. tiritdna 


Sleep, v. i. narmdnd 
Serpent, s. tards, p. tardsk 
Shoe, s. sarpum, p. sarpuk 

Shut, v. t. konde k. 

#T^ qT. 

Smell, v. t. muskdnd 

Six, a. sdrung 


Seven, a. yerung 
Speak, v. t. inddnd 
Stone, s. tongi 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 

Summit, of a mountain, s. chendi 


Shew, v. t. hursutdnd 


Sojourn, v. i. mulkgiri k. 

^T*3f\ft ^f. 

Save, v. t. pisutdnd 


Sister, s. seldr, pi. seldrk 

W, WW. 

Strive, v. i. tarutdnd 


Salt, a. kharo 


Salt, s. sawar 


Smite, v. t. jidnd 


Slime, s. chikld 


Steal, v. t. Jcaldnd 


Stealer, s. kalle 


Seize, v. t. boitdnd 


Sun, s. surydl 


Set, v. i. as the sun, mulitdnd 


Seem, v. i. Idgdnd (it seems) 


Spring, Srjirid 


Seed, s. vijd 


Swim, v. i. pohe m. 


Second, a. dusero 


Small, a. chudor m. and f. 


Star, s. suhkum, p. sukkuk 

Set, v. t. irrdna 


Skin, s. thol, p. thelk 

w^r, -^t^s. 

Sunshine, s. adi 


Stand, v. i. nitdnd 


Salute, v. t. sewdjdr k. 

*Nt*tk ^. 

So, conj. ahun 


Surely, ad. kharo 


Send, v. t. rohtdnd 


Scream, v. i. kilitdnd 


Similar, a. lekhd 


Sit, v. i. uddnd 


Side, s. khdk 


Shut, v. t. hehchi stand 

^^Ct ^t^"RT (as a door). 

Shout, v. t. hdkd s. 

^1*1 ^. 

Shade, s. dharmi 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 


Search, v. t. parkdnd 


Seek, v. t. parkdnd 


Son-in-law, s. sanne, p. sannerk 

*it Wfi- 

Strike, as a tent, v. t. arutdnd 


Slay, v. t. joksi watdnd 

srrcNrt ^rcTTr. 

Self, s. tanai 

Swear, v. t. kiriyd tinddnd 

f%%?rr ffr=^T5TT. 

Sheep, s. khdlmdnydl p. -ydlk 

^l^l«i5T^-^l^i . 

Shew, v. t. vehtdnd 



Sacrifice, v. t. tarhutdnd 


Split, v. t. pahitdnd, applied to wood, 


Shore, s. ihari 


Sand, s. waru 


So many, a. ichchho 


Sure, a. pakko 


Simple, a. sudho m. and f. 


Sell, v. t. momdnd 


Sport, v. i. gar sand 


Spring, s. as of a well, monghd 


Sorrow, s. dukh, H. 


Tie, v. t. dohtdnd 


Tent, s. pdl, pi. pdlk 

<n*r, qx^R. 

Tell, v. t. samjhe k. 
Throw down, v. t, wdtdnd 



Two, a. rand 


Three, a. mund 


Ten, a. #> a^, pi. path 


Twenty, a. visa H„ 


Take, v. t. yetdnd 


Turn, v. t. tiritdnd 


Turn, v. t. tirhutdnd 


This, dem. p., id, pi. iu t f. 

s;^;, ^s», applied to' fe- 

males and things. 

er, pi. ^'£, m. 

T*:, ^r, applied to men 


Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 

That, dem. pron., ad, pi. au, f. 

^, ^t applied to fe- 

males, &c. [men. 

or, pi. orhj m, 

%*:, ^T^ applied to 

Touch, v. t. itdnd 


Throw away, v. t, watsi s. 

srrer^rt ^r. 

Take away, v. t. woidna 


There, ad. aggd 


Top, s. chendi, the summit of hill 


Tribe, s. got 


Together, ad. undikattho 


Towards, prep, hikke 


^'hither, ad. hahke 


Thence, ad. aggdtdl 


Thus, ad. ihun 


Thief, s. kalle, pi. kallefk 

Thread, s. nut 


Tree, s. mar a 


Tender, a. kauro 


True, a. kharo 


Truly, ad. kliara 


Then, ad. aske 


Teach, v. t. ka rut and 


Tire, v. i. dor and 


Tire, v. t. dors ut and 


To-day, s. nend 


To-morrow, s. ndri y ninne 

JSFJ\, f*nt 

Truth, s. kharopan 


Tell, v. t. kenchutdnd 


Try, v. t. parklw k. 

*F3 ^r. 

Thicket, s.jhur 


Town, s. nagar, p. nagark H. 

•ran:, *\4\<b. 

Thigh, s.jd?igh H. 


Trough, s. donga 


Thing, s. chiz, p. chizk 
Therefore, conj, ten lay am 

, €t ; 5T, ,i ftl^. 

^r mtmmi- 

themselves, rec. pron. djms H. 


#j?ws fe, among themselves ^TC^ *T, 

870. J 

Additional Gondii Vocabulary. 


Vegetable, s. bhaspala 
Voice, s. leng 

Village, s. ndr, p. ndrk 

*TTT, sn4 

Very, ad. para 

Victuals, s. tinddnd unddnd. 


frp^rr ^3t?tt. 

Void, a. siino 


Visit, v. t. Jcalitdnd 


Vagabond, s. mulk-giri h. w. 

^-*ftft ^.3. 

Veil, s. addm 


Value, s. rokar H. 



Walk, v. i. handdnd 


Weep, v. i. ardnd 


Wife, s. rot-td 

^TfT-fTT, the woman of 

the house. 

Who, inter, pro lor 

ilT \ _. 

Whose, bonlid 

/ bee mterr. 
■ST^T. } 

Whom, hon 

i pronouns. 

Wealth, s. dlian-daulet 


Why, ad. bdri 


Warn, v. t. inddnd 


Woman, s. dr, p. ask 

^K, ^T*sR. 

Where, ad. baggd 


Whence, ad. baggdtdl 


Whither, ad. beke 


With, prep, sin 


Wilderness, s. dongur 


Whip, v. t. jidnd 


Waterpot, s. sora 


Well, ad. bes, cholcho 

%^, %*It. [person. 

Wash, v. t. nurdnd 

^T;T«rr, applied to the 

Wash, v. t. suhhdnd 

^WTTT, to wash clothes. 

Wish, v. t. chdhe m. 


Water, s. yer 


Water, v. t. to cause to drink, uhtdnd 



Additional Gondi Vocabulary. 

[No. 3, 

Wanderer, s. mulk-giri h. w. 

Womb, s. potd 


Wean, v. t. onhd pal chhute 1c. 

^t*^t Tr^r wi" ^r. 

Wander, v. i. bhule mdteke ivallitdnd 

V^ ?TT^ 3fW<TT*rT. 

Work, s. dhandho 


Witness, s. gohdz, pi. gohdirk 

Jiwr^, ^rr^T^fi. 

Wood, s. katid 


Weigh, v. t.joke k. 

^T% ^f. 

Well, s. kdd H., pi. kudng 

SpST, ^fa. 

Wonder, s. achambhd H. 


Wonder, v. i. achambhd k. 

^^t ^r. 

Wearied, pp. dorsi 


Weary, to be, v. i. dordnd 


Window, s. khirki 


Wrangle, v. i. tarutdnd 


Year, s. warsd 

Yes, ad. inge 


Youth, s. raior, p. raiork 

T^fTC, T%i [pers 

Young, a. raior, f. raid 

T^K.. T^T, applie 

Yesterday, s. ndri, ninne 

*rrft, f*r%. 


The Gonds in this district count the length of ten in the Gondi, 
and then use the Hindi numerals. 

1870.] The Vdstu Ydga, 199 

The Vdstu Yciga and its bearings upon Tree and Serpent Worship in 
India. — By Pratapachandra Gthosiia, B. A. 

(Read 7th September, 1870.) 

In the history of human progress, the feeling of fear has perhaps 
proved as active an agent in invention as necessity. The phi- 
losophy of fear is most interesting : originating in the want of 
strength, or in a feeling of want of strength, fear often, to use a 
paradox, concentrates, if it does not create, strength. It impels 
an individual to flight, sometimes with such extraordinary rapidity 
as to baffle all pursuit. The energy spent in avoiding a danger if 
concentrated and better directed, might, in many cases, lead to the 
overcoming of the obstacle ; but as the mind shrinks within itself 
at the very idea of danger, it slackens the nerves for all action 
except flight. A man runs with the greatest velocity when impelled 
by fear. In the very flight he may have unconsciously overcome 
several difficulties, which, in sober moments, he would rather have 
fled from, than manfully encountered and overcome. It is conta- 
gious, because the exhibition of fear in a companion damps the hope 
of relief from that quarter : it makes one feel lonely, the most 
favourable condition for engendering fear. It advances as hope 
recedes, after the faith in our own strength has been shaken. It 
originates superstition ; for when human aid fails, the mind naturally 
looks to the supernatural and the mysterious : mantras, charms, 
and sacrifices are resorted to, with a view to propitiate the imaginary 
evil-doers, and sacrifices are selected to suit the nature of the evil 

In the earliest portraits of the Aryan race, as delineated in the 
Vedas, we find their ideas and their thoughts centred in their homes, 
their cattle, their fields, and in the discomfiture of their enemies. 
Their wants were few, and their prayers, therefore, were less varied ; 
and their ceremonies were, probably, equally simple. But this 
simplicity bore within itself the seed of a very complex system of 
thought. Everything that was useful in some way or other, every- 
thing that was beautiful or awful in nature, or that excited unusual 
feelings, or suggested new ideas, was estranged from the ordinary 
and associated with the supernatural. 

200 The Vustu Yarja. [No, 3, 

A new current of thought soon after set in. In the freshness of 
imagination during the primitive state of society, comparisons, me- 
taphors, and allegories, were soon changed into real entities, and 
mythology rapidly gained ground in men's minds. Thus the Pu- 
rauas, lay a natural poetical idea, made the sun and the moon, which 
witness all that is done on the earth, the spies of the divine 
ruler — a nryth describing the all-pervading nature of their rays. In 
the Yedas, they are regarded as the universal witnesses of all cere- 
monies. The Baku, the ascending node, is derived from the verb 
literally meaning to abandon, void, hence also black, darkness, 
shadow, &c, and is represented in mythology as having no body, 
the umbra of the astronomers. The umbra may be said to devour 
as it were the luminaries. Later mythology makes Rika a trunk- 
less head, an ingenious mythological adaptation of the umbra 
which devours, but inasmuch as it has no body, the moon cornea 
out from the throat. Again, poetic imagination or extreme fear, 
personifies qualities, and that to such an extraordinary extent, 
that while describing the blood-thirsty vengeance of S'akti, she is 
said to have, in the Chliinnamastd incarnation, cut off her own head 
from the trunk, and with the gaping trunkless skull gluttonously 
drunk her own blood which springs with the warmth of life. 
However hideous the conception is, it is the result of the license 
allowed to poets to use partial similitudes. To such flights of un- 
shackled imagination, the variously formed sphinxes of the Chal- 
deans are but mere flutters of the wings. As allegories illustrative 
of the concentration of force to overcome difficulties, and the 
adaptation of means to a purpose, the achievements of Durga offer 
many interesting instances. On the occasion of vanquishing the 
mighty Asuras, Sumbha and Nisumbha, and their general, named 
Mahishasura, (the buffaloe-demon) the several gods are made to direct i 
their energy to their weapons for the purpose. The goddess Durga, \ 
representative of this union, sprung forth with ten arms fit to crush 
several Asuras at one fell swoop. Kali, another incarnation of 
Sakti, in the war with Eaktavija, a demon multiplying his race, as 
his name implies, from the drops of blood flowing from his body, i 
and touching the earth, is represented as having licked up the blood 
as it streamed forth from his person with a view to arrest that 
dreadful propagation. 

1870.] The VMu Ydga. 201 

Many of these myths, again, may be traced partly to oriental hy- 
perbole and partly to the many-sided meanings of the words used in 
describing them : figurative expressions were seized and new myths 
were invented in illustration of them. Others again are illustrative 
of national customs ; thus the protruded tongue of Kali has been the 
theme of several fanciful tales. With some, in the heat of the battle, 
Kali was so maddened, that the gods despaired of the world, 
and sent S'iva, her husband to appease her. S'iva crept among the 
dead soldiers lying on the field, and contrived to pass under the 
feet of Kali, who no sooner perceived her husband trampled under 
her feet, than she became abashed, and, in the fashion of the 
women of the country, bit her tongue as expressive of her regret 
and indelicacy. 

It is amusing to follow the line of argument put forth in the 
Furanas in support of these myths. In some instances, they ap- 
proach so near the ludicrous, that were it not for their thorough 
adaptability to the state of native society of the time, their 
fallacies would have been long ago exposed, and the whole Paurdnic 
system spurned and despised. 

S akti is Force. Originally a sect of Hindus worshipped force 
and matter as eternal. The word being in the feminine gender, 
its personification is a female divinity of supernatural powers, 
and every occupation which called for great exercise of energy and 
power at once selected her as tutelary goddess, and she is now 
the most popular of all the three and thirty millions of the Hindu 
pantheon. S'aktaism has since imbibed so many brutal practices of 
cannibalism, human sacrifice, and bacchanalian rites, that the very 
name of a S'akta, inspires horror and disgust ; nevertheless the unholy 
Tantras, which propound and explain the principles of this doctrine, 
and give rules for worshipping the different forms of S'akti, are 
increasing in number and popularity. They were, until lately, com- 
paratively unknown beyond the frontiers of Bengal, but copies of 
MSS. are now demanded from every quarter of Hindustan. The 
Tantric system is of Bengali origin, and its rites and customs are 
intimately interwoven with those of the hill tribes, especially those 
of Nepal and Assam. Demonology is a principal feature in the 
S'dkta faith, and the various nocturnal ceremonies are fixed which 

202 TJie Vc*Uk Y [No 

were much in vogue in Bengal, even as late as about fifty 

year.s ago. 

Nor did fear and superstition stop with th< 
of poetical objects. In men's anxiety to avail th< 
natural aid, they did not hesitate to borrow from foreign and other- 
wise hated sow 

Sattipir, Jf<i?i//>-pir, SkdJyummd Faqir, Shak and 

many other similar dii minor* and saints, found their plai • 
Iliiidu mythology entirely from this can-.'. In jungly di- 
fcnd infested rivers and creeks, Ki\l» Rdyd and Dakshin 11. ij 
as commonly worshipped as the Local Pirn and t It is 

remarkable that Kalu Raya and Dakshin Rdya are represented l>y 
trunklesa mitred heads. They are held to be guardians of the 
forest, and they ride on tigers and crocodiles. On th^ 30th d 
the month of Pausha, these two forest demigods are worshipped- 
and with them earthen figures of their tigers and crocodilesJ 
Bui this Lb limited to the southern districts of Bengal, wh 
ferocious animals abound. Th< rorshipped as Kshetrapalat 

or field gods, and BTS -aid to have originated from the hea 

Brahma, the creator, cut off by Siva. To them Bacrii 

and ducks are offered, perhaps more to appease the tigers and the 

crocodiles than the god- tie 

That the same principle of appeasing the unmanageable and 
the dreadful is the basis of Berpent worship, is easy to de- 
monstrate. Tho serpent goddess is worshipped in the Eupt 
antiquorum. The goddess mother of the serpents, and goddess pre- 
siding over them, is Manama, the object of love and devotion, and, as 
tho name implies, an allegorical creation. Indeed, tree and s< . 
Worship may be said to have originated partly, if not entirely, in the 
imagination of the people, and in figures of speech. Tl. 
the serpents is ^•prl, eternity, literally endless, of wliich the univer- 
sally acknowledged symbol is a coiled snake. Though n pic- 
as the support of Vishnu, while floating on the fathomless sea of 
chaos before creation, (God in eternity), he is, in the Tin 
described as having the form of Vishnu, meaning, perhaps, the 
eternity of Vishnu. Thus the Puranas describe him as 

1870.] The Vdstu Ydga. 203 

" A thousand-hooded, four-armed &c."* 

In Puranic mythology, he is the bed on which Ndrayana is said to 
have rested before creation, and will rest after the creation is de- 

<nr ^re fyqr*m otto**? oj^tt^ u 

Here Ananta, (eternity) in the form of a serpent is described as 
doing menial work and waving a fan. But elsewhere he is said 
to be an incarnation of Vishnu. 

The myth of the Atlas serpent named S'esha (the end) is 
acknowledged to be allegorical. Thus the Kurma Purana. 


Ip&jTnd i 

It is the Hindu form of chaos. The figure in it was, as usual, 
soon forgotten, and the frequent earthquakes that visited parts 
of India were accounted for by a slight extension of the idea 
contained in the myth. The il^, the serpent of eternity, has a 
thousand hoods, and upon one of them he holds the earth. At 
times he relieves himself by changing the load from one to another 
hood, and the motion caused by his replacement of the load is said 
to be the cause of earthquakes. 

Vishnu is repeatedly brought in contact with the serpent. As 
the presiding god of the sun, in fact the sun himself (sun = Vish- 

^^t% ^f ^o vH VKT wnw ^ 1 1 

204 Tk* Vd$t* Ywja. N 

nu = Hari) he is an enemy of Rahn, whose stellar form u tliat 
of a serpent, and who, as a demon, was cut into two by Vishnu's 
discus on the occasion of the distribution of nectar churned 
from the ocean of life, alias light, the of know] 

to the gods. Bahu (to be abandoned is, as we hare Baid b( 
also black, darkness, or ignoranee. According to the Graha I 
Tantra, an astrological work of great importance amongst the Hindus, 
the presiding god of Rahu is Kahi (Death = Time), and the subor- 
dinate god (TOfa^fn) is a Berpent : — an idea which reminds 
us of the tree of knowledge and the serpent in the ^1 
legend. Rahu is the lord of bones, and it presides over the 
southwest quarter of the globe, (nijiti) over misfortunes and calami- 
ties. Bahubhedi, the destroyer, or literally the 1 . of Rahu, 
darkness, is Vishnu, alias Bnrya [the Sun), who has also the 
name of Rdhuhd, the killer of Rahu. Its mythical origin i- dis- 
tinctly acknowledged in astronomical works, in one of which we 
find: — 

^*T ^bf T[%T -qTf^^W^Tf I 
"When the R:ilm is perceptible by the eyes, it is called an eclipse." 

In W\q Bhiiyavat P/nan". Krishna, or Vishnu incarnate, in 0110 of his; 
miracles, is devoured by a great ophidian demon, in whoso stoi 
he plays several tricks, and at last, getting out of it. exhibits the 
whole universe dancing on the tongut rpent (eternity . whom 

ho afterwards overcomes (as creator). He is also described as break* 
ing the several heads of Kaliya y a Naga king of Romanak con 
whom Krishna would have completely d . had not son 

his wives, who were Naga women, interfered. Gnruda, the bird-god, 
is the vehicle of Vishnu, and though a step-brother to the Nag 
their deadly enemy. 

In the Mahabharata, Parikshita, grandson of the Pandavas, 
is described to have defiled the body of a sago while in his 
meditation with a dead snake, whereupon the Muni's son cursed 
him. To carry out this malediction, Taksha&a, commonly identi- 
fied with the Gecko that makes a " talc tak" noise, and sometimes 
with the dragon-lizard, one of the great serpents, visited Parikshita, 
attired as a Brahman, and made the usual salutation, and blessed the 
king by offering him a small plum. No sooner held the king the 

1870.] The Vdstu Yaga. 205 

proffered fruit to his nose, than a snake, the takshaka serpent, 
issued forth from it and stung him. The Raja fell a victim to the 
virulent venom of the snake. Janmejaya, his son, with a view to 
avenge the death of his father, instituted a Yajna, entitled sarpa- 
satra, the snake-sacrifice. The priests with their mantras poured 
purified ghi into the blazing altar, and snakes from all parts of the 
world, coming in millions, fell senseless into it, and were soon 
consumed. The sacrifice went on till Takshaka's turn came, and 
when the unswerving priest offered his ahuti (oblation of ghi) with a 
powerful mantra to Agni invoking Takshaka, the great serpent felt 
deeply the irresistible influence of the sacrificial fire. Yet unwilling 
to yield to it, and trembling at his approaching doom, he fled to 
the court of Indra. But the mantras of the sacred munis were even 
more potent than the lord of the immortals, and Takshaka was 
wrenched from his hiding-place. He hovered over the blazing- 
flame, and was about to fall into it, when Astika, the offspring of 
the intermarriage between an Aryan and a Naga woman, a nephew 
of Yasuki, the serpent king, interfered. He begged of Janmejaya 
to put a stop to the sacrifice, and thereby saved the serpent race. 
Both these stories, however, appear more like poetical versions of 
border warfare with antagonistic races, than pure myths. 

These stories regarding the Nagas and serpents are obviously 
mythical, and may be explained away by unravelling the allegories 
upon which they are based. In none does the true reptile, the snake, 
make its appearance. Nor is this remarkable, for the authors of 
Sdstras have carefully separated the Nagas and Sarpas, the ophidian 
race from true snakes. The Nagas are a class of demigods, some of 
whom at will assume the forms of men, but generally have the 
lower extremities of their body ending in a snake's tail, while 
above the waist they are shaped like gods and men. In some 
cases, however, their heads are backed by hoods of serpents. But 
this form of the Naga, though frequently found in sculptured stones, 
appears to be a later representation. Everywhere in the Puranas, 
the Nagas speak like men, and have bodies like them. The Sarpas 
on the other hand are a family of reptiles not at all connected with 
the Nagas, and are in no Purana found to speak or act like men. 
Nor are they ever worshipped by the Brahmans, though a later 

206 The Vast a Yaga. [No. 3, 

Upapurdna, one of those interpolations, which has mixed th. 
with the unreal, and has complicated our meagre historical data, 
describes them as descendants of Nagas, much d- \ 1 and 


In the whole qyclopsadia of Hindu sacrifices and ceremonies, 
no sacrifice connected with Nagas or Barpas, is more frequen% 
ly practised and with greater telai than the VA I Yoga. It is, 

indeed, considered aVaidic rite, and without it no house, temp 
tank is fit for divine or human use. It is a ceremony that 
Hindu has to perform, and without it none can inhabit a new 
house. Yastu is partly a Yaidie god. He is the tutelar deity of 
the house, and is regarded by the Hindu with a peculiar veneration ; 
for the homestead has a sanctity in his eyes which is not met with 
in other countries. To have the privilege of dwelling in the house 
of his forefathers is an object of pride with him, and th< 
misfortune that can happen to a Hindu is the 1..-- of his domicile. 

Few tilings appear more dreadful than when an inoea bmasj 

pronounces the awful OUTSe '' Let dOYOS take | i of your 

Vastu" (domicile), and an enemy vows vengeance by tin-eaten; 
sow Besamuxn in the Vastu bhita, or the site of the homestead, 
that is to say, to reduce the homestead to a field under the plough* 
Each Vastu, or domicile, is believed to have a representative >nake, 

called the Fastu-Strp*, which is regarded with great awe. If the 
Vastu-Sarpa isseen to abandon a house, it i> an unlucky omen, and 
the perpetuity of the house, the continuity of the race or famil 
believed to be endangered. 

The Yastu Yaga ceremony is performed in the manner desci . 

Va'stu Yaga. — On the morning of the day previously fixed for 
entering a new house, the owner performs the usual morning 
prayers and ablutions, and having thus purified himself, he 
presents pieces of gold to brahmans according to his means. A 
water-pot is filled with water, and on it are placed fruits, flow 
and mango leaves. It is decorated by Brahmans with curd and 
rice, under the usual manlras. The owner then touches 
fully the tail of a cow, crowns his head with garlands, anoints 
his person with sandal- wood paste, and places his lawful wife on his 

1870.] The Vdstu Ydga, 207 

left bearing a ghata on her loins and a Jcula with grains on her 
head. Thus prepared, he enters his new house. The water-pot men- 
tioned above, is carried by a Brahman, who leads the procession. 

The Abhyudayika Srdddha and the pty'd of the sixteen Mdtrihds 
with the ganddhipas is performed at a separate place. 

In the new house, the owner, having made the dchamana, com- 
mences the Vdstu Ydga. 

It is begun with formally making a resolution (Sankalpa) to 
complete the rite, and for this purpose the Raddhati says : — ' Let 
him sit on an A'sana (carpet) or a mat of kusa grass with his face 
towards the east, and let him pronounce " om tat sat" " om, to-day 
in the month of (here mention the lunar month), in the (here men- 
tion the bright or the dark fortnight,) on (here mention the 
number tithi or lunar day), I, of (here mention the family) family 
or gotra (here mention the name) with a view to avoid the defects 
and evils of this human habitation, perform the Vdsta Ydga." 
The Sanhalpa hymn is then to be repeated. Let him next worship 
Vishnu and the nine planets, and let him next let drop the Vasu- 
dhdrds, of melted butter, against a wall so as to run in a given 
number of lines. The Ayushmya hymn is next repeated.' 

The appointment of priests (Varana) : — 'The Brahmans, previ- 
ously selected for the performance of the sacrifices and ceremonies, 
have to be seated on carpets with their faces towards the north. 
The Yajamdna is to propitiate them with sandal paste. Let him 
then pronounce " Om. I am blessed. Om. On the occasion of this 
Vastu Yaga (enjoined by holy writ) do you, the respected three, 
pronounce ' Om SvasW om, blessed be the act." 

The three priests respond " Om Svasti" 

The Yajamdna: " Om, on the occasion of this Vdstu Ydga cer e- 
mony, do you three pronounce om riddhim (om prosperity). 

The priests respond " om, may you prosper." 

Let rice be scattered around by the Brahmans present with the 
mantras which commence with " Om, Svasti no Indra viddhasrava, 
Svasti no Pusha visvaveda, Svasti, &c." " Om, may Indra, propagator 
of ceremonies, bless us ; may Pusha, &c." Then let the hymn " Om 
Suryah somo yamah hilah, &c. " In the presence of the sun, the 
moon, death, time, twilight, bhutas (spirits), day, night, wind, 

208 The V&tiU Tar/a. [No. 3, 

dikpati (gods of the ten cardinal points), earth, sky, inhabitants 
of the firmament (Jcashara), and gods, as Brahma wil I 


The Brahma or chief priest should be appointed first 

Let the Yajamana, seated a- before with joined palms, a : 
the Brahma, " Om, you are Sadhu 'gentle,) be sea 

Let the Brahma, reply " Oml verily I am sadhu" 

Yajamana : — Om, I will propitiate yon. 

Brahma : — Om, do propitiate. 

Let the Yajamana then offer sandal wood paste, flowers, cloth, and 
ornaments to the Brahma, and Let him next touch hi thigh 

and say, " Om, this day (as mentioned before) in my proi I 
Vdstu Ydga ceremony, I do hereby appoint you (state the QSJ 
the Brahma) of — family, of — pravara, worshipped with sandal 
wood &c, to perform the duties of a Brahma. 

Brahma : — " Om ! I am appointed." 

Yajamana: — Om ! perform the dutie- of a Brahma a- diret ted in 
the Sastras). 

Brahma : — " Om, according to my knowledge I shall." 

Should the Yajamana be not qualified to perform himself the 
ftoma, let him appoint a Brahman as a hotdj in the same way ;i- the 
Brahma is appointed. Then let the A'charya, Tbntndkdraka, and 

Sadasya be appointed in order. 

The sacrificial altar, Vsdi i should be eight cubits long, ami eight 
cubits broad, and one cubit high. It should be purified by sprink- 
ling suecesMvely the urine of the cow with the Gdyatri mantra, 
cow-dung with the mantra which commences, " Om Gandhadraram 
duradharshyam, &c., n cow's milk with that which commences " om 
Apyayaxva, &c.," curds with that which begins with " om dadhi 
kravno, &c," and lastly, ght (clarified butter) with om f 
kusa grass and water should be sprinkled with " om deva satin 
Then, let autumnal paddy, winter paddy, mug a, wheat, mustard, 
sosamuni, and barley be mixed with water and scattered on the 


The Vdstu mandala is a square diagram of mystic import. It is thus 
described in Vdstu Proyogu : — u Commencing from the north-eastern 
corner of it, at the four corners four sticks of khadint, Mimosa catechu, 

1870.] The Vastu Yaga. 209 

each 1 2 fingers long are to be nailed down with, the following mantra : 
om Sisantu te tale ndga, Sfc, u om, you serpents, fast runners, pro- 
tectors of all animals, enter under this Vedi, and stay in this house, 
continually bestowing on me long life and strength." By the sides 
of these sticks, with the following mantra, make offerings of mdsa 
u om Agnibhyo pyatha sarpebhyo. " Om to the Agnis, to the serpents, 
and to those others who are dependent on them, I offer this pure 
and excellent food." 

Join the four pegs with strings each four cubits long and with 
these as sides describe a square. Divide this square into 64 smaller 
equal squares, and with fine coloured powders fill them in the man- 
ner described." 

Here follow directions for filling up the squares, and the names 
of 45 nagas or serpents presiding over particular single squares 
or groups of them. 

Having invoked forty-five nagas or pitris on the squares, place by 
the side of the four pegs, four water-pots decorated with cloth, gar- 
lands, &c. On the south-eastern corner close by the water-pot invoke 
Viddri on a black square. On the middle of the eastern side of the 
square, without it, invoke Skanda on a yellow square. On the south- 
ern Aryamana, red. On southwest near the water-pot Putand, 
black. On the west Jambhaka, black ; on north-west, Pdpa-rdkshasi 
black, on the north Pili-pinja, black ; on the north-east near the 
water-pot Charaki, black. 

The sacrifice. — On the ghata (water-pot) beyond the squares in- 
voke the nine Grahas (holders-planets) and worship them one after 
the other. Commencing from the east towards the four sides dis- 
tribute mdsa with the following mantras " om bhktdni rdkshasdv/tpi, 
&c, om bhutds (spirits,) or rdkshasas (demons) whosoever dwell here 
may they all receive again this offering as I do my dwelling house." 

Then with rice and flowers invoke Is' a ; u om ! Is' a, come hither. 
This pddya is given to Is' a, Om ! This food is offered to Is' a, Om ! 
These three handfuls of flowers are offered to Is' a" 

Similarly let the following be invoked and worshipped in the 

several squares in order : — Par y any a, Jayanta, Sakra, Bhdshara, 

Satya, Phrsa, Vyoma, Hutasa, Pushand, Vitatha, Grhakshata, Vaiva- 

svata, or Yama, Gandharva, Prngd, Mrga, Pitrs, Davnvarika, Su- 


210 The Vdsiu Ydga. [No. 3, 

griva, Pushpadanta, Varuna, Asura, S'esha, Papa, Roga, Ndga, Visca- 
Tcarmd, Bhalldta, Yajnesvara, Ndgardja, S'ri, Aditi, Apa, A'jjaca- 
tsa, Aryamna, Soma, Vivasvata, Indra, Indrdtmaja, Mitra, Rudra, 
Rdjayakshmana, Dharddhara, Brahman, Skanda, Viddri, Putand, 
Jambhaka, Pdpardkshasi, Pilipinja, Charaka. 

In the square for Brahman, Vasudeva is to be invoked and 
worshipped with sixteen upacharas, or articles of worship. There 
also Lakshmi and Vasudciaganas, are to be worshipped. In the 
same square with the same kinds of offerings Dhard (earth) 
is likewise to be worshipped with the following. Om sar- 
valoJca dharam, &c. u Om, supporter of all creation, female figured, 
well ornamented, be propitiated." In the four squares of Brah- 
ma is to be scattered rice, and thereon a new strong water-pot 
filled with water is to be placed, and into it gold and silver pieces 
and Sarvoushadhi are to be dropped, and the whole covered with a 
Vardhani. In this water-pot, the four-headed deity, Brahma, should 
be invoked and worshipped with sixteen kinds of offerings, tipachiras. 
Towards the north-eastern corner of this water-pot, another pot 
full of pure water into which have been put the five ratnas (jewels) 
and gold and silver pieces is to be placed and, tying round its neck 
a pair of new clothes, a garland, twigs of Asvatlia, (the religious fig) 
rata (the banian), mango, plaksha (the vulgar fig) and Udumbar* 
(the sacrificial fig) trees. Placing upon these a dish filled with 
barley, the priest should recite the mantra " Ajighra Kalasam, 
also the invocation, Faruna, the water-god, om Varunasyotham- 
bhanamas'i &c. 

Then follows the invocation of the holy places " om Gangddya 
Saritah, &c." Om, all the rivers beginning with Ganga, oceans 
and seas, all rivers, all oceans, all seas and all lakes, destroyers 
of ill-luck of Yajamana, come hither." Then are to be dropped 
into the water-pot various kinds of earth, such as earth from stables, 
from where elephants live, from ant-hills, from the confluence 
of rivers, from the banks of a lake, from the fields where cattle 
graze, and from the ruts of chariot- wheels, also water from sacred 
places, and sarvoushadi and durvd grass. 

On the west of this water-pot, according to the rules of his own 
Grrihyasutra, let the owner or his representative Hota establish the 

1870.] The Vasty, Ydga. 211 

fire (sacrificial) and repeat Yirupaksha hymn and make Kushan- 

Having finished the Kushandikd, Agni under the name ofPrajdpati, 
should be worshipped according to the rules of Aditya Pur ana " Om 
pingabhru, &c." "Om ! brown-browed, brown-bearded, brown-haired 
and brown-eyed, high-featured, red-stomached, seated on a goat, 
seed-wreathed Agni, you are powerful." Then are to be offered 
one hundred and eight oblations or dhutis to Brahma with a mixture 
of honey, ghi, sesamum, and barley. And next, ten offerings should 
be made to each of the worshipped gods. 

TheVilvapanchaka homa, or five offerings, with the leaves of the tree 
Marmelosseglops has then to be performed. The five hymns for the 
purpose have Yisvamitra for their rishi ; they are in Jagati metre, 
their god is Yastu, their use lies in the propitiation of Yastu. 
" Om VastosphU prati, &c." 

Then with ghi alone, " Om Agnaye, Sfc. svdhd. Om to Agni, the 
originator and supporter of Sacrifices, this is given to Agni." 
After the principal sacrifice and the Mahdvydhrti homa are over, 
the tushni samit has to be offered without any mantras. Then 
follow the prdyaschitta homa, the chanting of the Vdmadevya 
hymn, and taking a handful of curd, repeat the following, " Om 
Yajnam Grachchha, &c." Om, the sacrifice be ended, &o. Finally 
the fire is to be extinguished with curd. 

This is to be followed by offering to the Yastu gods rice boiled with 
milk with the mantra ' esha payasa vali om Isaya namah,' and so on. 
" This offering of milk and rice to Is'a, and so on, to other Yastu 

Then uttering Svasti perform S'anti. 

Om in the S'anti work, om, do you three pronounce, "lam bless- 
ed." The following are the directions for the performance of the 
ceremony of S'anti. 

Let the priest sprinkle on the Yajamana, seated with his sons 
and family facing east, water from the S'anti-ghata with the mantra, 
" Om, Surdstvdmabhi sinchantu, &c. Om, may the gods purify you 
with water; may Brahma, Yishnu and Mahesvara, Yasudeva, 
Jagannatha as well as Sankarshana purify you. May Pradyumna 
and Aniruddha give you victory. May Akhandala, Agni, Yama, 

212 The V&tiu Y6g*. [No. 3, 

Nairta and Varuna Pavan Ouvera and Siva and Sesha with 
brahmans and dikpalas ever purify you. May all th 
bled gods bless you with reputation and f; dth, me- 

mory, reasoning, health, veneral ion and mercy, ingenuity, mod 
bodily comfort, quietude, and Loveliness. May tke planets, tl 
the moon, Mercury, Mars. Jupiter, Venn-. Saturn, all the 

planets, together with Eahu uiu\Ji</u propitiated, purify you. May 
devas, danavas, gandharvas, yak-lias, rakshae, serpents, riahis, 
munis, cows, devamatas also deva-patnis, adhvraas, snak< 
andapsaras, weapons, all S'astras, rajas and carriers andmedi 
jewels and the degrees of time, lakes, seas, mountain.-, holy pi 
cloud-', rivers, prepare you towards the attainment of piety, 
desires and wealth ! Om, SvasU." 

The JYtstuyjga, described above, is evidently a sacrifice inv< 
by the ancient Aryan conquerors with a view to propiti: 
aborigines or primeval owners of the land. Such a practice is not 
uncommon in Hindu theosophy. Everything that has a place in 
a ceremony, is worshipped or propitiated. The earth i- pacified 
before lighting up a sacrificial lire, and is appeased after the Aomjj 
is over. The tree l'roiu which I are collected is worshipped] 

and is propitiated by mantrat. The sacrifici ren is first adi 

sedwith a proper prayerto the effect " that beasts were cr I 
by Brahma for sacrifice, and killing in a Tajna La therefore no killing 
( <T*«Trr *T5T •^VTS^'y: I )•" Again, " Indra, Soma, and other god-, for the 
sake of sacrifice became beasts and BO forth." Indeed, without a pre- 
liminary archan i (worship), no offeri med lit for pr< 
and no god is prepared to receive any without it. The Vetdl 
Pisachas (the gods of the aborigines) are first propitiated, they have 
the precedence in all ceremonies. In days of yore, such ceremonies 
were very frequently interrupted by the dazyus and daityas, and 
the holy sages who celebrated them, were often obliged to a 
assistance from princes and warriors for protecting them against 
such depredations. In the Eamaj'ana, Yisvamitra carries with him 
young Eamachandra and Lakshmana to protect his sacrifice. In the 
performance of a srdddha, the first offering is made to the Bhusv imi, 
the lord of the soil, and the Smirtis teach us that it is not lawful 
to perform any ceremony on another man's soil without satisfying 

1870.] The Vastu Yaga. 213 

his claims, and though rajas and owners of their own houses perform 
the srdddha on their own land, they have still to make offerings 
to Vastu Purusha, which we fancy represents the aboriginal owners 
of the country. The modern expounders it is true identify the Vastu 
Purusha and the Bhusvami with Yishnu, but as a separate plate is 
always offered along with it to Yishnu, neither Bhusvami nor Vastu 
Purusha can mean anything else, but what it literally says, unless 
it be a typical offering to the sovereign of the country. 

In the Vastu Yaga, one of the oldest ceremonies of the Aryans, 
Vastu is the principal god, and though the aborigines themselves 
are not worshipped by name, the Naga is no doubt the ostensible 
object of worship. The several gods, properly pitrs, (ancestors,) 
manes, former owners, that occupy the several mandalas, are 
also the names of Nagas. The Vastu is the god Earth, quite dis- 
tinct from Dhara, the mother-earth (terra), and in the prayer he is 
represented as the supporter of the world. 

All the gods are pervaded by Vastu, Vastu pervades tlie creation j he is 
the supporter of the earth. Salutation be unto you, Vastudeva ! 

It is remarkable that nowhere in the Purdnic or Tdntric cosmo- 
gony, is Vastu named as distinct from Sesha, or the primal snake 
(^•T^^r^rt, eternity). 

The supporter of the universe is air, above which is the atlas-tortoise (colos- 
sochelys atlas ? ) upon which rests the Sesha, and upon it the earth. 

The Vastu Ydga therefore, appears to be a memorial of the foun- 
dation of the new Aryan home and of the Nagas, a race of powerful 
aborigines of India. Their name is connected with the several 
vegetable products of the soil, which the first Aryan settlers soon 
found to be useful and worthy of preservation. Thus — 

Ndgapdsa, or the lasso, a weapon of the Nagas ; Ndgavandhu the re- 
ligious fig tree {Ficus religiosa), the friendly shelter of the Nagas ; 
Nagarenu,Nagaja, and Naga Sambhava for vermillion, litharge, and ga- 
lena, all probably first mined by the Nagas ; Naga pus lip ilea, the golden 
Jasmine (Jasminumfruticans) ; Naga Kesara, the Mesuaferrea flower; 

214 The Fasti* Yoga. [N< 

Naga pushpa, Cahphyllum inophyllum, Naga Falli, the betel-loaf 
plant (Piper hetle), Ndgaphala (Inchosanthes diceca). Words 1 
ing ample evidence not only of the Naga origin of the things 
they indicate, bnt of the Naga influence on the Aryan settlers. 
The word Naga is also used for an elephant, for lead, and for tin. 
Even as the word Uzbak was a term of abuse with the V. 
emperors of Delhi, so was Ndgabit among the Aryan, meaning the 
veriest rascal. 

In the Yastu Yaga for consecrating a tank, a long pole is sunk in 
the centre of the new excavation, and this pole in Sanscrit is Xaga 
yashti, or the Naga pole. In course of the ceremony, several N 
presiding over the several quarters of the mandalas, are worshipped, 
and though in later times, the practice of throwing golden images of 
serpents, frogs, and tortoises, in a freshly excavated tank is observed, 
the Naga yashti said to have any connection with reptiles 
or snakes. The application of the term Naga to the reptile cla 
probably due to the fact of the aborigines living in a wild jungly 
country, infested by snakes, having been snake-charmers, and great 
adepts in handling and killing such reptiles ; a figure of metonomy, 
confounding the Naga aborigines with the Naga serpents. 

Atlanta IB worshipped on certain days of the year, and if Ananta 
were a reptile and not an allegorical myth of eternity and the creator, 
we should have had all over India, idols of serpents like those of 
other gods. In no place, however, have we observed an idol of a 
serpent, made and worshipped, unless as an appendix to idols of 
some other more important gods, though Manasa and Nagas are 
common in our ceremonies. Ananta chaturdasi is a common cere- 
mony. It is performed for fourteen years, and after the completion 
of the period, the devotee ties round his right arm a cotton string 
made of fourteen threads having fourteen knots. The ceremony is 
specially serpentine in its name and forms of worship, but nowhere 
does the actual reptile appear. Ananta is worshipped as Vishnu, 
and the cord round the arm, promises perpetual enjoyment of hea- 
venly bliss. 

Naga panchami is an auspicious day for the worship of the Nagas. 
On the occasion, Manasa is worshipped in the Euphorbia plant. This 
is an instance of tree-worship connected with serpents. It may 

1870,] The Vdstu Ydga. 215 

properly be called a case of reptile worship. But though, the Hin- 
du propitiates Manasa with a view to be saved from snake-bites 
during the next twelve months, on no account whatever does he 
worship idols of snakes. Here it may be noted that Ananta is 
classed among the great snakes. The Sastra runs thus-- 

^ifCR | 

After Vistmu has gone to sleep on the fifth lunar day of the dark fortnight, 
let the goddess Manasa abiding in the milky -juice tree be worshipped. After 
Vishnu has retired, and all the other gods on the fifth wane the Pannagi 
(she-serpent) awakes. One who worships the Devi and makes obeisance to 
her, and on the fifth day makes offerings to the Nagas, commencing with Ananta, 
one of the great serpents, has never to fear from snakes. Devi Purana. 

The several Nagas mentioned to be worshipped are : Ananta, 
Vasuki, Padma, S'ankha, Kamvala, Karkotaka, Dhrtarashtra, San- 
khaka, Kaliya, Takshaka, &c* 

Of these the first eight serpents serve for the consecration of a 
tank. Their names are inscribed on mango leaves, and these are put 

3TT<^ cT^lN falN ^Tfa *TTf% ^ | 
*T5TTTT*rf%W TRT^T ^*J#T f^$ sT^TH II 


w 1 *: TO ^T^T^^r: ^tr: *^T*W I 

q*R3tTTV&f§ <T^ f^ToEf T% *W II 

^c^rTO^! I 
^?R% ^T^f%: TO *reTTO$*l ci^: | 
f ^t^: ^4si HfT ^1t ^TW sNftf&TT: II 

216 The Vihtu Y6ga. [No. 3, 

in a pot full of water. A boy is made to draw one out, and the name 
that is drawn out first becomes the presiding deity of the tank. In 
other words, the Naga aborigines being propitiated are entr; 
with the protection of the tank. The protecting Naga is then to be 
well fed.* 

This was no doubt an ingenious method of meeting the difficulty, 
when several Nagas presented themselves as candidates for the 

The Naga-yashti or the Naga flag-post, or the rod as it were of 
the guardian Naga, is to be made of one of the following trees 
common in the Naga hills. A piece straight and free frora crooked 
knots is preferred. 

The trees recommended are : Lamboo, Yaruna, the Punn 
Messua ferrea, Mimusops elenchi, Azaddirachta indica, and Acacia 


The Naga, it appears, has to plant the post on the banks of the 
tank, so that no other Naga may come and interfere. The Naga gashfu 
or P.uhi JidfJia, is now made upwards of 30 feet lung, and is driven 
into the ground at the geometrical centre of the tank. But such 
practices, denoting a forgetfulness of the original motives, are not 
at all rare among the Hindus. 

The Das'ahara is a festival in honour of the monsoons and the 
first freshes in the river. It is, according to Hindu mythology, the 
anniversary of the day when Bhagiratha, an ancestor of Rdma- 

w ^T^nr^rr-g^r ^ t ^r^fTfVq: frT: 11 
wis ^to^j ^rt ^utt^t^ <rr*re: 11 

3ifq^: 1 

Having inscribed the names of the eight Nagas on separate leaves, drop them 
iuto a pot filled with water, and raffle them with the Gdyatri mantra. On 
taking out one leaf, the name of the (presiding) Naga appears. The 
whose name is taken out by the boy, is the guardian of the tank. Worship the 
said Naga with Ckandana, &c., and give him milk and rice boiled in milk. 

1870.] The Vastu Ydga. 217 

chandra, brought down the river Ganges from the heavens. On 
the same day, the goddess Manasa is also worshipped in the Eu- 
phorlia plant ; and bits of green lime, uchchhe (Momordzca charantia), 
and jack fruit are swallowed as safeguards against the venom of 
snakes. Another mythical specific for the same is a compound of 
lentils and nim ( Azardirachta indica) leaves.*' 

A remarkable myth connected with the Nagas, is the bestowal 
of the art of music by Sarasvati upon Kamvala and Asvatara nagas 
mentioned in the MdrTcandeya Pur ana. -\ 

This implies a toleration of the aborigines quite inconsistent with 
the feeling of hatred, disgust and animosity which prevailed amongst 
the first Aryan settlers, and which is so pointedly displayed in the 
Rig- Veda, and can only be accounted for on the supposition that in 
course of time the two races were reconciled and came to a compro- 
mise. The Aryans remained engaged in intellectual occupations and 
religious worship, while such works as tilling the soil, tending the 
cattle, dancing, singing, and playing on the lute, &c, were left to the 
more intelligent of the aborigines. And though the invention of a 

He who eats lentils with Nim leaves when the sun enters Aries, what can 
even the enraged Takshaka do to him ? 

^Trjf^N ^ cm*? f^S^R ^ ^ ' 
^ffT W cT^T WT^I *T^T ^=ri ^T?JpN I 
TrTT^TT*iTrSnJT^;Trr ^sTIT^T^^ ^fT I 

?mi Wi*}T3 ^ir^ ^TfTi^f ^Tfq <*irt h 

Through my favour you, noble chief of serpents, (bhujagendrapara) shall learn 
the four kinds of feet, the three kinds of measures of time, the three harmonies, 
the pause, as also, &c, &c, given by me, from my favour, you noble chief of 
serpents, shall also learn in connexion with these, the distinction between 
vowels and consonants. All these have been imparted by me to you and 
to Kamvala, in a manner, the like of which none had before either on earth 
or in the lower region. 


218 The Vadu Yoga. [No. S, 

tune or tlie fittiug a new song to a tune, wore exclusively the work 
of the Aryans, the actual art was entrusted to the Nugas. The myth 
represents Sarasvati imparting the art of music to the Nagas, who 
excelled in its" practise both Aryan and non- Aryan performers. 
According to the Purdnas, the Nagas, the gandharvas, the apsaras, 
and the kinnaras were the dancers and songsters in ancient India. 

The name of a good man is always considered a good omen, and 
one of the morning duties of the Hindus is to pronounce the names 
of the most eminent of their historical personages. Among these 
we find the name of Karkotaka, one of the principal Nagas. It 
may be said that the name of a Naga is enjoined to be uttered with 
a view to propitiate him ; yet when it is associated with such names 
as Nala and Damayanti, the inference is inevitable that the person 
named was held in great estimation for some merit or other ; 
possibly it was the name of a person who had acted in a friendly 
manner to the Aryans. 

Sfa*ff ?W<fiF?J WT^fr 31Trr I 

Having bowed to the earth, let Karkotaka be remembered. 

If the above be at all ambiguous as to the use of the name of this 
Naga, the following from the Mahabharata is at once positive and 

The uttering of the names of Kovrkotaka Naga, of Damayanti, of Nala, aud of 

ltituparna, the hermit Prince, destroys all sin. 

From what wo have stated above, we are led to believe, that 
serpent-worship in the true sense of a creature worship, was never 
prevalent in India, though the Hindus entertain a kind of respect 
for the allegorical characters Ananta and Vdsuki. This worshig 
may in the present day be seen practised under peculiar circum- 
stances by several hill tribes, but it must be admitted that such a 
practice does not obtain among the Aryans. The serpent, as an 
emblem of eternity, nia}' be respected ; but then it is the worship of 
Vishnu, the eternal creating principle, it is the emblem, the form, 
rather the curve of the serpent and not the reptile. Serpents have 
crept into our mythological legends ; but in whatever form they 
come, they were openly put down as enemies of Yishnu. The cow 

1870.] The Vastu Yaga. 219 

as the giver of milk from which ghi is made, is respected and tended 
with care, not because she is the true goddess Bhagavati (goddess 
of prosperity), but because she confers so many benefits on the 
Hindus. In the month of Vaisakha, the hottest month in the 
year, the cow is worshipped every morning, if we may so call the 
practice of careful tending. The matron of the house fans the 
cow, anoints her hoofs and horns with oil and turmeric, gives her 
tender heads of grass and fruits and vegetables. With a napkin 
her hoofs are cleaned. Some have gone so far as to raise the dust 
of the hoof to their own heads. 

If figures of Nagas occur in sculptured stones, they are sometimes 
mere ornaments, serving the purpose of a twisted cord, a cornice, or 
a frieze, or forming when hooded the best fanciful supports of thick 
architraves or bases of pillars, more beautiful perhaps than horses, 
lions, and elephants, subjects equally common, but of more difficult 
execution. In nature, what can be deserving of greater admiration 
than the graceful undulations, curves, and attitudes of a hooded 
snake standing erect when enraged. If serpents at one or two 
places appear as receivers of homage and respect, they are then in- 
variably represented with human faces, and as such, they are no- 
thing but allegorical representations of the aborigines, whose nether 
parts were coils of snakes — 

" The one seem'd woman to the waist, and fair, 

But ended foul in many a scaly fold 

Voluminous and vast; a serpent arm'd with mortal sting." 

Or they are mere fanciful figures, as the dragons, &c, of medie- 
val Christianity. Their occurrence in architectural ornamentation 
does not lead us to a belief that they were ever objects worshipped ; 
they are what Caryatides were to Greek architecture. 

Crocodiles, frogs, monkeys, parrots, and various other birds and 
animals occur in the architectural remains of India, and with the 
ludicrous scenes describing the pranks of these animals and birds 
occur several scenes in which these are represented as adored. Ne- 
vertheless no Hindu ever worships a crocodile or a frog. The 
hanuman, a monkey with black face and hands, is an object 
of worship in the North- Western Provinces; but this monkey 
represents the Maliavira (the great hero), the allegorical personifi- 

220 The Vast* Tdga. [N 

cation of brutal force. In vulgar superstition the mouse *is the 
carrier of Ganes'a, the peacock of Kartika, the owl of Lakshmi, and 
so on, but the Hindu has never been seen to worship any of these as 
animals, though they are respected on account of their deities. 
Again, if a Naga appear in a dream, the person is said to be soon 
blessed with numerous children, a myth apparently connected with 
the aborigines of the soil, and their influence is still to be seen in 
the surname of a family of the lower order of Kayasthas of Bengal. 
It is remarkable also that this Naga family has I'asuki fur its 

It is interesting to note how advantage has been taken of the 
spectacle mark on the hood of the coluber naja (the Cobra do 
Capello) and the myth about the foot mark of Krishna interwoven 
with it. 

Kaliya, a Naga prince of Romanaka, used to live in a tank in 
Vrindavana, and Krishna on one occasion broke its several h< 
and would have destroyed hini altogether when his two wives in- 
terfered. The Naga was let loose and was ordered to return to his 
country. But as he was afraid of Garuda, the carrier eagle of 
Vishnu, he prayed that he might be saved from the attacks of the 
bird. Krishna then assured him that he and his tribes War- 
ing Krishna's foot-mark should be exempted from the attack 

Of tree worship, if worship it is to be called, as it amounts to little 
more than a recognition of benefits received, many instances may 
be quoted in addition to what lias been adduced by Mr. Fergusson. 
In a country like India, anything that offers a cool shelter from the 
burning rays of the sun, is regarded with a feeling of grateful re- 
spect. The wide-spreading banyan tree is planted and nursed with 
care, only because it offers a shelter to many a weary traveller. 
Extreme usefulness of the thing is the only motive perceivable, 
in the careful rearing of other trees. They are protected by 
religious injunctions, and the planting of them is encouraged by 
promises of eternal bliss in the future world. The injunction 

ftrftrt ii 

1870.] The Vdstu Yaga. 221 

against injuring a banyan or a fig tree is so strict, that in the Ea- 
mayana even Eavana, an unbeliever, is made to say, " I have not 
cut clown any fig-tree in the month of Vaisakha, why then does the 
calamity (alluding to the several defeats his army sustained in the 
war with Earnachandra and to the loss of his sons and brother) 
befall me?" 

The medicinal properties of many plants soon attracted notice, 
and were cultivated with much care. With the illiterate, the medi- 
cinal virtues of a drug are increased with its scarcity ; and to 
enhance its value, it was soon associated with difficulties, and to 
keep it secret from public knowledge, it was culled in the dark and 
witching hours of night. 

Trees have frequently been identified with gods : thus in the 
Padma Purana, the religious fig-tree is an incarnation of Vishnu, 
the Indian fig-tree (F. indica) of Eudra, and the Palasa (Butea 
frondosa, Eoxb.) of Brahma.* 

In the Yaraha Purana, the planter of a group of trees of a particu- 
lar species is promised heavenly bliss, and it is needless to point 
out that from the names of the trees recommended, the extreme 
utility of the act must be acknowledged. Thus it is said, " he 
never goes to hell who plants an as'vatha, or a pichumarda, or a 
banian, or ten jessamines, or two pomegranates, apanchdmra, or five 

The Tithitatva gives a slightly different list, substituting two 
champakas, three kes'ara, seven tala-palms, and nine cocoanuts, 
instead of the banian, the jessamines, the pomegranates, and the 

^rcr^TOtf i 

222 The Vadu Yoga. [No. 3, 

As early as the Kamayana, the planting of a group of trees was 
held meritorious. The celebrated Panchavati garden where 8itd was 
imprisoned, has been reproduced by many a religious Hindu, and 
should any of them not have sufficient space to cultivate the 
five trees, the custom is to plant them in a small pot where tiny 
are dwarfed into small shrubs. Such substitutes and make-shifts 
are not at all uncommon in the ecclesiastical history of India. In 
Buddhist India, millions of miniature stone and clay temples, some 
of them not higher than two inches, were often dedicated when more 
substantial structures were not possible. The Panchavati i 
the as'vatha planted on the east side, the vilva or JEgle n :-melos 
on the north, the banian on the west, the Emllica officinalis on the 
south and the asoka on the south-en - 

The Skanda Purana recommends a vilva in the centre and four 
others on four sides ; four banians in four corners, twenty-five 
asokas in a circle, with a myrobalan, on one side, as the constit 
of a great punchavati.f 

Superstition has always been active in drawing nice distinctions 
between the auspicious and the inauspicious, and it is curious to 
observe how the auspicious qualities of some plants have 
extolled. Some are considered auspicious when planted near a 
dwelling house. 

No tree with fruits or blossoms can be cut down, as the following 
sloka threatens the cutter with the destruction of his family and 


t fa^rr# -wm\§ ^ix^ ^^S\ \ 

1870.] The Vdstu Yaga. 223 

^t^rT fi^¥%W W¥f%^ ^T^rf || 

Therefore never cut down any tree that bears good flowers or fruits, if you 
desire the increase of your family, of your wealth and of your future happiness. 

Superstition has associated supernatural properties with, many 
plants, and several have been identified with the gods. 

The durvd, a kind of grass very common in all parts of India, 
is excellent fodder for cattle. It is an essential article in the 
worship of all gods. It is said to have originated from the thigh of 

The religious fig tree makes one rich, the Jonesia Asoka destroys 
all sorrow, the Ficus venosa is said to be useful in sacrifices, 
and the Nim gives much happiness. Syzygium Jambolanum, pro- 
mises heavenly bliss, and the pomegranate a good wife. Ficus 
ghmerata cures diseases, and Butea frondosa gives the protection 
of Brahma. The Calotropis gigantea is useful as it pleases the sun 
every day, the bel-tree pleases Siva, and the Pdtald pleases Parvati. 
The Apsaras are pleased with Bombax malabaricitm, and the Gandhar- 
vas with Jasminum, the Terminalia chebula increases the number of 
servants, and the Mimusops elenchi gives maid-servants. The Tdl is 
injurious to children, and the Mimusops elenchi productive of 
large families. The cocoa-nut gives many wives, and the vine 
gives a beautiful body ; the Cordia latifolia increases desires, and the 
Pandanus odoratissimum destroys all.* 

to*tHit ^rTf^i^t Jim* wh-ws^xt h 

224 The Vdstu Yaya. [No. 3, 

The tamarind tree is considered most inauspicious, and, according 
to the Vaidya Sdstras, is very injurious to health. The Carica 
papeya plant is more so. Though an introduced plant, the natives 
were early acquainted with the injurious influence of the exhala- 
tions from the leaves of the plant. The Sunflower, Helianthus, 
is supposed to emit gases that destroy miasma. 

There is no department of Hindu literature in which the hyper- 
bole has not an important part. The Haritaki, one of the myrobalans, 
is so much valued, that in the following sloka it is said to be more 
invigorating than the milk of a mother. 

Prince, eat Haritaki : it is as beneficial as the mother, the mother may occa- 
sionally get annoyed, but never the swallowed Haritaki. 

The following trees are said to have peculiar virtues. 
w*rw«!r Jtm ^t^ faw: 73*: n 

The Indian fig tree, if on the east side of a house, is always auspicious j so 
also is the Udumvara tree if on the west, and the pipul if on the south, &c. 

The following are supposed to have a peculiar influence on parti- 
cular spots. 

^F5}$ ^TTlTWSf ^zf%^TT^ ^Jf^l I 

<^l^^^^%"a^rf ^*JrS^i*lT II 

1870.] The Vfatn Ydga. 225 

The cocoa-nut tree near the dwelling-house confers wealth on the family, 
and if on the east or north-east of an encampment, the tree is the donor of 
sons. The mango tree, the best of trees, is auspicious at every place, and 
if situated on the east, gives wealth to men. The Bel tree, the jack tree, 
and the citron tree, and the plum tree, are in all situations conducive to pro- 

The Durvashtami is one of the many vratas observed by Hindu 
females. It is celebrated on the eighth, lunar day of the bright 
fortnight of the month of Bha Ira. 

^^srtwf^ftf: <ft: w^\ ww. fsrere ^ I 

On the day fixed for worshipping Durva, a fast is observed, and 
Durva, Grauri, Ganeta, and Siva, are worshipped with rice, fruits, 
and flowers. 

Durva is described as 

w^T*rcf ^Twa fawfwT i 

Dark as the petals of a blue lotus, held on the heads of all gods, pure, born 
from the body of Vishnu, anointed with nectar, free from all sickness, immor- 
tal, incarnation of Vishnu, and giver of good children and virtue, wealth and 

A thread, with eight knots, and fruits, &c, are presented to 
Durva, and the following prayer is then read : 

WW ^T^f^T ^tTPH" ^f% <^*TCT*H: II 
Durva, you are called immortal, and you are worshipped both by gods and 
asuras. Having blessed us with prosperity and children, fulfil all our wishes. 
As you extend over the earth with your suckers and branches, in the same 
way give me healthy and immortal children. 

226 The Viintu Vur/a. [N- 

After the usual puja, the thread with eight k;. 

left arm and the worshipper listens to the legend of Dun a- repeati 

ed by the officiating priest. 

r(*8 ^XjfV f^RJ^i ^rVMdl^rl^Ti^ || 


When the Kshiroda ocean was churned for nectar, Vishnu had with his anna 
and thighs held the Mandar lull, and the forcible rotation of the bill 
hair off his body. 

These were carried by the waves to the other bank and became pnro 
Durva. Thus originated Durva from the body of Vishnu, and upon Durva, the 
excellent nectar, generated from the churning of the ocean, was placed. 

The Asokashtami, the Arunodava Saptami, and the Madanol 
are three other vratas in which trees are worship] 

From the Sa/crotthuna, the rising of Indra alter the new moon 
ceding the Durga puja, the whole fortnight is dovotod t 
other form of tree-worship. 

Asokashtami is observed on the eighth day of the bright fort- 
night of Chaitra. Eight blossoms of Jum-nia asoka in water are 
drunk, with the following mantra : 

In the Bhavishya Parana, the vrata of Arunodaya Saptami is 

^^j^gKf mA iT^T ^TJ3 *PW§ | 

<ro Tung fe^ fu^T^ ^«g wm\ n 

^ST jffafW ^T§ ^^JT^TlXr^^ It 

1870.] The Vdslu Ydgtn 227 

In the month of Chaitra on the thirteenth lunar day, the Mada- 
notsava is celebrated and the Asoka tree is worshipped. 

But the most important instance of tree worship is the Durga- 
puja. Although the festival is^ a rejoicing at the promising crops 
in the field, and although it may be traced to the solar myth and 
Usha or dawn worship, it is undoubtedly one of the most extensive 
festivals of tree-worship. 

Along with the goddess Durga, the Nava patrici or the nine 
leaves are worshipped. The nine are 

On the morning of the first day of the puja, nine branches with 
leaves are tied together with a plant of "^TOferrrr, ( Clitoria ternata, 

alba) and* a twig of the fa^{ bearing a pair of fruits with suitable 

*— __ 

* The following mantras are repeated before cutting the twig. 

^W^Tf% i^T 31^ ^T ^3T T^^q<T: II 
^f f^^^HttJT ^T *f ^^TfsT^ | 
35E^t*?T tHi W3T^ ^qoff 3\TT^ II 
WsTT^^Tl^ ^:*sf ^ ^ 3»r§' vWl 5WF J 
^TO^faT fp^T^f ^T ^feff^jfff: II 

ftalf^flf r^Tlf f^WSW ^TOT^T ^ !l 

*T^T: ^fao^: *^T fait STS^ ^ II 

Sriphala tree, you are born on the mountain Mandar, Meru Kailasa and at 
the top of the Himavat, you are always a favourite of Ainbica. Born on the 
top of the Sri hill Sriphala ! You are the resting-place of prosperity, I take 
you away to worship you as Durga herself. 

Om Vilva tree, most prosperous, always a favourite of Sankara, I worship 
the devi, having taken away your branch. O Lord, you must not mind the 
pain generated by the separation of your branch, for it is said the gods have 
worshipped Durga, having taken away your branch, I bow to the Vilva tree 
I born on the Himalaya mountain, favourite of Parvati and embraced by Siva. 
You are auspicious in action and a favourite of Bhagavati ; for the sake of Bha- 
vani's words, give me all success, 

228 The Vastu Yuya. [N< 

mantras, is stuck into the bundle. The bundle is then anointed with 
various cosmetics and aromatic drugs and oils, and is placed by the 
side of the idols.* The several plants are then separate^ invoked, 
and the goddesses presiding over each, are worshipped. Brahmani 
is the goddess of the Musa paradisaica. K-il ka of the Col 
antiquorum, Durga of the C / cuma longa, Kartiki of Sesbania ( 
tiaca, Siva of 2Egh marmelos, Raktadantika of Punica gran 
Sokarahita of Jonesia asoka, Chamunda of Culocasia indica, and 
Lakshmi of Orijza sativa. 

The following are the mantras for worshipping them : 

s^fw ^nN *nfcrf ^ ?IW[^ ^ n 
* With the following mantras the nine plant! are anointed with water. 

^tttst^ ^far *r wv ^fa izi w n 

^rf ^t^^f^^if* *t^t f^rsnj^grr: i 

ogf tttstt ^ttt* ir^j *?r*nTta: ITT^r: I 

1870.] The Vastu Yoga. 229 

^f ^fri ^^qif% ^*n^Tf<? ism i 
^Tftftn^TT ¥% i>^€^ ^t^t ^ ii 

^JiTftfTRTTT WT^T*rsiT3f ^T fTO II 
^f ^^T ^ "^^T WT¥W ^T^tf^ I 

Om, salutation be to Brahrnani, the goddess dwelling in the 
plantain tree. Om, Devi Durga, welcome, come near us. In the 
Brahma form distribute peace to all. Om, salutations be to 

Om, salutation be to Kalika, the goddess dwelling in the Arum 
plant. Om, good-natured in the war of Mahisha demon, you be- 
came arum plant. Om, the beloved of Hara, come hither for my 

Om, salutation be to Durga, the goddess, dwelling in the turmeric 
plant. Om, Haridra, you are Hara incarnate. Om, good-natured 
you are Uma incarnate. For the destruction of my ill-luck, do re- 
ceive my puja and be propitiated. 

Om, salutation be to Kartiki, the goddess, dwelling in the Sesva- 
nia plant. Om, during the destruction of Sumbha and Nisumbha, 

230 The Vditu Yttf/a. 

demons, goddess of success, you wore worshipped by Indra and all 
gods. Be pleased with us. 

Orn, salutation be to Siva, the goddess, dwelling in the vilva tree. 
Om, beloved of Mahadeva and beloved of Vishnu, beloved of Uma, 
vilva tree, I salute you. 

Om, salutation be to Raktadantika (blood-teethed), the goddess, 
dwelling in the pomegranate tree. Om, formerly in the war, you 
became Dadimi in the presence of Raktavija demon, you acted the 
part of Uma, therefore bless us. 

Om, salutation be to Sokarahita (devoid of sorrow), the god< • 
dwelling in the asoka tree. Om, Asoka tree, you please .Siva and 
you destroy all sorrow. Make me Borrowless in the .same wa 
you please Durga. 

Om, salutation be to Chainunda, the goddess, dwelling in the 
Man tree. Om, on whose leaves rests the Devi, beloved of Sachi, 
for my prosperity receive my puja. 

Om, salutations be to Lakshmi, the goddess, dwelling in the rice 
plant. Om, for the preservation of the life of all beings you were 
created by Brahma. Om, preserve me in tho same way as voii 
please Uma. 

The following is a list of plants regarded by the Hindus with 
religious veneration. Some of these are worshipped on certain 
occasions, and others are connected with several forms of worship.. 

^mrar — Jonesia asoka. 

^T^SJ — Ficus religiosa. 

^fT3^ — Calotropis gigantca, R. 

"^T^^t — Emblica officinalis, Giirtn. 

3T^ — Colocasia antiquorum, L. 

W^f^ — Nauclea cadomba, Roxb. 

^f%«*<*N — N. cordifolia, Roxb. 

^"^^t — Musa paradisaica, L. 

f^Tff — Azadiraclita indica, Ad Juss. 

WT?J — Butea frondosa, Roxb. 

*rrf%<TT*TT^K — Erythiina indica, Lam. 

^TJ%*T — Punica granatum, L. 

^«3T — Cynodon dactylon. 

^^TT— Datura alba, Rumph. 

1870.] The Vdstu Yoga. 231 

— Mimusops elengi, L. 
^T^T^I — Ipomoea reptans, Poir. 
"^TrJ^^ft — Ocimum adscendens, Willd. 
sfFt^TT — Acacia arabica, Willd. 
ir^r — -33gle marraelos, Cuv, 
vg^pft — Salvia plebeia, R. 

<* I — Colocasia indica. 

^ffi^^T — Pterocarpus santalum, L. 

^r*TrJ^*ft — Adenanthera pavokina, L. 

ijin^T — Zrophis asp era, Eetz. 

%T*J^J<TT — Sarcostema acidum, Roxb. 

^^rt — Leucas martinicensis, R. 

^ftltT — Curcuma longa, Roxb. 

^tfa^ft — Mirobalans cbeduba, L. 

^5^. — Poa cynosuroides, Retz. 

l^rJ^T^ft — 0. sanctum, L. 

3TO — Saacbarum spontaneum, L. 

i^f^T — Acacia catechu, L. 

?srp5R: — Phoenix silvestris, Roxb. 

«TTf^\ — Sesbania cefyptiaca, Pers. 

•TTIT^^I — Cocos nucifera, L. 

1% W§t — Strychnos potatorum, L. 

"^T^ — Mangifera indica, L. 

iTT^ — Bignonea suaveolens, L. 

*ra^3T — Ficus glomerata, Roxb. 

Sj^wl — Ocimum vellosum. 

m«5J — Oryza sativa, L. 

•fl^T — Ghrilandina bonduc, L. 

^f— Agati grandiflorani, Desre. 

"TO— -Ficus indica, L. 

"3«r^Tf^J— Desmodium gyrans, L. 

T9^T — Terminalia moluccana, Roxb. 

"^T^fJ^rt — Ocimum basilicum, pilosum, Benth. 

v\TZ — Clerodendron viscosum, Vent. 

^TSffWrTT — Hiptage madablota, Garts. 

^rrefcffWT— Phaseolus roxburghii, W. A. 

232 The Bonhara Temple. [No. 3, 

^f^ir — Luvunga scandens, Bueh. 
"»UT — Acacia suma, Buch. 
f^rTT^f— Phoenix paludosa, Bozb. 
efrcf^^trrr — Pterospermum acerifotuin, L. 
^sr «r — Mirobalaus arguna, "W. 

Extracts from my Diary regarding tie Honiara Temple near Omerpore, 
Behdr, and other Antiquities of the place. — By B ybu RASHiiiiiAiti 
Bose, Sub-Divisional Officer, Banka, Bhagalpur. 

December 7th, 1869. — At 5 p. m., I went to Bonhara, which 
is almost contiguous to Omerpore, to see the large dighi or tank 
and the mosque on its bank, which are generally ascribed to Prime 
Shah Shuja'. The tank is about 1300 feet in length and about 
700 feet broad. It is gradually filling up, but is never dry ; and 
in the centre, the water is said to be very deep. Traces may be 
seen of the large masonry steps leading to it on the eastern bank, 
on which the mosque stood. Old people still remember that tli.'ie 
was a covered passage leading from the mosque to the tank, by 
which Muhamiuadan ladies could carry water to the former, without 
exposing themselves to the gaze of the multitude bathing in the 
latter. The mosque has entirely disappeared, several mounds of 
bricks embedded in the earth being all that is left to mark the 
spot where it stood. But a marble slab which was placed on it by 
the founder, bearing inscriptions in Arabic, may still be seen by 
the side of a tomb latterly erected near the place. The inscrip- 
tions, I was told, had never before been deciphered,* though many 
of the learned had attempted it. But as it grew dark, I was 
obliged to return to camp. 

December 8th, 1869. — On enquiry, I learnt that the mosque, 
which, in the language of the peasantry, had been as high as the 
tallest of the palm trees, was pulled down by Zemindar Banee- 
prasad Chowdry for the sake of some hidden treasure it contained, 

* The inscription was published in the Proceedings of the Society for 
November, 1870. 

1870. J The Bonhara Temple. 233 

but which no one dared to touch on account of the solemn in] unction, 
said to be recorded on the marble slab, to the effect that the offender, 
if a Hindu, was to eat beef, and if a Muhammadan, was to take pork, 
For seven days and nights, so runs the legend, the treasure consist- 
ing of gold and silver coins, was carried in carts to Baneepra- 
sad's house. He was formerly one of the greatest and richest 
zemindars in the Sub-Division, but the moment the hidden wealth 
was dug up in spite of the solemn injunction, the ghost of the 
original owner haunted him day and night : he never after pros- 
pered in whatever he undertook ; he became almost insane ; his 
wealth disappeared, no one knew how ; his estates were sold ; the 
indigo factory he had raised on the western bank of the tank with 
the bricks taken from the mosque, fell into disuse ; and at last he 
died a ruined man. This is believed to be the fate of all who mis- 
appropriate hidden treasure. In some cases, the treasure is sup- 
posed to be guarded by hideous snakes, wasps, or ghosts. The 
treasure often appears to its intended victim in dreams, reveals the 
place of its concealment, and asks him to sacrifice his son or sons 
before digging it out. If he misappropriate it without sacrificing 
what is wanted, his children are sure to die, or he himself 
becomes blind. Few people in this country therefore run the 
risk of misappropriating hidden treasure. It is then no wonder if 
Baneeprasad, after committing the sacrilege, was haunted by a 
guilty conscience, and was reduced from affluence to poverty, as is 
proved by the condition of his grandsons at the present day. It 
must have been in a moment of deep repentance that he rebuilt a 
tomb erected to one La'l Khan which he had pulled down, and 
placed on it the tablet belonging to the mosque. 

At 7 A. m., I went to the place with a Maulawi, in order to decipher 
the inscription on the tablet. After poring over it for nearly an 
hour, he declared his inability to proceed further than the first line, 
especially as the ignorant mason had placed the slab upside down. 
After the kacheri was over at 4 p. m., I therefore visited the tomb 
once more, and after having rubbed some ink and oil over the in- 
scription, obtained an impression of it on paper, which was made 
over to several learned Maulawis to decipher. Afterwards I went to 
see another very old tank about a mile further north, which goes 

234 The Bonhara Temple. [N< 

by the name of Namaz Talao, signifying "tank for prayer." It 
is situated in the midst of a large plain, and is now used as a place 
for the cremation of the dead. 

At 4 p. ic, I went to see the remains of the old fort of Debi Raja 
at Duinrawan which is about a mile north from the town of 
Omerpur. The fort was about a mile or more in circuit, coi 
ing entirely of mud walls surrounded by a deep ditch. The only 
approaches to the fort were by seven large gates, some of which 
are still to be seen. The walls near these gates are tolerabljj 
high, but in most places they are Bcarcely more than two <>r thive 
feet above ground, while in few places they have been levelled \\ it li 
the ground by the cultivator's plough. There was a small fort 
within the fort for the accommodation of the women, and in it there 
is a small tank which still goes by the name of ' Ranee GurreaJ 
or the Ranee's tank. Near this tank lie some bricks to mark the 
spot where stood the palace of the Raja or his seraglio. 

It was within this fort that the last struggle for independence 
made by the Khetauri Raja against the Muhammadan invaders aj 
pears to have taken place. Tradition haa preserved an anecdote 
regarding the romantic courage and prowess evinced by Debi 
Raja during the contest. 

It is said that being besieged by the Muhamniadans in his capital, 
and finding himself unequal to the contest, he resolved to abandon 
his capital, and left it at night with his little band of devoted 
followers. A washer-woman, who was with child, could not run 
so fast as the soldiers wished. One of the latter having there- 
upon sneeringly observed, with reference to her pregnancy, " "Who 
told you to bring yourself to this pass?" she replied: — "The 
Raja told me to do so ; for had I known he would cowardly desert 
his capital, I should not have been what I am." This speech be- 
ing reported to the Raja, he felt ashamed of Ins cowardice, imme- 
diately returned to his capital with his troops, contested, at fearful 
odds, every inch of ground with the enemy, and was at last cut off 
to a man. 

It is believed by some that the Raja had an improper connection 
with the washer- woman. 

1870.] An Account of Copilmuni and its Antiquities. 235 

An Account of Copilmuni and its Antiquities, in connection with the 
Fair held there in March, 1868, being extracts from my Diaries of a 
cold weather tour in Sub-Division Khulnea in Jessore. — By Ba- 
boo Kashbihari Bose, Sub-Divisional Officer, Banka, Bhagal- 


March. 20th, 1868. — I examined many respectable people about 
the origin of the fair, but no one could give a satisfactory 
account. They have lived up to old age, as their fathers did be- 
fore them, without troubling themselves about the inquiry. They 
even wondered why I took the trouble of asking them about it. 
According to them, the fair is held because it has been held 
before. I called and examined the mohunts of the place, who are 
the descendants of Bagnath Mohunt, a recluse of great sanctity who 
is said to have buried himself alive near the temple or rather the 
hermitage of Copil ; but they could give me no other information 
than that the fair used to be held before the time of their great 
ancestor, though on a smaller scale than at present, 

March 21st, 1868. — On my way back, I found a large number 
of pilgrims going to bathe in the Oopotuc, which, during the Ba- 
roni festival, is considered to assume the sacred virtues of the 
Ganges. The vast multitude of pilgrims that come to bathe in the 
stream at this time of the year, . has no doubt given rise to the 
mela, or fair. But the difficulty lies in accounting for the Oopotuc 
being considered at the time of the Baroni to be as sacred as the 

On my return to my tent, I received a visit from the priest of the 
temple of Copileshuri, the goddess who is supposed to preside over 
the destiny of Copilmuni. He was unwilling to relate the tradi- 
tions connected with the fair, they being, he said, idle stories 
which were not fit for the ear of a hakim. Being, however, pres- 
sed on the subject, he stated that it was on the thirteenth day after 
the full moon, (the clay of the Baroni festival) that Oopil became 
Sidha, or had his prayers accepted in heaven, and it was to 
commemorate that event that he instituted the fair, which had 
continued to be held on that day. This account does not satis- 

236 An Account of Copil muni and its Antiquities. [No. 3, 

factorily explain how the Copotuc came to assume the virtues of 
the sacred Ganges. The priest further related that the daughter 
of one Bungsi Chakrabati came one evening to light up the temple 
of Copileshuri, but both the girl and the goddess thereupon disap- 
peared from the temple. The bereaved father having searched for 
his child in vain, at last fell in dhurna before the temple. On the 
third day, the goddess appeared to him in his dream, and said, she 
had destroyed the girl for presuming to enter her temple in an 
impure dress, and that her own stone image having deserted the 
new temple so profaned, had retired to the ancient temple built by 
Copil, which was to be found beneath the waters of Copotuc, but 
that she would continue to accept the offerings made in the former 
before an image built of clay. The priest further related a story 
about Bagnath Mohunt to the effect that he sent something which 
cannot be mentioned with decency, enclosed in an earthen pot I 
present to the emperor of Dilhi ; but when the enraged monarch 
ordered it to be thrown open, he was surprised to see it hlled with 
the sweetest things in the world. Some of the jagirs granted to 
Bagnath on that occasion are held by his descendants up to this 

Around the tomb of Ja'far-Aulia, a Muhammad an saint who died 
about seventy years ago, and a few yards from those of the [ 
Copil and Bagnath, was gathered this day a large crowd of pilgrims, 
chiefly women, who had come to bathe in the stream. These wo- 
men kept up singing the whole night through, almost disturbing 
the bones of the mighty saint. 

At night, I received visits from a large number of respectable men 
of the surrounding villages. In reply to my inquiries about the 
origin of the fair, one of them stated that Copil's mother having 
expressed a desire to go on a pilgrimage to the Ganges at the time 
of Baroni, when that sacred river is thought to become sj^ecially 
sacred, Copil said she need not take so much trouble, as lie could 
bring the goddess herself to grace the stream flowing beneath her 
cottage. Accordingly on the day of Baroni, Copil invoked the 
Ganga, and the goddess testified her presence in the Copetuc by 
thrusting her hand out of the water, the rest of her body remain- 
ing buried under the waves. It is said that at the request of Co- 



1870.] An Account of Copilmuni and its Antiquities. 237 

pil, she agreed in future to appear at that place for an hour at the 
time of the Baroni festival, in consequence of which the stream flow- 
ing under the hermitage of Copil became sacred on that particular 
day, and attracted crowds of pilgrims from the surrounding villages. 
March 22nd, 1868. — At dawn, I went to the river side to wit- 
ness the bathing of the pilgrims. In order to have a better view of 
the scene, I entered a boat on the river, and rowed up to the 
place where the hermitage or the temple of Copil is supposed to lie 
buried beneath the waters. To my front was the tomb of Ja'far- 
Aulia, which both Hindus and Muhammadans revere as con- 
taining the mortal remains of one who knew the past, the present, 
and the future. On my right, stood the Nimba tree which is said 
to have witnessed the birth, suicide, and resurrection of Bagnath 
Molmnt : for three days after he had buried himself alive under its 
shade, his disciples could find no trace of his body under the earth. 
On my left was the temple of Copileshuri, containing the un- 
sightly image of a naked goddess standing with up-lifted hands 
and protruding tongue over the prostrate body of her divine lord, 
and rendered still more hideous by wreaths of bloody heads hang- 
ing by way of ornament from her neck down to her knees. In the 
space enclosed between these sacred monuments of by-gone ages, 
were assembled about four thousand pilgrims, eager to wash off 
their sins at the ghat where Copil's mother is supposed to have seen 
the Ganga. Husbands going arm in arm with their bashful wives, 
and women taking their infant children on their breasts, rushed 
promiscuously to the stream. Many of them were provided with a 
small piece of bark from the plantain tree containing a few grains 
of rice and teel, some leaves from the tulsi, a piece or two of 
ripe plantain, and some sweetmeats. Over these they pronounced 
mantras dictated by their priest, and then throwing a portion 
into the stream, greedily devoured the rest. Several were seen to 
offer sweetmeats to Copileshuri, which gave the officiating priest 
an opportunity of playing the part of a shopkeeper with a ven- 
geance ; for he had set up a shop of his own, from which the 
pilgrims were required to purchase the sweetmeats, as being most 
acceptable to the goddess, and as soon as they were offered before 
her image, they were again transferred to his shop and sold to the 

238 An Account of Gopibnuni and its Antiquities. [No. 3, 

next pilgrim who called for the purpose. In this way he appeared 
to have realized a profit of a rupee on every pice worth of goods 
he had in his shop. 

Among the pilgrims, I could not find a single kayast, boido, or 
brahman. All the lower classes of Hindus, almost without a sin- 
gle exception, were present. The reason is, the three higher i 
es named above do not believe in the sanctity of the Copotuc at 
the time of the Baroni. This would seem to prove that Oopii 
was born of low parentage. Indeed, he is suspected by some to 
be an ancestor of the present niohimts of Copilmuni, who are Ju- 
gis (cloth-weavers) by caste. Hence his influence over the higher 
castes of Hindus is very small. It i bate that Copi] 

is a different individual from his great namesake who iigur 
conspicuously in the Hamayan, and is said to have destroyed 
thousand sons of Hajah Sagur on being disturbed by them in his 
devotions, which subsequently caused the Ganges, in compliance 
with the prayers of one of their descendants, named Bhagirath, to 
pour from the heavens like an avalanche over the Himalaya, and 
thence thundering down to the plains, pass over the spot where 
his ancestors had been reduced to ashes. 

March 23rd, 1868. — At night I received visits from the res 
table people of Mahmudkati, Hurridhahe, &c. One of them 
stated, on the authority of an old man who had again heard it from 
his grandfather, that on the day of the Baroni festival, Copi] 
became Sidha, and being anxious to test the fact by ocular demon- 
stration, invoked his favourite goddess. The goddess came riding 
over the waves, and when she departed, Copil threw himself into her 
waters and died praying that on the anniversary of his death she 
would make her appearance on that spot for an hour. This, how- 
ever, differs from the popular account given above. 

March 24th, 1868. — I heard a legend about Copil. It is said, 
he used daily to bathe in the Granges at dawn, and then perform 
his morning prayers at his hermitage on the banks of the Copotuc, 
the distance travelled being about three days' journey. 

March 26th, 1868. — At dawn I took a walk towards the fa- 
mous old tank known by the name of Lahona Khulna. It is 
perfectly dry and overgrown with tall trees, which the superstitious 

1870.] An Account of Copilmuni and its Antiquities. 239 

wood-cutters dare not touch. The barren women from the sur- 
rounding villages come to bathe in a well in the tank, in the belief 
that a dip in its waters would make them fruitful. Almost contig- 
uous to the Lahona Khulna, flows the small rivulet which goes 
by the name of Magra. The readers of the immortal work called 
Kavi Kunkun Chandi are aware that Lahana and Khulna are 
the wives of Dhonoputty Sadager, and that the Magra is the river 
where his son Srimunto Sadager encountered a terrific storm raised 
by the goddess Chandi to test his sincerity and devotion to her. 
It is therefore believed that Copilmuni or its neighbourhood is 
the place where the scene of Kavi Kankan Chandi is laid. In 
proof of this, people further appeal to the remains of ancient build- 
ings found buried in the bosom of the earth at a place called Agra, 
which is about a mile north-east of Copilmuni, while the Lahana 
Khulna and Magra are situated about two miles towards the 
south-east. But the poet lays the scene of his hero's birth-place 
at Ujaini, or Ujeni, which is the name of the capital of Malwa. 
This discrepancy may, however, be reconciled by the supposition 
that the place was formerly called Ujani, which was afterwards 
changed into Copilmuni by the famous anchorite of that name. 
A pandit suggested to me the improbability of a small place on 
the banks of the Copotuc bearing the classical name of Ujaini, on 
which I reminded him that the contiguous village was called Agra. 
It is natural for a man to associate himself with great names ; and 
if Dhonoputty Sadagar or his son Srimunto chose to call his mari- 
time port according to the city of the Great Akbar, he might as well 
designate his birth-place the capital of the romantic and heroic 

March 27th, 1868. — At dawn I took a walk as far as Agra, 
with a view to see the remains of ancient buildings supposed to have 
belonged to Dhonoputty Sadagar. In several places there are little 
hillocks of earth in the form of cones, whose apexes are about twenty 
feet above the level of the surrounding country. In these lie 
buried magnificent brick structures which have sunk entire in the 
bosom of the earth, — time's all destroying hand having as yet 
worked upon them in vain. In one place are to be seen walls 
about eight feet broad, which probably once formed the wings of a 

240 An Account of Copilmuni and -its Antiquities. [No. 3, 

gigantic temple. In front of it are the remains of a pucca road which 
seem to have extended as far as the river. The cultivators in the 
neighbourhood told me that for a mile or two around, bricks might 
be found in various places only a few inches under ground. 
Considering all that has been stated before, it is impossible to 
resist the conviction that Copilmuni and its neighbourhood con- 
tain the ruins of a large city whose splendours have long sinef 
passed away. 

March 28th, 1868. — At night, I heard two legends about 
Ja'far-Aulia. They are as follows : — A certain man had a cow 
which he prized much, but it sickened and died. Being extremely 
poor, he goes to Ja'far-Aulia and cries till his eyes are red. " Why 
do you cry," said the prophet, " Your cow is not dead, it is only 
sleeping." Thereupon he called one of his disciples, and .-aid, 
11 Take this stick which I give unto thee, and having touched the 
cow with it, call the animal hither." The disciple goes to the held 
and striking the cow with the stick, says, Cl Why deepest thou 
so long ? Come, thy master calls." The cow rose as if it had been 
sleeping, and followed the disciple to the cottage of Ja'far-Aulia. 

A disciple of Ja'far-Aulia once did a wrong act. The saint 
said to his other disciples, u Oo and throw him into the river in a 
gunny bag, after closing its mouth with a string." The disciples 
did as they were directed to do, but the bag would not sink and 
floated down the stream. The prophet was at the time on his way 
to the Sundarbun. "When he had completed a day's journey, the 
disciple within the bag cried and said, " Master, behold I am not 
dead. Take pity on a fallen creature and restore me to thy favour." 
The saint thereupon ordered his disciples to take the bag from 
the river, and let out the culprit, considering him sufficiently pun- 





No. IV.— 1870. 

On the Funeral Ceremonies of the Ancient Hindus. — By Bdbu 

Ra'jendrala'la Mitra. 

[Read November, 1870.] 
Two elaborate papers have already appeared on the funeral cere- 
monies of the Hindus. The first, by H. T. Colebrooke, was publish- 
ed in the Transactions of this Society about seventy years ago,* and 
an abstract of it was soon after issued in Ward's History of the 
Hindus. It contains the modern ritual as given in the Suddhi Tatt- 
va of Raghunandana and other current works on the subject. The 
second, entitled Die Todtenbestattung bei den Brahmanen, appeared 
in the 9th volume of the Zeitschrift of the German Oriental Society. 
Dr. Max Miiller, its author, gives in it the whole of As'valaya- 
na's Sutras on the ancient ritual, and quotes largely from the Rig 
Veda Saiihita and the aphorisms of Katyayana. A portion of it, 
that bearing on the sepulchral ceremonies, has since been rendered 
into English, by that learned scholar, and published by Professor 
Wilson as a part of his Essay " on the supposed Vaidik authori- 
ty for the burning of Hindu widows."! Dr. Max Miiller is of 
opinion that — " These burial ceremonies have been described 
in detail by As'valayana only, and it is possible that the burial was 

* Asiatic Researches, VII. pp. 232—285. Essays, I. 155. 
t Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, XVI, pp. 201-214. 


242 On the Funeral Ceremonies oj the ancient Hindus. [No. 4, 

not considered as an essential part of that class of rites which is 
comprehended under the name of Samskara." Such, however, does 
not seem to be the case ; for the whole of the funeral ceremonies, 
including those required to be observed at burials, are given in 
detail in the sixth chapter of the Ar any alia of the Black Yajur 
Veda, aphorised by Baudhayana and Bharadvaja in their Sutras, 
and commented upon by Sayana A'charya. I find that lliranya- 
kes'i also has written on the subject, but I have not his work at 
hand to refer to, nor has Sayana noticed him. A hand-book for 
the performance of funeral ceremonies, professing to be founded on 
the rules of Hiranyakes'i, exists in the Society's Library and is 
entitled : — Hiranyakes'yanteshti-prayo'jamani ; but it is a compilation 
by a modern author, Abhayankara Bhatta, and does not correspond 
with the rules of the other Sutrakaras. It treats of the whole of 
the rites due on the first thirteen days after death, but it does not 
anywhere quote the rules of Hirapyakes'i, and so simplifies the 
operations detailed in the works of the early writers that it cannot 
be accepted as a trustworthy guide to the most ancient ritual. 

The Xranyaka describes fche ceremonies under the title of Pitri- 
medha, or rites for the welfare of the manes, 3 all the man- 

tras required for the ceremonials of the first ten days after death, 
leaving the srdddha, or the rites meet for the eleventh day, altoge- 
ther unnoticed. The mantras are taken mostly from the Rig Veda, 
and arranged in consecutive order, but without any clue to the par- 
ticular rituals for which they are intended. The two Sutrakaras 
supply this deficiency, and as they point out several peculiarities 
not to be found in As'valayana, I propose to give here a summary 
of the subject. The bulk of the mantras and the rules are the 
same as given by As'valayana ; but as that author's work, lately 
published by the Society, has already been commented upon by 
Dr. Max Miiller,* it is not necessary to notice it in detail. 

The first mantra given in the Aranyaka refers to the perfor- 
mance of a homa immediately after the death of a man who had 
always maintained the sacrificial fires in his house. According to 
Baudhayana, four offerings should be made, while touching the 

* Vide passim Grimm's Essay on the Burning of the Dead, and Dr. Koth's 
article " on Burial in India." 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 243 

right hand of the dead, to the Gdrhapatya fire, with a spoon over- 
flowingly full of clarified butter. Bharadvaja prefers the Ahavaniya 
fire, and is silent as to whether the offering should be fourfold or 
not. Xs'valayana recommends the rite to be performed at a 
subsequent stage of the funeral. All three take it for granted 
that death has happened within the house, if not near the place 
where the sacrificial fires are kept, and none has anything to say 
regarding the taking of the dying to the river-side, or of the cere- 
mony of immersing the lower half of the body in water at the 
moment of death, (antarjali) which forms so offensive a part of the 
modern ceremonial in Bengal, and which has been, by a flourish 
of incisive rhetoric and at a considerable sacrifice of truth, called 
"ghat murder." Looking to this negative evidence against it, to its 
total absence in other parts of India, and to the oldest authorities 
on the subject being the most recent of the Puranas, it may be 
fairly concluded that it is of modern origin. None of the authori- 
ties usually quoted, enjoin it as a positive duty, and it has come into 
general practice probably since the date of Raghunandana and his 
contemporary Smritikaras of the 16th century.* 
* The authorities usually quoted are the following : — 

*jf%fHsr ^*> i ^ipT^f Fqww: shwt 3»*i*nf?r ^t^r - i ^ ti^ti* 

" I shall relate to you, handsome-faced, the merit of giving up life in the 
Ganges. I give him (who does so) my own rank, and pour in his ears the 
mantra of the Great Brahma." Skanda Purdna, quoted in the Suddhi tattva. 

" He who fasting dies with half his body immersed in the water of the Jab- 
navi (Ganges), is never born again, and attains equality with Brahma." Agni 
Purdna, quoted in the Prdyaschitta tattva. 

" The embodied who dies with its body up to the navel in water, attains the 
fruit of all the sacred waters, tirthas. There is no doubt about it." Skanda 

f^TCTJHJTT I 3ITT^t SFSTfTf ^ *^T *?^ T f^QW TiW I ^ I 
" After giving up the body in the Ganges there is no second birth." Kriya* 


" Even the crime of Brahmanicide may be expiated by giving up the body in 
the Gauges." Kriydyogasdra. 

244 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Jlindut. [No. 4, 

After the homa, a cot made of Udumbara wood (Ficus glomarata) 
is to be provided, and, having spread on it a piece of black antelope 
skin with the hairy side downwards and the head pointing to the 
sonth, the corpse is to be laid thereon with the face upwards. A 
son, brother or other relative, or in their absence whoever takes the 
lead, should next address the corpse to give up its old clothing, 
and dress it in a new suit.* The body is then covered with a pieoa 
of unbleached, uncut cloth, having fringes on both sides ; the op- ra- 
tion being performed while repeating a mantra. f Then, wrapping 
it in its bedding or a mat, it is to be borne on its cot to the pla 
cremation. The removal, according to some authorities, should be 
made by aged slaves ; according to others on a cart drawn by two 
bullocks. The mantra for the purpo . " I harness th( Be two 

bullocks to the cart, for the conveyance of your life, whereby \<>u 
may repair to the region of Yama — to the place where the virtuous 
resort,"| clearly indicating that the most ancient custom was, to 
employ a cart and not men. As'vahiyana suggests one bullock. Any- 
how, the ancient Sutrakaraa evince none of the repugnance to the 
employment of Sudras for the removal of the corpse of a Brahman, 
which the modern Smarthas entertain on the subject. According to 
the latter, none but the kith and kin of the dead should perform 
this duty, and the touch of other than men of one's own caste is pol- 
lution, which can be atoned for only by the performance of an ex- 
piatory ceremony. § When Sir Cecil lieadon, the late Lieutenant^ 

* The mantra for the purpose says : — 

*&Qi fa 3*ra ii ^ ii 

" Give up the cloth thou hast hitherto worn ; remember the ishta and purta 
sacrifices thou hast performed, the fees (to Brahmans thou hast given) and those 
(gifts thou hast) bestowed on thy friends." 

t T^^TT ^m srotf ^TJPT II ^ II 

" This cloth comes to thee first." 

J ^^TT*JT ^JUrejT *TS eTf?<3J«r cfi£?T ^T ^2J ^TOT* SI^W Tf V' 

t^t -sprfe* ^ ^m\ w*r>if^ ^ret i umi ^w ^rec*f ^wrsTfa 


§ This prejudice first manifested itself, though in a mitigated form, in the 
time of Mann, who says, " Let no kinsman, whilst any of his own class are at 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 245 

Governor of Bengal, proposed the removal of the Hindu dead of 
Calcutta by the Mutlah Kailway to Gariah, the strongest opposition 
was offered by the people, on the ground that it would involve a 
most serious pollution and loss of caste, to allow a corpse to be 
touched by other than its own caste men. They quoted a number 
of texts in support of their opinion, including those given above, 
and had no doubt custom — a greater authority than written laws — 
to plead in their favour ; but the most revered and most ancient of 
their Sastras was opposed to them, for it recommended for the 
Brahman dead a bullock cart as the most fitting conveyance, and 
a Siidra slave as its substitute. 

The road from the house to the burning-ground used to be di- 
vided into three stages, and at the end of each, the procession used 
to halt, deposit the body on its cot on the ground, and address a 
mantra. As'valayana says nothing about the division of the road 
into stages, nor of the mantras to be repeated, but recommends the 
procession to be headed by the eldest member of the family. The 
first mantra in the Aranyaka runs as follows : " Pusha, who knows 
the road well, has well-trained animals, to carry you, and is the 
protector of regions, is bearing you away hence ; may he translate 
you hence to the region of the pitris. May Agni, who knows what 

hand, cause a deceased Brahman to be carried out by a Sudra ; since the 
funeral rite, polluted by the touch of a servile man, obstructs his passage to 
heaven." Chap. V. ver. 104. The following are the subsequent authorities : — 

ftp I ^WFfF ^fHw 5^ ^ ng i?T^3^TcT | ^HTO ^^IT^fac^f i?^- 

" The Brahman (dead) should not be removed by a Sudra, or a Sudra (dead) 
by a Brali man. Vishnu. 

"Whoever causes fire, grass, wood, and ghi to be brought by a Stidra (should 
perform an expiatory rite). Yama. I shall now relate to you the mode of puri- 
fication as ordained by Manu, from the pollution caused by a dog, Sudra, an 
outcaste and the low dying in the house of a Brahman. Ten nights for a dog, 
month for a Sudra, twice that time for an outcaste, and twice that for the 
low. The house should be forsaken in the case of the lowest, says Manu. 
Vrihanmanu. A house becomes purified in three days after the death of a 
Brahman ; the courtyard outside of the house is purified in one day by the touch 
of fire, and by smearing it with cow dung. Yama. 

246 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Ht,< [No. 4, 

is meet for you, bear you away."* The commentator in explaining 
the term Anashtapaft'ii u well-trained animals," attempts to include 
in the text the slaves recommended by the Stitrakiraa by the re- 
mark " the human bearers are fcwo-footed animals, and the two bnli 
locks four-footed animals :" vdhakdhmanushyah dvipdt-pasavah at 
hau chatuepdtpark. Tlie second and the third mantras are, in 
substance, very much like the first, and call for no remark. 

A most important member of the funeral procession is an animal 
called anustaran't. or rdjagtuA. An old COW is recommended as 
the most appropriate, next a black one, next a black-eyed one, next 
one with black hairs, and lastly one with black hoofs. If none of 
these are available, a black tender-hooted goat may 1 
As'valayana recommends an animal of one colour, or a black kid, and 
says that it should be brought with a rope tied to the near fore- 
foot. Tim animal is to be brought with the mantra, " Prote< I 
regions, this is an offering for thee."f An oblation ie to be p 
on the fire in connexion with this offering with the idd or cha 
spoon, saying, " May this prove acceptable to wealthy Agni."J 

According to the Butrakaras, the cow Bhould be Bacrifi 
should any accident happen at the time of th- 
ief t foot is to be broken, and the \ sed with dust) 

• ■ •■ '• ; I at the end of the first stage. 

31antra to be repeated at the end of the second stage. 

^Hfci*^*T <TT ^ Slfg^TST II < II 

" Pusliii knows all these sides ; may he bear you away hence by the safest 
road ; may he, who is beneficent, kind to us, and mighty against all, knowing 
the road well, lead us without obstruction." 

Mantra to be repeated at the end of the third stage. 

"Sp! rt ^w^r wi ^m ^rf^rn ^Trf ll *> || 

" The life, the life of the world wishes to take charge of you. May Pusha, 
leading, protect you in the difficult road ; may the divine sun, leading you by 
the way of the virtuous, place you where the pious dwell." 

J ^rr ^ftum ^T^T II <£ II 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 247 

the animal is to be set free. The mantra for the sacrifice says : 
" Companion of the dead, we have removed the sins of the dead by 
thee ; so that no sin or decrepitude may approach us."* The address 
after the immolation runs thus : " Companion of the dead, we have 
made thy life inert ; thou attainest the earth by thy body, and the 
region of the manes by thy life. Pardon us and our children in 
this world."f A third address to the cow follows when her body is 
being dusted, it is to this effect — " dear one, say not that I am 
so killed, for thou art a goddess and virtuous, going to the region 
of the Pitris, travelling by the adorable sky : keep us well supplied 
with milk in this and the future world. "J 

If it be necessary to let loose the cow, she is to be made to walk 
thrice round the pyre, while the leader repeats a mantra each time, 
then sanctified by another which simply says, " Maj^est thou be a 
source of satisfaction by thy milk to those who are living (in my 
family), and those who are dead, and those who are just born, as well 
as those who may be born hereafter, "§ and, lastly, let loose with the 
words, " This cow is the mother of the Buclras, the daughter of the 
Vasus, the sister of the Adityas, and the pivot of our happiness, 
therefore I solemnly say unto all wise men, kill not this sacred 
harmless cow. Let her drink water and eat grass. Om ! I let her 
loose. "|| 

The next operations are to dig a trench, arrange fuel thereon, 
wash, shave and pare the nails of the corpse, and place it on the pyre 

■qfrr II \o n 

t ^to ^T^fa fa ^ siTwfa^ i ^ft^nr *n£tfaf% ^nraf% fare^- 

§ ^ ^TT T{ xT *£*TT i? WTrTT ^ ^ «TW I TOT WST ^Kfag 

?npm ^?ft ii 

|| *UrTT W^f ^f^cTT ^TT^ ^TSSfao^T^W TTfa: | 5PJ ^r*f 

farf%spi *rere wt ^T^^run^fafa ^f*re I fa^^p m^rwri \ ^nj- 

<3*TfT II 


On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. [N< 

along with the wife. They were probably performed without the 
aid of any mantra, for the ACranyaka does not allude to them. The 
trench, according to A's'valayana, should be twelve fingers deep, 
five spans* wide, and as long as the corpse with its hands uplifted* 
The corpse, in the opinion of some, should be disembowelled, and 
the cavity filled with ghi. "When placed on the pyre, it should 
have in its hands, if a Brahman, a bit of gold, if a Kshatriya a 
bow, and if a Vaisya, a jewel. The wife should lie down on the 
left side of the corpse according to Baudhayana and Sayan a. &&'<• 
valiyana recommends that she should be placed near the head on 
the north side. The chief mourner, or he who is to sel fire to the 
pyre, should then address the dead saying, " mortal, this woman, 
(your wife), wishing to be joined to you in a future world, (li1 
obtain the Patiloka, or the region of husbands) is lying by thy 
corpse ; she has alw rved the duties of a faithful wife ; grant 

her your permission to abido in this world, and relinquish yoi 
wealth to your descendants."! A younger brother of the dead, or 
a disciple, or a servant, should then proceed to tie- pyre, hold the 
left hand of the woman, and ask her to come away, saying, " Rise up, 
woman, thou liest by tie ■ >ido of the lifeless; come to the world 
of the living, away from thy husband, and become the wife of him 
who holds thy hand and is willing to marry thee."+ In a BubflM 
quent mantra, she is to be asked to bring away the bit of gold above 
alluded to, from the hand of the corpse. The words for the pur- 
pose are — " For the promotion of thy wealth, and glory as a Jirah- 
man woman, and beauty and power, take the gold from the hand 

* Aratni extending from the thumb to the tip of tlie index fin-jfor. 

$ ^<t^r -srrqftT ^%T^facn^rnjq^ *f% i ^^w^j f^fv%. 

t ( ^\fx\ <# 'T^^' 3TrT^, W qfH, '^q^V ^q*7 ir^pf <*^rfa, 

'qcsn', 'Tcnr', 'srfsnq «rn?M, '^f*T*r*^' ^jTfwiirw um<* snrrf% 11 

The Rig Vedic reading of this verse will be noticed further on. 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 249 

of the dead, (and abide) in this (region) ; we (shall dwell) here 
well served and prospering, and overcoming all presumptuous 
assailants."* The scholiast of As'valayana says the remover of the 
widow, and not the widow, herself should take the gold, and that in 
the event of his being a slave, this and the two preceding mantras 
should be repeated by the chief mourner, and Wilson and Max 
Midler take it in the same sense ; but Sayana's comment is opposed 
to this interpretation.! The words to be addressed to a Kshatriya 
or a Vaidya woman, are the same, the words how and jewel 
being respectively substituted for gold, and Kshatriya and Vaisya 
respectively for Brdhmana. Under any circumstance the removal 
of the widow and the articles is completed. The Aranyaka con- 
templates no alternative, and the Sutrakaras are silent on the 
subject, shewing clearly that when the Aranyaka was compiled, 
the inhuman practice of burning the living wife with her dead 
husband, had not obtained currency in the country, and as we 
know from the writings of Greek authors that the Sati rite 
had formed an k important part of the Hindu funeral ceremony 
three centuries before Christ, and at least four centuries before that 
the Kamayana and the Mahabharata, alluded to it, ' it may be pre- 

* S^'l£ ^T^T^RT ^cHST fa 3 W^T ^5f% m$rq \ ^hN ^f*Tf 
?V% 1*N fa^T: W^J ^fafJr<ft3T^ II 

This verse does not occur in the 10th Mandala of the Rig Veda, but the 
counterpart of it, in connexion with the bow, occurs with a different reading, 
thus — 

w4^Kt^t^t ^rrwr^ ^to ^t« *j^re i ^R^r srfa^ t4 ^fkr 

Dr. Max Muller renders the last as follows : " I take the bow from 
the hand of the dead, to be, to us, help, glory, and strength. Thou art there, 
we are still here, with our brave sons ; may we conquer all enemies that at- 
tack us." Dr. Wilson's version is slightly different in words, but is in sub- 
stance the same. " Taking his bow from the hand of the dead that it may be 
to us for help, for strength, for fame, (I say) here verily art thou, and here are 
we : accompanied by our valiant descendants may we overcome all arrogant 
adversaries." — Jour. R. As. Soc, XVI. p. 202. 

t %?rrft: *r k 'fal?" **j<«f, "r^>" wT^w^rr^', "wsr^" ^T^ra', 
?j?rt, <^i <-r> ^ T ^ f?rc i '*np ^fa 'x*' %%, '^^f ^ ^hrorsrr: ^:, 


2.50 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindu*. [No. 1, 

sumed that our text dates from at least eight centuries before the 
Christian era. The allusions in the Bamayana and the Mahabha- 
rata may, possibly, be interpolations, and if so, the A'ranvaka may 
be a century or two later, but that it was compiled long before the 
advent of Alexander in India, and that Baudhavana flourished be- 
fore Bharadvaja and KatA-ayana cannot be questioned. 

The sacrificial vessels which the defunct used to employ in his 
ceremonial rites, are now to be placed on the different parts of his 
body ; the Agni-hotra-harani, filled with butter and curds, on the 
mouth ; the srura spoon, broken into two, on the nostrils ; two bits 
of gold or the butter spoon, [ajyasruva) broken into two, on the 
eyes ; the prdsitra-karana, broken into two, on the ears ; the 
Icapala pot, broken into fragments, on the head ; a pot-sherd on the 
forehead; and, the chamasa spoon on the head. The mantra lor 
the purpose consists of a prayer to Agni not to injure the chamaM 
spoon.* As valayana arranges the sacrificial vessels differently ; he 
places the juhu on the right hand, the upabhrit on the left hand, 
the spliya, sacrificial knife, on the right side, the Agnihotra-ha 
on the left side, the grdvna on the teeth, the kapalaa on the head, the 
dhruvd on the breast, the sruva on the nostrils, the prdsitra-haran* 
on the nostrils, the chamasa and the pdtri on the belly, the MUM 
on the genitals, the pestle and mortar on the lower part of 
the thighs, the arani on the upper part of the thighs, the %urpa on 
the feet, and other vessels on the body as convenient. He - 
further, that the fat of the slaughtered cow should be placed oil the 
head and on the eyes with the mantra " Agni &c." and her kidneys 
on the hands with the mantra " Ati" &c, her heart on the cardiac 
region, and her flesh and organs on other parts of the body ; and 
that, in the event of the cow being let loose, imitations of her 
organs made with rice and barley meal, should be placed on the 
parts mentioned ; the fat being replaced by cakes. The Aranyaka 

" Destroy not, Agni, this spoon ; it is dear to the Devas and the performers 
of the Soma rites. This spoon is the drinking vessel of the Devas j may the im- 
mortal Devas therefore make us happy." 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 251 

says nothing about these offerings, nor recognises any substitute. 
Possibly Baudhayana and Bharadvaja have provided for them ; 
but I have not the necessary MSS. at hand to ascertain it. The 
Aranyaka, after arranging the sacrificial vessels, gives the mantra 
for covering the corpse with the raw hide of the cow, which should 
be entire with head, hair and feet, the hairy side being kept upper- 
most. The mantra for the purpose is addressed to the hide ; 
u Cuirass, carefully protect this body from the light of Agni ; enve- 
lope it with thy thick fat, and marrow ; holding this impudent Agni, 
desirous of seeing and consuming it by his vigour, allow him not 
to go astray."* 

The pile is now ready to be lighted, and a fire should be applied 
to it with the prayer : " Agni, consume not this body to cinders ; 
nor give it pain ; nor scatter around its skin or limbs ! Jatave- 
das, when the body is fairly burnt, convey the spirit to its ances- 
tors."! A second prayer to the same divinity is due when the fire 
is in full blaze, but its purport is not very different. It is follow- 
ed by an address to the organs of the dead. It says, " May thy 
organ of vision proceed to the sun ; may thy vital air merge in the 
atmosphere ; mayest thou proceed, according to thy virtuous deeds, 
to heaven or earth or the region of water, whichever place is bene- 
ficial to thee ; mayest thou there, provided with food, exist in 
corporeal existence."'! 

If instead of a cow, a goat is brought with the corpse, it is to be 
tied with a weak string near the fire, so that it may break its bond 
and escape. The chief mourner should then offer twelve oblations 
to the fire with a spoon made of palasa wood, for which the Aran- 
yaka supplies the necessary mantras. Nine prayers next follow, 
of which the first four are addressed to Agni, the fifth to 
Yama, the sixth to the messengers of death, and the last three 

252 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. [X 

for a good region for the deceased. The one addr- Varna, 

describes him as having two cerheri for warden at hi-> _ 
" King Yama, place this spirit under the care of thy two four- 
dogs, which guard the roads and your mansion, and whom mad 
avoid : keep it in ease and free from disease."* The dogs are the 
offspring of Sarama ; long-snouted, self-satisfied, and "gly 

powerful ; they are the messengers of Yama and roam about in 
search of men. The last three prayers I shall give entire. " 1. 
Some purify the Soma juice, others worship with clarifii 
others again follow true knowledge (modhu vid//d) in quasi 
felicity ; may this spirit attain the same (reward). 2. May the award 
of those who fight in the battle-field, and of heroes who sacrifice 
their lives, and of virtuous men who grant a thousand gifts, await 
this spirit. 3. May the award of those who in penal 
blameless life, and of those who are gone to heaven by their pen* 
ance, and of those who have performed most rigorous austerities 
await this spirit."f 

After this, leaving the funeral pyre to smoulder, the chief mour- 
ner excavates three trenches to the north of the pyre, and lining 
them with pebbles and sand, tills them with water brought in an 
odd number of jars. The people who followed the procession are 
then requested to purify themselves by bathing in them; which 
being done, a yoke is put up with three palasa branches stuck in 
the ground and tied at the top with a piece of weak string, and 
they are made to pass under it. The chief mourner passes last, 
and then, plucking out the yoke, offers a prayer to the sun. Therm 
upon, the party proceed to the nearest stream, and without 
looking at each other, purify themselves by bathing and a pi 

* ?h *r ^t^t ^m Tf^riKi ^rjw qfm^t ^^jt i ffTwrr^ ^ctstw 

3T^<TTTr II 

^ ipq^f srtr^ S£^T ^ rr«THJoT: | ^ ^T ^^f^FT^T^f^^Tfa 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 253 

to Prajapati. As'valayana says nothing of the three trenches, but 
takes the people at once to the river to bathe, where " they im- 
merse themselves, and on rising throw a handful of water into the 
air while they pronounce the name of the deceased, and that of his 
family. They then get out of the water, put on dry clothes, and 
after once wringing those that they had on before, they spread 
them out towards the north, and sit down there themselves till the 
stars are seen. According to others, they do not go home before 
sun-rise. Then the young ones walk first, and the old ones last, 
and when they arrive at their home, they touch, by way of purify- 
ing themselves, " the stone, the fire, cow-dung, grain, (tila seed,) oil 
and water before they step in."* This part of the ceremony and 
the mourning which follows, have been described by Manu, 
Yajnavalkya and others, and need not be further noticed. The 
A'ranyaka is entirely silent on the subject. 

For the ceremony of burial, the first operation is, the collection of 
the half-burnt bones. This should be done according to As'valayana 
on the 11th, 13th or 15th day of the wane ; Baudhayana enjoins the 
3rd, 5th or 7th from the day of cremation. The dates tritiyd, pan- 
chami and saptami are, given in the feminine gender in the text, and 
cannot imply day, as in ordinary acceptance they indicate the age 
of the moon. As the ceremonies, however, of the tenth day are given 
in a subsequent part of the work, and the Prayoga noticed above 
names days, it is probable, that the morning of the 3rd, 5th or 
7th day is meant, the elipse in the sutra being supplied by the 
word tithi in the sense of a day. The first act is to sprinkle milk and 
water on the cinders, and to strike on the heap with an udum- 
vara staff to separate the bones. This is done while repeating 
five mantras. The cinders are then collected and thrown to- 
wards the south side, leaving the bones behind. Three oblations 
are next offered to Agni with a sruva spoon. Thereupon the senior 
wife is to come forward, and, with two bits of red and blue strings 
to which a stone is tied, to draw out the bones with her left hand 
saying : " Arise hence, and assume a (new) shape. Leave none of 
your members or your body behind. Repair to whichever place 
you wish ; may Savita establish you there. This is one of your 
* Journal Royal As. Soc. xvi, 213. 

254 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. [No. 1, 

bones, be joined with the third (other bones) in glory ; having 
joined all the bones be handsome in person ; be beloved of the 
gods in a noble place. "* The bones should then be washed and 
deposited in an urn, or tied up in a piece of black antelope skin. 
The urn or bundle is then to be hung from the branch of a sami 
or palasa tree. Should the bones belong to a person who had per- 
formed a Soma sacrifice, they should be burnt again ; otherwise 
they should be buried. For the latter purpose, an urn is absolutely 
necessar}% and after placing the bones into it, it should be filled up 
with curds mixed with honey, and then covered over with g 
As'valayana recommends an urn with a spout for females and one 
without it for males. Two mantras are given, one for pouring 
the mixture, and the other to be addressed to its droppin 

Subsequently a proper place having been selected, a funeral pro- 
cession should proceed to it in the morning, and the chief mourned 
should begin the operations of the day by sweeping the spot with a 
piece of leather or a broom of palasa or sami wood. Then, yoking a 
pair of bullocks to a plough, he should dig six furrows running from 
east to west, and, saluting them with a mantra, deposit the 
urn in the central furrow. The bullocks should now be let loose 
by the south side, and water sprinkled over the place with an 
udumvara branch or from a jar. The covering of the urn is 
then removed, some aromatic herbs, sarvaushadhi, are put into the 
urn, and subsequently closed with pebbles and sand ; each of the 
operations being performed while repealing an appropriate mantra. 
A mantra should likewise be pronounced for every one of the opera- 
tions which follow, and these include, first, the putting of brieks 
around the urn ; 2nd, the throwing thereon some sesamum seed 
and fried barley ; 3rd, placing some butter on an unbaked plate on 
the south side ; 4th, spreading there some darbha grass ; 5th, sur- 
rounding the tumulus with a palisade of palasa branches, and 6th, 
crowning the whole by sticking on the top a flowering head of the 
nala reed — arundo karka. The operator then anoints his body with 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 255 

old gin, and, without looking at the urn, places it on the spread 
grass, invokes the manes, wipes the urn with a bit of old rag, 
sprinkles some water with an udumvara branch, or from a jar, 
having covered his own person with an old cloth, and then buries 
the urn with bricks laid over it. 

Some charu rice is then cooked, sanctified by a mantra, and while 
the chief mourner repeats five others, is put on the five sides of the 
urn. Sesamum seed and barley are now scattered around, some herbs 
put on the mound and more bricks added. Water should subse- 
quently be sprinkled on the place, a prayer should be addressed to 
the gods, a branch of the varuna tree and a lot of brick-bats, a sami 
branch and some barley, should be placed on the mound, and the 
dead be invoked to translate himself to whichever region he likes. 
" (to to the earth, go to the void above, go to the sky, go to the 
quarters, go to heaven ; go, go to heaven, go to the quarters, go to 
the sky, go to the void above, go to the earth, or go to the waters, 
wherever embodied thou canst live with the good and in peace. "* 

A few holes being now dug round the mound, the ceremony of 
burial is completed. The operations, it will be seen, though oft- 
repeated and tedious, are of the simplest kind possible ; the prayers 
are throughout addressed for the sensuous enjoyment and ease of 
the dead, and no where is any indication given of a desire for spi- 
ritual benefit, liberation from the wheel of transmigration, salva- 
tion or beatitude. Even sin is lightly looked upon, and the prayer 
for redemption from it, is slight and casual. The whole ceremony 
is of the most primitive type, and bespeaks an epoch of remote 
antiquity. It is worthy of note also that the double ceremonial of 
first incineration and subsequent burial, was common among the 
Greeks, Romans and other ancient Aryan races, and that in the 
fifth century before Christ, the remains of S'akya Buddha were dis- 
posed of in the same way. 

The last ceremony I have to notice is called s 'antika/rma or rites 
for the well-being of the living. It should be performed on the 

sfrffrreT ^^: II 

256 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. [No. 4, 

morning following the ninth, night after death, i. e., on the tenth 
day. This is an addition to the shaving and paring of nails and 
bathing, which are enjoined by mediaeval and modern Smritikaras, 
and are still current. As'valayana recommends that this should be 
performed on the burning- ground on the 15th of the wane, i. e., on 
the day of the new moon. But our text fixes the day, and leaves it 
optional with the mourners to select any place out of a town, 
whether it be a burning ground or not, that may be convenient. The 
relatives by blood both male and female, having assembled, a fire 
should be lighted, and they should be requested to sit down on a 
bullock-hide of a red colour sj)read on the ground, with its neck-side 
facing the east, and its hairs directed towards the north. The re- 
quest should be made in the following words : " Ascend on this life- 
giving (skin), as you wish to live to a decrepit old age. According 
to your seniority attempt carefully to abide on it. May the well- 
born and well-adorned fire of this ceremony bestow long life on 
you. Even as days follow days, and seasons are attached to seasons • 
even as the young forsake not their elders, may Dhata so prolong 
the life of these (people) according to their age."* The assembly 
being thereupon seated, the chief mourner offers four oblations to 
the fire with a spoon made of varuria wood. The relatives 
then rise up, and placing themselves on the north of the fire, 
and facing the east, recite a mantra, while touching a red bull. 
The women are then requested to put on collyrium with these 
words — " Let these women, who are not widowed, who have good 
husbands, apply the collyrious butter to their eyes ; without tears, 
without disease, worthy of every attention, let these wives enter the 
house."! The collyrium should be made of a substance called traika- 
Icuda which is brought from the Trikakut or triple humped peak of 
the Himalaya, meaning evidently the sulphuret of antimony or sur- 

3^T ^T^T^ff «T*r^T ^Tfa*TO II 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 257 

ma of the Indian bazars. It should be applied with the three central 
imexpandod leaves of the kusa grass which are thin, pliant, and 
pointed, like a camel hair brush, and answer the purpose better 
than the iron or stone style or bodkin which up-country women now 
use. The leaves being afterwards thrown away on a bundle of that 
grass, while repeating a mantra, the party proceed towards the east, 
leading the bull and saying : " These men, forsaking the dead, are 
returning. This day we invoke the gods for our good, for success 
over enemies, and for our merriment. We proceed eastward, having 
well sustained long lives."* 

The last of the party, who is the chief mourner, should then 
recite another mantra, and with a sami branch efface the foot- 
marks of the bull that precedes the party. On the departure of the 
last man, the Adhvaryu should place a circle of stones behind him 
as a wall to prevent death overtaking those that have gone forward, 
praying — " I place this circle (of stones) for the living ; may we 
and others not go beyond it in mid-life ; may we all live a hundred 
autumns, driving death away by this heap."f The party then 
repair to the house of the chief mourner and feast on kid and 
barley, cooked for the purpose. Separate mantras are given for 
the eating of the two articles. 

The most important of all the mantras above quoted, is the one 
which is intended as a direction to women to put on collyrium. It 
was first translated by Colebrooke, in 1795, as " the only Yaidik au- 
thority for the rite of Sati." Before him the compiler of the 
twenty-eight Smritis had quoted it for the same purpose, and no 
doubt thousands over thousands of deluded women, in the moment 
of their greatest grief, have been sent to the blazing pyre with this 

This verse, in the original, occurs a little before the one about the applica- 
tion of the collyrium. I have displaced it for the sake of consistency. 

t X* ^W qftfa TSTTfa **T %S^T^T ^re^cf I ^ff 5ffa** 
15 r-^i Y^W^ITT *?<*J* ^U^" *PT fTfT II 

Most of the mantras quoted above occur in the 10th Mandala of the Rig 
Veda, but their readings there are different, and they do not appear in the same 
order. Wilson's translations thereof do not, therefore, in many essential parti- 
culars, correspond with what I have given above. Vide Journal U. As. Soc. 
XVI, 201.2. 


258 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hind as. [No. -1, 

miserable passport to heaven. Dr. Wilson was the first to Buspect, 
in 1856$ in a paper published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society (Vol. xvi, p. 201), that " H had reference to some procession, 
one possibly accompanying the corpse, but had nothing whatevi 
do ^ itli consigning live females to the fire ;" and, for a guess, it was 
as close as it well could be. The late Sir Raja Radhakanta Deva 
wrote a reply to this paper, in 1858, and in 1867, in a foot-note 
about three times larger than the paper to which it is attached, a 
writer, in the same periodical, (Vol. II, N. 8. pp. 184-191,) en 
into an elaborate verbal and punctilious criticism, hut the i 
mony for which the stanza was intended or to which it was applied, 
was left undetermined. In Raja Radhakanta's letter to l>r. "Wil- 
son, a quotation was given from the Sutras of Bharadvaj a which 
gave the real clue to it, but none noticed it at the time. The 
true bearing is now made manifest, for, 1 believe, few will \<n- 
hire to question the authority of Baudhayana in such . matter. 
His words live— at //a i ta/i patnayo nayane sarpishd sammris'anti .- " Nod 
these women smear their eyes with butter." Bharadvaj a 
strindm anjalishu sampMdnavanayatimandririti : "For placing 
Hie sampata in the hands of the women the mantra Imd ndri 
Sfc." According to AVvalavana, the verse should he repeated bj 
the chief mourner when looking at the women after they have ap- 
plied the collyrium ; imd ndriravidhavdh supatnirityanjdnd ihlteta. 
This difference is due evidently to the authors belonging to 
different sakhas. Anyhow, it is abundantly clear that the \ 
was not intended to recommend self-immolation, but to be addn 
to female mourners, wives of kinsmen, having their husbands living, 
not the widow, to put on collyrium, or to look at them after 
the operation. The PrayogaMra says, iatah sampdtapdtrai 
ya sabhatrilcastr'mAm anjalishu sampdtam avanayati, " then taking the 
sampata patra he places it on the hands of the women who have 
husbands, with the mantra imdh, tip." 

The reading of the stanza appears differently in different recen- 
sions. According to Raghunundana, as given in the Serampur 
edition of his works, and in my MS. it is as follows : — 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 259 

Colebrooke's version, apparently taken down from hearsay, has — 

Professor Wilson's reading, quoted from the tenth Mandala of 
the Rig Veda, differs materially from these ; it runs thus : 

Dr. Max Miiller accepts this reading, correcting only suratndro- 
hantu into suratna a rohantu. Our text, as quoted on page 256 and 
founded upon six manuscripts and the concurrent testimony of the 
Sdtrakaras, differs in one important particular. It replaces the 
last word of the first line, sanvis' antu, usually translated " let them 
enter," by sammris 'antu, " let them smear." It changes also suratnd 
u well ornamented," into sus'evd " well served" or " worthy of 
every at^mtion." 

Witii fc'uch differences in the text, it is not to be wondered at 
that the English renderings which have been, from time to time, 
published, should be markedly different. Colebrooke was the 
first to take the stanza in hand, and he translated it into — " Om. 
Let these women, not to be widowed, good wives, adorned with 
collyrium, holding clarified butter, consigu themselves to the fire. 
Immortal, not childless, nor husbandless, well adorned with gems, 
let them pass into fire, whose original is water. "* Ward, Mac- 
naughten, Eamamohana Iiaya and others have adopted this reading, 
and given translations more or less different from each other. 
But as the reading itself has not yet been traced to any authentic 
MS. of the Vedas, it may be dismissed without further notice. 

Wilson's translation runs thus : " May these women, who are 
not widows, who have good husbands, who are mothers, enter 
with unguents and clarified butter : without tears, without sorrow, 
let them first go up into the dwelling."! Max Midler's rendering 
is nearly the same, lie writes — 

"Es treteu eiu die Frau'n, rnifc Oel und Batter, 
Niclit Witwcu sic, neiu, stolz aaf edle Manner. 
Die Mutter gehn zuerst hinauf zur Statte, 
In schonern Schmuok uud ohne Leid und Tln , iinen.' , | 

* As. Researches, IV, p. 213. f Journal 11. As. Sue. XVI, p. 202. 

X Zeitsclirift, Bund, IX, p. XXV. 

260 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. [No. 4, 

The writer of the foot-note above alluded to, adopts Max Midler's 
reading, but attempts to improve upon his translation by the fol- 
lowing : — " Let these women, unwidowed, having good husbands, 
and with anointing butter on their eyes, enter their houses. Let the 
mothers, untearful, unmiserable, possessed of excellent wealth, go 
up to the house first." He adds " I have here followed Say ana, 
save in not rendering ^|T TT^'tJ by " approach," ^T^T^rf- AVhat is 
meant by infcr, Sayana's " house," is not obvious."* 

The most material error in the above translations is duo to 
Sayana. That great commentator, when he took up the Rig Yeda, 
depended more upon the lexicographic meanings of words than 
upon the relation of the mantras to the ceremonials of the Yajiir 
Veda, and hence many discrepancies are to be met with between 
his interpretations and those of the ancient Siitrakaras, and some- 
times in his own interpretations of the same verse in the Rig, Yajur 
and the Sama Vedas. Nowhere is this more prominently apparent 
than in his commentary on the stanza under notice, in the Rig and 
the Yajur Yedas. When he met with it in the former, he wrote : 

*fW ^^r ^tii^t: ^<*j: *?fa?r=Ti ^r^^r^r sf^rr <r^r ^?p^: ^- 

S» s» %* 

^fsSffiT: ^^<*j: ^H?teT: ^^far TR^f^frTT TTT^T^'I^fWirrr Toq-q: | 

Subsequently, with the light of Baudhayana, Bharadvaja and 
Hiranyakes'i, he perceived the truo bearing of the stanza, and then 
interpreted it thus : — 

\* ^* v» d >J 

'^ppf:' ^^Tr^rTT:, '^rtt^T:' TT^fTfTT.-.. '^?V.' ^ %f^ ilTTqT:, 

That the last is the most consistent rendering may be accepted I 
without hesitation. 

* Journal R. As. Soc, N. S., Vol. Ill, p. 185. 

1870.] On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 261 

The meaning of the stanza, word for word, would be imah " these," 
north irregular plural nominative of ndri, " woman," alluding to 
the ladies of the kinsmen who have assembled at the ceremony ; the 
regular form is nary ah. The women have for predicates, avidhavdh 
"not widows," or "unwidowed" and supatni, " having good 
husbands." (siqjati). Those who apply the stanza to concre- 
mation explain the first word by " not to be widowed," a 
meaning which it cannot be made to bear, there being neither any 
rule nor analogy to support it. The next word dnjanena is an 
adjective qualifying sarpishd, both in the instrumental case, mean- 
ing " with collyrious butter." The verb necessary for these ele- 
ments should be one which means a applying or " smearing," 
and this is what we have in sammris'antdm, " let smear," from 
the root mris' ll to smear." The Rig Vedic reading sanvis'antu, 
from the root vis' " to enter," can have no relation to the instru- 
mental, except as entering with the butter applied to the eye, 
in which case the ordinary plan would be to convert the two words 
in the instrumental case into one epithet, serving as an adjective 
to the nominative, women. It is therefore probable that the root 
vis' had, in ancient times, the meaning of decorating or putting 
on, as we have now the same root used to indicate " dressing," 
ves'a, whence ves'ya " a woman who lives by her dress, — a harlot." 
Yaska adopts this meaning when he includes ves'-ati among the 
verbs for ornamentation, hdntilarma. Sayana, not perceiving this 
when he commented on the Rig Veda, took the word in its ordinary 
signification, and so interpreted the stanza as to make the women 
first enter their own houses — sagrihdn privis'antu, and subsequently 
the house, ' jonij of the chief mourner; in so doing he had to 
supply what he supposed was an elipse, and thereby entirely to 
mislead his readers. The new reading of the word in the Ararjyaka 
now leaves no doubt on the subject. 

The words of the second line anas'ravdh " tearless," anamivdh 
" diseaseless" or free from pain either of body or mind, (it has 
been loosely rendered in one of the above quotations by " not 
miserable,") sus'evdh " well served," all refer to, and are epithets of, 
janayah" wives," which follows. In the Rig Yeda the last epithet is 

262 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindm. [No. i, 

changed to suratndh " well ornamented" without in any way altering 
the construction. The verb is drohantu " let ascend" or " proceed," 
and agrees with the nominative janayah " wives." The dative is 
jonim " to house" in the singular, the house of the chief mourner, 
where they are to partake of a feast, and not that of the females. 
The last word agre, tl first or foremost" is an adverb qualifying the 
verb drohantu. 

The words dnjanena sarpishd have confounded all the European 
translators. Wilson has rendered them into " unguents and 
butter," and Max Midler into " oel und butter." One has drop! 
the word dnjanena and used only " butter ;" he is particular in re- 
minding his readers that he has followed Sayana, but his assurance 
must be received with some reservation, for the scholiast neithor 
omits the first word nor is remiss in explaining it ; his words are 
anjana-sddhanena sarpishd " with butter for making collyrium" or 
anjanahetund sarpishd " with butter the source of collyrium," that 
is, as I have rendered, " with collyrious butter," or collyrium made 
of butter, the other element of the unguent being, as statedl 
in a subsequent mantra, a mineral of the name of traikakudd 
which I guess to be sulphuret of antimony or surma. The object 
of the mantra is to prohibit the use of the ordinary collyrium, which 
is differently made. The usual practice to this day is to smear a 
little butter or oil in the bowl of a spoon, and to hold it over a 
lamp, so that a quantity of lamp-black may be deposited on it, and 
when the two are mixed together with the fingers, they constitute 
the collyrium. The sulphuret is still used in the North-West 

The second mantra to which I wish to draw the attention of the 
reader is the one with which a brother, student, or servant of 
the deceased is to remove the widow from the pyre ; inasmuch 
as it clearly shows that the widow at the time was not burnt, but 
taken to abide in the land of the living, and to marry if she liked. 
That the removal was positive and final, and not nominal, is evi- 
dent from the rules of the Sutrakaras. Baudhayana says, il He 
who approaches her should, holding her by the left hand, take her 
up," tan pratigatah savye pdndvabhipadyotthdpayati. This is done 
after obtaining the permission of the deceased by a formal mantra, 

1870.] On tlio Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. 263 

ante p. 247, and on the 3rd, 5th or 7th day after the cremation, the 
widow, or the eldest widow, if there should happen to be more 
than one, is expected to go to the burning ground and collect 
the bones of the dead with her left hand. Xs'valayana is 
equally precise, and adds that, should the widow be removed 
by an old servant, the chief mourner should repeat the mantra, 
{Karttd vrishalej'apet, Sutra, 4. 2 19). The author of the Prayoga, 
it is true, takes this direction to apply to pregnant women only who 
should not be burnt alive, but his authority in such a case is of 
little value, when opposed to that of the oldest Siitrakaras, and 
the evident purport of the mantra. It may be also observed that 
the widow is to take away the gold, bow and jewel, which are 
put into the hands of the Brahman, Kshetriya and Yaisya dead 
respectively — with which, according to a subsequent mantra, she 
is to live in wealth, splendour and glory in the society of the 
remover, in this world, and this she could not do, if she were 

The mantra, as given in our text, ante page 248, is slightly 
different from a similar stanza in the second S'ukta of the second 
Anuvaka of the 10th Mandala of the Rig Veda, and quoted by 
Wilson and Max Midler in the papers above alluded to ; the words 
itdsu and dbliisambdbluiva of our text being replaced by gatdsu and 
abhisambahhutha. The words, however, are synonymous, and there- 
fore the difference is of no moment. The second word, a verb, is, in 
the Rig Veda, in the third person, dual irregular, having for its no- 
minative tvan " thou," understood, and in our text it is in the third 
person singular, both may therefore be taken as Vedic peculiarities. 

The most important word in the mantra is didhisliu, which Saya- 
na, when commenting on the Rig Veda, took to imply impregnation 
didhishoh garbhasya nidhatoh. In the Aranyaka he accepts it in 
its ordinary well-established dictionary meaning of a man " who 
marries a widow" or " the second husband of a woman twice 
married," as Wilson gives it. The result is a material differ- 
ence in the meaning. The version given by Wilson is as 
follows : — " Rise up, woman, come to the world of living beings, 
thou sleepest nigh unto the lifeless. Come : thou hast been asso- 
ciated with maternity through the husband by whom thy hand 

264 On the Funeral Ceremonies of the ancient Hindus. [No. 4, 

was formerly taken."* Max Miiller's reading is closely similar. 
He writes — 

" Stch auf, o Wcib ! Komm zu dcr Welt des Lcbens ! 
Da schliifst bci eincm Todton — Komin hcrniedcr ! 
Du bist genng jetzt Gattin ihm gewesen, 
Ihm, der Dick wiihlte und zur Mutter machte.+" 

In our version, following Sayana's second and more recent com- 
mentary, we take the word hastagrdbJiasya ll of him who holds thy 
hand," and the other predicates in the present tense, and the didhi- 
shu in its crude sense, and apply them to the party who holds the 
widow's hand while lying on the pyre. This appears the most con- 
sistent and in keeping with the whole ceremony, and therefore 
preferable to referring them to the dead. The only objection 
to this reading is to be found in the fact that the verb is in 
the past perfect tense, but seeing that Panini has laid down more 
than one special rule for the use of the past for the imperative 
(Linarthe let 3, 4, 7, &c), and Sayana has accepted the feame, it is 
perfectly immaterial. In a pamphlet on the impropriety of widow 
marriage, lately published by some of the Professors of the Lenares 
Sanskrit College, the word jaalohun " the world of living beings" 
lias been rendered by martyalokdt anyam, " other than the region of 
mortals," but such a meaning is not admissible either by any posi- 
tive rule or by analogy. Sayana renders it, in one place, by — " the 
region of the living sons and grandsons," jivandm putrapautrddindm 
lokam, and in another, by " aiming at the region of the living cr< a- 
tures," jivantam pranuamiihamabhilakshya. Other interpretations 
of the Professors are equally open to question, but it is not n 
sary to notice them. That the re-marriage of widows in Vedic times 
was a national custom can be easily established by a variety of 
proofs and arguments ; the very fact of the Sanskrit language 
having, from ancient times, such words as didhishu, " a man that 
has married a widow," parapiirvd " a woman that has taken a second 
husband," paunarbhava, " son of a woman by her second husband," 
are enough to establish it ; but it would be foreign to the subject 
of this paper to enter into it here. 

* Journal, R As. Soc, XVI, p. 202. 
f Zeitschrift, IX, p. vi. 

1870.] 265 

Some Account of the Rishis or Hermits of Kashmir. — By Lieut. -Col. 
D. J. F. Newall, E. A. 

I have already in a paper on the Hindu pilgrimages of Kash- 
mir* alluded to the fact of many shrines being equally held in 
reverence by the Hindu and Mnhammadan, and have stated as the 
reason that the fragments of overthrown or ruined Hindu temples 
had been used in the construction of the Moslem Zidrats or Mosques, 
and also that the Kashmir Muhammadan in some degree still 
clings to the superstitions of his Hindu ancestors. As an illustra- 
tion of this assertion, I now proceed to give some account of an 
order of recluses which in the earlier years of the Muhammadan 
occupation of Kashmir attained considerable celebrity in the Mos- 
lem world, I mean the order of " Bishis" or u Hermits," who 
from about A. H. 782 [A. D. 1380], when the celebrated Say- 
yid 'Ali Hamadani, and his son Mir Muhammad Hamadani, fugi- 
tives from Persia, appeared in Kashmir, and began to attract pro- 
selytes from amongst the various native religious sects existing at 
the period in Kashmir. Abul Fazl records that in his time 45 
places of worship existed to Siva, 64 to Vishnu, 3 to Brahma, 22 
to Budha, together with nearly 700 figures of serpent gods, in Kash- 
mir ; and these numbers may be taken approximately to represent 
the religion of the country at the period of Muhammadan usurp- 
ation. Note that the worship of the Tree and Serpent, that mystic and 
primitive form of superstition, entered largely into the character of 
the religion, and may have in its sylvan proclivities in some degree 
influenced these Muhammadan Bishis or Hermits in the solitudes. 
I would further add that the tendency to seclusion so characteristic 
of Budhism may have also influenced these solitaires. We have 
an instance of the cave of Bhima Devi (near Martund),f formerly 
the residence and burying-place of the ascetic king Areer Rhyie, 
who lived about A.D. 330, being adopted for a similar purpose by 
Muhammadan faqfrs in modern times, and the tomb pointed 
out as that of Areer Bhyie, who was probably a convert to the 

* Vide Journal, As. Soc. Bengal, July, 1866. 

t The small cave temple of Bhaumejo in the immediate vicinity is probably 
aBudhist temple attributed to Bhauma-jyotis — the planet Mars — as its tutelary 
" Rishi." Vide Cunningham's Essay on the Arian Order of Architecture, p 251, 
and Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1848, p. 254. 


266 Some Account of the Risltis or Hermits of Kashmir. [No. 4, 

Budhistic schism. The said tomb, however, is probably that of 
some more modern recluse. 

Deeply imbued with the cufism of the age and country from 
which they emigrated, these Sayyids and their followers seem to 
have imported into Kashmir the doctrines of the Shi' ah 
and with them that tendency to mysticism and miracle making, 
so characteristic of the sect : perhaps also shocked at the 
tyranny and self-assertion of Timur Lang (Tamerlane), at 
that time dominant in Central Asia, they may have sought 
refuge in the regions of abstract thought as a solace for the 
worldly repression under which they laboured. Be it observed that 
the human mind has ever tended towards mysticism and solitude 
at times when tyrants nourished, and in the present case, no doubt, 
the wrath of Timur had been aroused against these Sayyids, who 
perhaps may have attempted to usurp an independence of act 
and speech displeasing to a barbarous oriental conqueror. 

Be this as it may, they and their disciples appear to have found 
in Kashmir an apt soil in which to transplant their religious dogmas ; 
and in the succeeding years the remarkable sect of which I am 
about to attempt some short account arose from amidst them.--'" 

At page 6 of my u Sketch of ths Muhammadan History of Kashmir" 
published in the Society's Journal, September, 1854, I alluded to the 
Historian Muhammad 'Azim as the chief authority for the chro- 
nicles of this sect. They are also described in the pages of Firishtah 
and Abul Fazl as a very respectable order in their time (A. D. 
1600), some 2,000 in number, abstaining from luxury and sexual 
intercourse, living on berries and the wild fruits of the mountains, 
in the remote corners of which many of them had taken up their 
abodes for purposes of meditation and seclusion. In some instan- 
ces they had constructed shrines or zidrats, many of which remain 
to this day, attesting in their traditions their founders' austerities 
and virtues, and forming local schools of holy men or priests, whose 
influence on the whole has been beneficial to the people, as pro- 
mulgating the principles of humanity and moral virtues, as contra- 

* The Taznk i Jahangiri also contains many facts deserving of attention 
regarding Kashmir hermits ; but I have not consulted it in drawing up this 

1870.] Some Account of the Rishis or Hermits of Kashmir. 267 

distinguished from the religious dogmas and propaganda of the 
Moslem faith. Before proceeding to enumerate a few of these 
worthies and their holy acts and miracles, real or pretended, as re- 
corded by the Historian Muhammad 'Azim, I must premise that 
Shihabuddin, fourth (or according to some, fifth) Muhammadan king 
of Kashmir, styled the Iconoclast, had died in the year 1376, A. D., 
and had been succeeded by his brother Qutbuddin, in whose reign 
the famous Sayyid 'All Hamadani alluded to above, arrived in 
Kashmir ; and his advent is recorded in the following couplet, which 
also contains the date (A. H. 782) : 

corresponding with A. D. 1380 ; but I find I had better quote from 
the pages of my Sketch of History before alluded to, to lead up to 
the enumeration of the worthies I have undertaken to describe. 

Page 6. " Sayyid 'AH Hamadani. This celebrated Sayyid was a 
fugitive from his native city, Hamadan, where he had incurred 
the wrath of Timur. Seven hundred Sayyids are said to have accom- 
panied his flight to Kashmir, where he remained six years, and 
which he named the Garden of Solomon (Bagh-i-Sulaiman). He 
died at Pak'hli whilst on his return to Persia (A. H. 786.) 

" His son Mir Muhammad Hamadani was also a fugitive, and 
brought in his train three hundred Sayyids to Kashmir, where he 
remained twelve years. 

" These two emigrations of fugitive Sayyids fixed the religion of 
the country, and were doubtless the chief cause of the religious 
persecutions, which ensued in the following reign. They esta- 
blished shrines all over the country, many of which remain to 
this day. They originated the sect of rishis or hermits, which 
are described by Abul Pazl as a very respectable and in- 
offensive order in his time, some 2,000 in number, living upon 
fruits and berries and abstaining from sexual intercourse ; their 
numbers, however, afterwards declined, until they were quite 
extinguished by the courtiers and creatures of the Emperors of 
Delhi. Muhammad 'Azim, the Historian, enumerates many wor- 
thies of this sect. * * Kashmir having been, previous 
to this influx of zealots, in a transition state as to religion, the 

268 Some Account of the Rishis or Hermits of Kashmir. [No, I. 

advent of a Muhammadan saint such as Sayyid 'Ali seems to have 
hailed with enthusiasm, and proselytisni to have commenced in 
real earnest." 

Previous to the advent of Sayyid 'Ali, however, the noted Faqfr 
Bulbul Shah had appeared in Kashmir, and been instrumental in 
the conversion of Ranjpoi (or Ranjii Shah) to Islam. He is famed 
as the first Moslem who appeared in Kashmir. His original name 
was Sayyid Sharaf'uddin, and he was so holy, that singing- birds 
(bulhuls) are said to have nestled in his hair and beard. At his 
instigation, Ranju Shah is stated to have built the first mosque 
ever constructed in Kashmir. Bulbul Shah died in A. II. 727, ac- 
cording to the following distich — 

ajf ^jc^ «-^aI ijhos JaIj gU e.^^^ JUj >-j'J JUo 

which corresponds with A. I). 1327. I Bcarcely, however, include 
the three above-named amongst the number of Rishis properly so 
called, and which I now proceed to enumerate. 

1. Shaikh Nhruddin, whose sidrat is still extant in the Trahal 
pergunnah, is stated to have ' repented' at 30 years of age, and to 
have lived for twelve years in the wilderness, marvellously subsist- 
ing on grass. After that, he sustained life on one cup of milk 
daily, and finally reduced himself to water alone for 2 A- years, when 
he died. He was born in the reign of Qutbuddin, about the time 
of Sayyid 'All's advent is Kashmir, as is expressly recorded in the 

2. Paid Pdm Rishi (Father Grey Beard) was minister of Zain- 
ul-'abidin. One day observing ants carrying grain to their 
stores, he fell into meditation, and became impressed with the ne- 
cessity of laying up stores for the ' life to come,' and accordingly 
renounced the world, and established his hermitage in the Bongil 
pergunnah, where his monastery is seen to this day, close under 
the lovely plain of Gul Murg. It is an instance of the remark 
made in the preliminary paragraph of this paper as to the Moslem 
and Hindu being often seen worshipping together at the same 
shrine. It is a noted resort even now. 

3. Shamsuddin Pishi, of the Deosir pergunnah. 

4. Shatkh Pir Paz, of Utterhail. 

1870.] Some Account of the Rishis or Hermits of Kashmir. 269 

5. Bajab-uddin, of Martund, was originally a soldier. 

6. Ilaidar But, of Lar pergunnah. 

7 and 8. Reygie Rishi and Naurkz Rishi. 

9. Bald Bamuddin. A Brahmin. His Hindu name was Boma Sadi. 

10. Shaikh Hamzah Makhdumi. His ziarat is on the Koh i 
Maran. He flourished in the time of the Chaks. 

11. Sayyid Ahmad Kirmdni, and 

12. Sayyid Madinah (of that city), flourished in the time of Zain- 

13. Sayyid Muhammad Hicdri, a Sayyid and follower of Mir Mu- 
hammad Haniadani. Of him is related the following story : " Having 
fallen into a trance, a copious stream of water flowed down from 
his sleeves and garments. On enquiry as to this phenomenon, the 
Sayyid stated that one of his murids (disciples) was on a voyage to 
Mecca ; and that his ship was sinking, whereupon he had prayed 
to his Pir Murshid (spiritual director) for help ; which he (Sayyid 
Muhammad Hicari) had accorded, having, in spirit, plunged into 
the water to his assistance ; hence the water from his garments. 

14. Sayyid Muhammad Niiristdni was distinguished in the build- 
ing of the Jami' Masjid. It appears that the foundation kept 
sinking, and would not hold together, till this Sayyid appeared and 
personally applied to the work. He is also stated to have relieved 
indigent persons by converting a lump of clay into gold. 

15. Sayyid Muhammad Madan detected by intuition dishes com- 
posed of game improperly killed (not haldl). 

16. Mir Husain Mantiqi (the logician), son of Sayyid Muhammad 
Amir Mantiqi, went to visit the king (Zainul-'abidin), and found 
him surrounded by women and musicians ; whereupon, being 
displeased, he plunged into a river of water and was apparently 
lost ; but shortly afterwards on the king's approaching his home, 
he saw the Sayyid calmly sitting reading. 

17. Bdbd Haji Adam. A companion of Shaikh Nuruddin. 
Produced salt by a miracle from the Pir Panjal. 

18. JSfuri Rishi. A miracle similar to that of the li Loaves and 
Pishes" is recorded of this hermit. 

19. Bdbd Latifuddin. Son of a chief of Murardwin. His 
name before conversion to Islam was Laddy Peyna. 

270 Some Account of the Rishii or Hermits of Kashmir. [No. 4, 

20. NacirudMn and ) disciple8 f Shaikh Ndruddin. 

21. Babd Qidmuddin. ) 

22. Bdbd Asmduuchi gonyie. 

23. Hufiz Fathullah Khukwdni. 

24. RmniBdbd. Lived to the age of 120, during 109 yeard 
of which, he fasted {rozah) by day. 

25. 67^/M ifcf/Y U'tur. Went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Ate 
nothing on the road. 

26. BdUZain-uddinRishi. His qauma'ah (cell) in the Khawl] 

where a spring of water is Baid to have spontaneously gushed 
for his use. 

This brings me to the end of the notes I have taken on the Bub 
ject of the Hermits or Eishis of Kashmir, and I almost regret that 
my notes on the subject are so brief. 

Without having inaugurated much philosophy, or displ 
marked learning, these holy men seem in the main to have beej 
actuated by motives of piety and a desire for moral advancement, i 
We might smile at the weak credulity which has invested their 
memories with the attributes of superhuman wisdom and powej 
hud we not parallel examples in sects of our own faith. We may 
fairly credit to many of them lives of purity and moral excellence. 
Dwelling amidst scenes of natural beauty and grandeur, the wild 
freshness of nature seems to have touched their hearts with some- 
thing of its kindred influences. In them far beyond most orientals, 
do we recognise some germ of the romantic spirit of the north 
and love of the picturesque, which we fail to trace in the southern 
Shemitic races, but gleams of which sometimes crop out in the 
Tatar and Mughul tribes. To complete this fragmentary sketch, 
views of the localities and zidrats alluded to would be requisite, 
as tending to shew the picturesque solitudes into which the 
musing spirit of these recluses led them to wander. We need 
not wonder at the choice of such retreats by calm and God-fearing 
men, where amidst some of the most glorious scenery this earth 
contains, they could taste of simple pleasures, exercise free thought, 
and ' look from nature up to nature's God.' 

Forest of Kujear, Chumba, June, 1870. 

^ r^l/j^ 

■v JLutcgraphe of Shahjaluhv. 

1870.] 271 

Facsimiles of several Autographs of Jahdngir, Shdhjahdn, and Prince 
Ddrd ShiJcoh, together with Notes on the Literary Character ml the 
Capture and Death of Ddrd Shihoh.—By H. Blochmann Esq., M. A., 
Assistant Professor, Calcutta Madrasah. 

(With a Plate.) 

Nos. 1. and 2. (Plate XIII, 1 and 2.) Autographs of the Emperors 
Jahdngir and Shdhjahdn. 

The splendid MS. on the fly-leaf of which these two autographs 
stand, belongs to Babii Pratapa Chandra Ghosh, Assistant Secretary, 
Asiatic Society, and was described in the Proceedings of the Society, 
for July, 1869, p. 190, where the text and translation will be found, 
together with a remark on the historical value of Shahjahan's 

The facsimiles of the plate are perfect and resemble the original 
in the minutest particulars. 

The MS. has at the end the following remark — 

(sic) ^jUaJUf t^MJ\ ^JLkLJl ^Icj.xyo c-O^+Jl ^Sit'l ±*x)\ &J ^k O.+J 

from which it will appear that the book was copied in the end 
of Zi Qa'dah, 945 (April, 1539, A. D.) at Bukhara, during the reign 
of Abul Grhazi Sultan 'Abdul 'Aziz Bahadur. 

On the other fly-leaf there are numerous signatures of Libra- 
rians and officers who inspected the Imperial Library ; hence the 
frequent 8»i-& 8tiJ,i (j^s, ' 'arz didahshudah, 'inspected.' The term <J^j^ 
u^j*, ''arz didan, which means to inspect, to muster, if not a usual 
phrase, appears to have been the technical term used at the Mughul 
Court ;and if MSS. have on their fly-leaves the words 8^ ^^/, 
they are sure to have once belonged to the Imperial Library. 

Jahangir's spelling *£}&*», for /♦*£*», is unorthographical. 

The value of the MS. was fixed at 8000 Eupees. 

In the Tuzuk i Jahdngiri (Sayyid Ahmad's edition, p. 81), mention 
is made of another master-piece of the same calligrapher, which 
was valued at 1000 goldmuhurs (9000 Rupees)— 

272 Facsimiles of several Autographs of Jahdngir, fyc. [No. 4, 

" The Khan Khanan presented [in 1019, A. H.] a copy of Jami's 
Yusuf Zalikha, in the handwriting of Mir 'Ali, illustrated and gild- 
ed, bound in gold, a most splendid copy. Its price is one thousand 

This MS. was evidently the fellow to Babu Pratapa Chandra 
Ghosh's MS. 

No. 3. Another autograph of Shahjahan. 

r t 

a^a. LS $)\ a(fp ^3^ e^J f fja ^ ^b^U^b 

The second volume of the Padishalmamah which belongs to this adorer of 
God's throne. Written by Shahjahan Padishah, son of Jahangir Padishah, son 
of Akbar Padishah i Ghazi. 

The MS. on the first page of which this autograph is written, 
belongs to the Asiatic Society, Bengal, (Persian MSS., No. 71). 

The autograph contains a correction indicated by the letters 
* (muqaddam) and £■ (muakhkhar) above the first three words. The 
first word should stand second. It also shews that Shahjahan called 
the book PddishdJmdmah, and not Bddshdhndmali. 

The similarity between autographs 2 and 3 is striking, and 
proves the genuineness of either. The former looks more flow- 
ing than the latter. Shahjahan was born A. H. 1000- hence he 
was 36 [solar] years old when he wrote the first (A. H. 1037). The 
2nd Volume of the Padishalmamah ends with 1057 A. II. ; thus when 
Shahjahan wrote No. 3, he must have been older than 56 years. 

4. An autograph of Prince Bard ShiJcoh. 

He is the Sovereign ! 
The Masnawf of Sultan Walad, in his own handwriting. 
The writer of these words is Muhammad Dara Shikoh. 

The MS. on the fly-leaf of which this autograph is found, belongs 
to the Government of India, and was noticed in the Proceedings of 
the Society for August, 1870, p. 251. 

1870.] The Literary Character of Bard Shikoh. 273 

The Literary Character of Bard Shikoh. 

A particular interest attaches to the religious views and the 
literary character of Dara Shikoh. Aurangzib calls him an atheist, 
and the historians of his reign look upon his sentence of death as a 
service rendered to Islam. But from his works, it is clear that 
Dara was no atheist, but had a strong leaning to f ufism and natural 
religion. With the Cufis he shared the belief that the ordinances 
of the Prophet are excellent for the unthinking masses : think- 
ing places a man above the ceremonial law, and renders him free 
(dzdd). But the thinking man, whilst standing above the ceremo- 
nial law, is not necessarily opposed to it ; in his search for truth he 
has reached a stage where revealed religion and its commands no 
longer apply to him. Hence it is unnecessary that he should formally 
renounce Islam ; he may even outwardly conform to its ordinan- 
ces. As far as he is concerned, Islam stands on a level with all other 
religions, e. g., Hinduism, the study of the philosophy of which ceases 
to be objectionable, and may even lead to further emancipation of 
thought.* Hence Dara Shikoh devoted his zeal to the translation 
of the Upanishads into Persian, and wrote at the same time his 
Safinat-ulauliya, a biographical work on the lives of Muhamma- 
dan Saints. In style and arrangement, his book does not differ 
from similar works written by pious Muhammadans. Another book 
composed by Dara Shikoh, treats of the principles of pdfism.f The 
latter work only possesses a historical interest as being written by 
a Prince of Dihli. In the former work, tlae^afinah, Dara Shikoh 
calls himself Muhammad Dara Shikoh i Hanafi i Qadiri, to shew 
that he was a Hanafi Sunni and a follower of the great orthodox 
Saint 'Abdul Qadir of Gilan, whose disciples form the Qadiriyah 
Sect. The only MS- which I have seen, belongs to the Government 
of India, and was written in 1 151, the 21st year of Muhammad Shah. 
It contains 216 leaves, 15 lines per page, and is very worm-eaten. 
It begins with an alhamdu liUdhi, &c. The next sentence is — 

*\j$ wis* 3 ! i^ili/Oj Si^\ ^jua, c^r*^ of^^*^ j J'j-^f ^j^ **i k°t 


* Bernier (Calcutta Edition, I, p. 326) also speaks of Dara's close intimacy 
with the Jesuit Father Buzee. 

t MSS. are rare. The only one I have seen is preserved among the Delhi 
MSS. belonging to the Government of India. Its title is Risdlah i Haq-numd. 


274 The Capture and Death of Bar a Shiloh. [No. 4, 

Although the circumstances and the miracles of the Lord of mankind [the 
Prophet], and the excellent qualities of his companions, and of the twelve 
Imams, and the sayings of the Saints, are clearer than day light, &c. 

The books ends with the following sentence — 

• |<Hl U-'^ \j^ ld*A> dJJ 0+=J\ * i^-^AJ 

If there should be an error or mistake in this book (for man may err), the 
learned are requested to cover it with the hem of correction. Praise be to 
God, praise for now and ever. 

In the Khazinat ul Atfd ( bi^l &jyL ),* a very full compilation 
in Persian of biographical notes on Muhammadan Saints by Mufti 
Ghulam Sarwar of Lahor, there is a short notice of Muhammad 
Dara Shikoh i Qadiri (p. 163). Besides the Safinat-ulauUd and 
the Risdlah i Ilaq-numd, the author mentions four other works com- 
posed by Dara, — 1. The SaTc'inat-ulaulid ; 2. The Sirr i aJcbar ; 3. 
The Diwdn i Iksir i A\am ; and 4. The Risalah i Ma? or if. I 
have not seen MSS. of these works. From an extract given by 
Ghulam Sarwar (p. 162), I conclude that the Sa/cinah, like the 
Safinahy contains biographical notes on Saints. The titles of the 
other three works imply that the conteuts are pdfistic. 

The interest which Dara took in the lives and the views of 
Muhammadan Saints is very conspicuous in the Safinah. He 
made it a point to visit their dargdhs, and has thus been enabled, 
in several cases, to give valuable historical details. Thus on a 
visit to Grhazni, he to&k occasion to visit the tomb of the renowned 
poet and saint Hakim Sanai, and he states in the Safinah that the 
epitaph shewed Sanai's death to have occurred in 525, A. H. The 
year of Sanai's death is variously given in works on Persian Litera- • 

The Capture and Death of Dura Shikoh, 
The sad fate of Prince Dara Shikoh deserves to be noticed. It 
created so much pity at the time, that the people of Dilili for once 

* Lithographed at Lahor, A. H. 1284- Royal 8vo., 1072 pages text, and 18 
pages Index. Thei*e exists at present no other compilation that is so full of 
notes on Indian Saints and their Dargdhs. 

Mufti Ghulam Sarwar has also published another Persian book, entitled 
Oanj i TdriJch, which contains upwards of fifteen hundred Tdrikhs of Muham- 
madan celebrities. Lithographed at Lahor, Kohi Nur Press, Eoyal 8vo., 256 
pages, no index. 

1870.] The Capture and Death of Bar a Shikoh. 275 

went into rebellion, instead of mutely looking, as had been their 
custom, on the atrocities which they called " decrees of fate." 

The principal events of his capture and death are known from 
the European Histories ; but the following particulars may assist 
future Historians in giving a more correct description of Dara's fate. 

Aurangzib defeated Dara Shikoh in two battles. The first was 
fought on the 6th Eamazan 1068, or 28th May, 1658, A. D., at 
Samogar (Jj+~»), 9 miles east of Agrah in the perganah of Fatha- 
bad; and the second, on the 27th and 28th Jumada II, 1069, or 
12th and 13th March, 1659, A. D., at Deora ( 1^ ), which lies 3 has 
south of Ajmir. Dara fled on the evening of the second day, ac- 
companied by his son, Sipihr Shikoh, and a courtier of the name 
of Firiiz i Mewati. Dara's wife and daughter, under the charge 
Khwajah Ma'qul, waited, far from the scene of the battle, at Ana- 
sagar Talao, in the neighbourhood of Ajmir. As soon as the result 
of the battle was known, their Bajput guards dispersed ; but some 
came back and plundered the elephants and the mules that were 
laden with treasure. Dara met his wife next day. 

After a flight of eight or nine days, Dara arrived at Ahmadabad 
in Gujrat. Finding no support, he fled to Kari, whence Kanji 
Koli (JjZ^K) guided him to Kachh. Here Gul Muhammad, 
whom Dara had made Faujdar of Siirat, joined the Prince with 50 
horse and 200 footmen. But as the Rajah of Kachh would not take 
up his cause, Dara fled towards Bhakkar on the Indus, with the 
view of passing over Qandahar into Persia. 

From here the^details of Dara's flight and capture, as given in 
European Histories, differ materially from the Muhammadan sources 
J from which they profess to be taken. Elphinstone says (fifth edi- 
,; tion, p. 609)— Bard pursued his way [from Kachh] towards Qanda- 
har, and reached the small territory of Jim or Juin, on the eastern 

frontier of Sindh. *** Bard's wife died at this place, and when 

the period of mourning permitted, he set out on prosecution of his jour- 
ney to the Indus. So also Marshman, who, however, adds that the 
chief of Jun was a Rajah, whilst Elphinstone correctly supposes 
that he was an Afghan. 

But the fact is that Dara crossed the Indus at Bhakkar, passed 
through the district inhabited by the Chandi tribe, where he and 

276 The Capture and Death of Lard S/n'Icoh. [No. 4, 

his followers had to fight for their lives, and came to the territory of 
the Magasis, the chief (mirzd) of whom received him hospitably. 
The chief town of the Chandis is Chandia (also called Dehi Kot, 
Long. 67° 34, Lat. 27° 38), and the district of the Magasis, an un- 
important Baluchi tribe, lies north of Chandia. Dara then direct- 
ed his march towards Dadar (Long. 67° 41' ; Lat. 29° 26'), the Afghan 
chief of which, Malik Jiwan, lay under obligations to the prince. 
At Dadar, a town which is notoriously the hottest inhabited place 
on earth, Dara wished to rest from the fatigues of the journey. 
Malik Jiwan sent his headman Ayyiib to receive him, and when the 
prince entered the territory of Dadar, he arrived himself, and 
took him to the town. Before they had entered Dadar, Dara's 
wife died. The corpse was taken to Malik Jiwan 's residence, but 
as it had been her dying wish to be buried in Hindustani soil, Dara, 
" with a disregard of circumstances that looks like infatuation," sent 
away Khwajah Ma'qiil and the faithful Gul Muhammad — Firuz i 
Mewati had left him at Bhakkav — with seventy horse to escort the 
coffin to Lahor, where the princess was buried in the house of the 
revered Miyan Mir, whose disciple Dara professed to be. 

After staying several days at Dadar, Dara, on the 29th Ramazan 
1069 A. H. (1 1th June, 1659, A. D.)left Malik Jiwan, and proceeded 
to Qandahar. No sooner had he gone than Malik Jiwan — Khafi 
Khan says, his brother — fell on Dara, made him and his son 
prisoners, and sent reports of his doings to Bahadur Khan and 
Rajah Jai Singh, who had followed Dara beyond the Indus, and to 
Baqir Khan, Faujdar of Bhakkar. Baqir immediately despatched 
a courier to Aurangzib at Dihli. 

The name of the treacherous chief of Dadar, Malik Jiwan (cjXo 
e^-Jj^) has perhaps been the occasion of the geographical errors into 
which European historians have fallen. It looks as if Elphinstone, 
or the author whose work he used, read ^UU mdlik, ' owner,' instead 
of v£ll*> malih ; and as if 'jiwan had been arbitrarily changed to Jun, 
in order to suit the word owner. But the name of the district and 
town in Eastern Sindh to which Elphinstone refers, is <i)y^ Jon, not 
Jiun. Jon, like TJ'ch, Daibal, T'hat'hah, and other towns of the 
shifting Indus Delta, is now an unimportant place between T'hat'hah 
and Amrkot ; at the time of Humayun it was renowned for its 

1870. J The Capture and Death of Bar a Shihoh. 277 

gardens (Akbarndmah). That Malik Jiwan was a Muhammadan, 
and not a Bajah, as Marshinan says, is clear from the fact that he 
was chief of Dadar, and also from the title of BalMydr Khan, which 
Aurangzib conferred upon him as reward for his treachery. There 
is no instance on record that the title of Khdn was ever M conferred" 
upon a Hindu. 

Dara and Sipihr Shikoh were escorted by Bahadur Khan and Malik 
Jiwan to Dihli, where they arrived on the 14th or 15th Zi Hajjah 
1069. They were confined in the palace of Khizrabad (Dihli). On 
the 20th of the same month, Aurangzib ordered them to be- paraded 
(tashhir) on an elephant through the streets of Dihli, the inhabitants 
of which were to satisfy themselves that it was really Dara ; else 
false Daras were sure to create disturbances in future times. 
Behind them on the elephant sat the desperate Nazar Beg, one of 
Aurangzib's < trust- worthy' slaves, and Bahadur Khan's troopers 
formed the escort. 

Two days after Dara and Sipihr had been lodged at Khizrabad (#. e. 
on the 16th or 17th Zi Hajjah), the people of Dihli expressed their 
sympathies for Dara by attacking Malik Jiwan and his Afghans, 
and the troopers of Bahadur Khan, as related in the histories. 
The leader of the revolt was an Ahadi of the name of Haibat. He was 
seized and executed. Aurangzib expected a general rising. " His 
Majesty, therefore, animated by a desire to promote the religion of 
the Prophet and obey his law, and compelled by circumstances and 
a regard for his own rule," thought it necessary to kill Dara, " de- 
termined no longer to allow the Prince's atheism (ilhad) and rebel- 
liousness—each a sufficient reason in itself for killing him— to 
interfere with the peace of the country." (? Alamgirnamah.) 

The order was given the day after Dara had been paraded in the 
streets, on the 21st Zi Hajjah 1069; and Saif Khan, and several 
trustworthy Chelahs (slaves), as Nazar Beg, killed Dara in the 
beginning of the night at Khizrabad (Tuesday evening, 30th August, 
1659).* His body was taken to Humayun's tomb, and buried below 

* The last day (29th Zi Hajjah) of the year 1069 coincides with Wednesday, 
7th September 1659. Hence the 21st Zi Hajjah is Tuesday, 30th August! 
ihe Muhammadan Historian say, Dara was killed on a Wednesday evening. 
lmstuiiy agrees with our computation j for the Muhammadan Wednesday 
commenced on Tuesday, 6 o'clock p. m. j 

278 The Capture and Death of Bard Shikoh. [No. 4, 

the dome, where Danyal and Murad, Akbar's sons, lie buried, and 
which was subsequently filled with corpses of other Timurides. 

These details are taken from the ' Alamgirnamah, pp. 218 to 325, 
408 to 415, 430 to 435, with which the Mir-dt ul 'Alam and the 
Madsir i 'Alamgiri agree. 

Khdfi Khan (Ed. Bibl. Indica, II, 82 to 87) differs from them in 
several particulars. 

First, he makes Dara's wife die in the house of Malik Jiwan. 

Secondly , Dara is captured by Malik Jiwan's brother. 

Thirdly, Dara is sentenced to death for heresy.* 

Fourthly, Dara's corpse also was paraded in the streets of Dilhi. 

Fifthly, he says, Dara was killed on the last (29th) day of Zil- 
Hajjah, instead of on the 21st. 

Bernier in his Travels gives a few additional particulars. He 
calls Malik Jiwan Jihon Khan ; hence the correct pronuncia- 
tion may be Malik Jion (cjJjJ^). Bernier evidently did not know 
where Malik Jion's territory was ; but he calls him a Pat'han. 
Dara's wife, according to his story, did not die a natural death, but 
swallowed poison at Lahor, to which town Ddrd had been taken from 
Tattah, — which is most improbable. 

The author of the excellent Miftdh uttaivdrikh (Mr. Thomas ^^i) 
says that Dara and his son arrived as prisoners in Dihli on the 
20th Zi Hajjah, 1069, corresponding to the 17th Shahriwar of 
Akbar's era ; but that the day of Dara's execution was not certain, 
inasmuch as some sources mentioned the 21st Zi Hajjah, 1069, 
and others the 1st Muharram, 1070. The author evidently pre- 
ferred the former date, as is shewn by his clever Tdrikh on Dara's 
death (Metre Khaf if )— 

l»iv r 

Wit seized the foot (last letter) of decorum (aclab, the last letter of which 
is u> = 2) and said, Qatl i Bard Shikoh (the murder of Dara Shikoh) is the 

Tdrikh. I. e. t 

* On the next day [the day after Haibat's execution] i. e. f on the last day 
of Zi Hajjah, his Majesty ordered Dara to be killed conformably to the deci- 
sion of lawyers that he had stepped out of the boundary of the Muhammadan 
law, had brought Cufism into bad repute, and had passed into open heresy 
and schism. Khdfi Khan II, p. 87. 

1870.] The Capture and Death of Bar a. Shikoh. 279 

i5+e»+J+a + i + j + I + J^ + ^) + j -f »=.fiv 

100 + 400 •+- 30 + 4 + 1 + 200 + 1 + 300 + 20 + 6 + 5 = 1067, 
to which v or 2 is to be added, hence 1069. 

The Mukhbir ul Wdgilin, a collection of Tdrikhs on Muhammadan 
Saints printed in the beginning of this century at Calcutta, has 
also the 1st Muharram, 1070, and from it the Miftdh and the 
Khazinat ul Agfa have evidently copied. But there is no historical 
evidence for fixing upon the 1st Muharram, 1070, as the day of 
Dara's execution. Even Khafi Khan's date (29th Zil Hajjah, 1069) 
is open to doubt, inasmuch as it differs from the date given in the 
contemporaneous histories the ' ) Alamgirndmah and the Mir -at ul 
y Alam. 

Dara Shikoh's wife was a daughter of Prince Parwiz (son of 
Jahangir) by Jahan Band Begum, daughter of Sultan Murad (son of 
Akbar). Dara had married her on the 8th Jumada I, 1042. Her 
name was Nadir ah Begum, and according to Khafi Khan, Dara was 
much attached to her. The disease of which she died is called in 
the 'Alamgirnamah <JU» ; but in Khafi Khan J^l.. 

Dara's children were (Pddisluihn. II, 101, 337, 388) — 

1. Sulaimdn Shikoh, born 26th Eamazan, 1044. 

2. Mihr Shikoh, born in Eabi' I, 1048. Died after 40 days. 

3. Mumtaz Shikoh, born on the last Jumada I, 1053. 

4. Sipihr Shikoh, born 15th Sha'ban, 1054. 

a. A daughter, born 29th Eajab, 1043. Died soon after. 

h. Pdk Nihdd Bank Begum, born 29th Jumada I, 1051. 

c. Jahdn Zil Bdnu Begum (married subsequently Muhammad 

Sulaimdn Shikoh married in 1065 a daughter of Pajah Gaj Singh, 
Khafi Khdn, p. 730. His daughter, Salimah Band Begum, mar- 
ried Prince Muhammad Akbar, Aurangzib's fourth son. Their 
offspring was Nekusiyar, who was proclaimed emperor at Agrah, 
but imprisoned by Eafi'uddaulah. 

Sipihr Shikoh married Zubdatunnissa Begum, Aurangzib's fourth 
daughter. Their son, 'All Tabar, was born on the 12th Jumada I, 
1087, and died in the end of 1088 {Mansir i ' Alamgiri, pp. 125, 160 ) 

280 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hkgli District. [No. 4, 

Notes on the Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hiigli Dis- 
t r ict. — By H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A., Assist. Professor, Calcutta 

(With 5 plates.) 

The following notes form the sequel to my paper on ' Places of 
Historical Interest in the District of Uiujli, which was published in 
the Proceedings of the Society for April, 1870. The inscriptions 
given in this article are all of Muhammadan origin ; the more 
important ones are in Arabic, the Persian inscriptions being few 
and modern. The originals are at Tribeni, Mulla Simla, Satganw, 
Panduah, and Dinanath. 

The earliest Arabic inscription mentions the year A. H. 698, 
or A. D. 1298; the latest belongs to A. H. 936, or A. D. 1580. 
They are all cut in basalt, with the letters raised, and the cha- 
racter of nearly all of them is Tughrd, which renders the reading 
difficult, and has probably been the reason why these inscriptions, 
though so near our metropolis, have never been collected. 

Satganw and Tribeni lie N. W. and N., respectively, of Hiigli ; 
but visitors will find it convenient to go to Mugra, the Railway 
Station next to Hugli, as both places are each only about two 
miles distant from the terminus. Satganw lies S. W., and Tribeni 
to the E. of the station. 

Satganw is reached by the Grand Trunk Eoad. Half way 
between Mugra and Satganw, the road meets the Saraswati, 
or Sursuttee, now varying in breadth from three to six feet, but 
a few centuries ago a broad river. The old banks are still clearly 
visible. After passing the bridge, a ruined mosque will be seen 
to the right of the road. This mosque which, together with a 
few tombs near it, is the only remnant of the old capital of 
Lower Bengal, was built, as will be seen below, by Sayyid Jamal 
Din (Jamaluddin), son of Sayyid Fakhruddin, who, according to 
the inscriptions, had come from Amul, a town on the Caspian 
Sea. The Khadim, who is attached to the mosque, knew nothing 
of this Sayyid ; he said, Fakhruddin had come with his friends 
Shah pafi of Panduah and Ghazi Zafar Khan of Tribeni to Bengal. 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the UligM District. 281 

This is, however, impossible, as the inscription on the mosque shews 
that Jamaluddin lived as late as A. H. 936. The walls of the mosque 
are built of small bricks, and are handsomely adorned, inside and 
out-side, with arabesques. The central mihrdb, or niche, looks very- 
fine ; but the upper part of the west wall having fallen down, half 
the mosque is filled with stones and rubbish, so that it is im- 
possible to see the whole of the niche. The arches and domes are 
in the later Pat'han style. Over each entrance, inside, there 
is a crescent. Near the S. E. angle of the mosque, is an en- 
closure with three tombs, where Sayyid Fakhruddin, his wife, 
and his eunuch, are said to be buried. The wall forming the en- 
closure is in many places broken down. I found two long basalt 
tablets placed slantingly against the inner side of the north wall. 
A third square basalt tablet is fixed into the wall ; unfortunately, 
it is broken in the middle, and the wall is half pierced, to allow 
the customary lamp to be put into the cavity. These three in- 
scriptions should be removed to a museum. It is impossible to say 
how they came into the enclosure. "When the public buildings in 
Satganw and Tribeni decayed, pious hands, probably, rescued the 
inscriptions, and stored them up in holy places as Fakhruddin's 
enclosure and Zafar Khan's mosque and tomb, or even fixed them 
into the walls at the time of repairs, thus turning each of these 
mtdnahs into a sort of museum. 

There is also an inscription on Fakruddin's tomb ; but it is ille- 
gible, though it could perhaps be deciphered, if the letters were 
carefully painted. 

A short distance higher up the Grand Trunk Eoad lie the eleven 
huts, which form the modern Satganw. The ground between them 
and the Saraswati, towards a small village of the name of Lai 
Jhapah, which lies W. of it, is very uneven, and looks as if it had 
been the site of an extensive settlement. At one place, not far 
from the road, the capital of a large pillar merges from the 
ground. The people called it padishahi f Up <ii. 

From Satganw, a narrow footpath leads to Tribeni along the 

old right bank of the Saraswati. The river itself appears to be 

nothing else but an arm of the Ganges (Bhagiruttee), though on 

the maps of the Hiigli district, it looks like a river which takes 


282 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Bugli District. [No. 4, 

its rise near the Rajahpur Jhil, west of Habrah (Howrali). A 
Midi passes from the Saraswati to the Ganges about five miles 
below the Botanic Garden. To the north of the mouth of the 
Saraswati lies the broad and high Tribeni Ghat, a magnificent 
flight of steps, said to have been built by Mukund Deo, the last 
Gajpati of Orisa ; and S. of it, on the high river bank lies Tribeni 
itself with the Astdnah of Ghazi Zafar Khan, generally called by the 
people Gdzi Qdhib led dargcth. Tribeni is often called Tripani, and 
by the Muhammadans, Tripani ShaJqmr, or Firuzabdd. The peo- 
ple refer the last name to Firuz Shah of Dihli ; but it is more 
natural to connect it with Shamsuddin Firuz Shah (I.), king of 
Bengal, whose name will be found below in the inscription of Zafar \ 
Khan's Madrasah. The name of ' Tribeni,' or ' Three Streams' 
is said by the natives of the place to refer to the junction of the 
Ganges, the Saraswati, and Jamnah. The Jamnah, or Jabunah, 
flows into the Ganges on the left side, opposite to the southern 
extremity of the extensive island in the middle of the Ganges. 

The curious legend of Zafar Khan has been related by Mr. D. 
Money in his article on the Tribeni Temple, published in the XVth 
volume of the Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, for 1847, p. 393. 
The Astanah consists of two enclosures. The first, which lies at the 
road leading along the bank of the Hiigli, is built of large basalt 
stones, said to have been taken from an old Hindu temple, which 
Zafar Khan destroyed. Its east wall which faces the river, shews 
clear traces of mutilated Hindu idols and dragons ; and fixed into 
it, at a height of about six feet from the ground, is a piece of iron, 
said to be the handle of Zafar Khan's battle-axe. The second en- 
closure, which is joined to the west wall of the first, is built of 
sandstone. The Khadim of the Astanah, a man not altogether 
illiterate, told me that the western tomb was that of Zafar Khan. 
The other three, he said, are those of 'Ain Khan Ghazi and Ghain 
Khan Ghazi ( ^jU c)Lk ^ac, and (jyli cA^ ^x* ), sons of Zafar Khan, 
and of the wife of Barkhan Ghazi. The first enclosure contains 
the tombs of Barkhan Ghazi ( ^jU cL^J ), third son of Zafar 
Khan, and of Rakim Khan Ghazi and Karim Khan Ghazi, sons of 
Barkhan. Mr. Money mentions a son of Zafar Khan of the name of 
Ugwan Khan, who according to the Eiirsindniah, or family register, 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Ilkgli District. 283 

"of the Khadims, defeated tlie Raj ah of Hiigli, conquered him, con- 
" verted the infidels to Muhaminadanism, and married his daughter. 
" After some time, Ugwan Khan also died at Tribeni." 

About twenty yards to the west of the second enclosure, are the 
ruins of an old mosque, likewise built with the materials of an old 
Hindu temple. The low basalt pillars supporting the arches are 
unusually thick, and the domes, as in the Panduah mosque are 
built of bricks, of successive rings of stones, the diameter of each 
layer being somewhat less than that of the layer below, the whole 
being capped by a circular stone, covering the small remaining 
aperture. This corresponds to the domes described by Mr. Trenilett 
in his ' Notes on Old Dihli', p. 87 of this volume of the Journal. 
Two of the domes are broken. On the western wall, there are several 
inscriptions, as described below. According to the Arabic verses 
round about the principal Mihrdi, the mosque was built by Khan 
Muhammad Zafar Khan, who is called a Turk, in A. H. 698, or 
A. D. 1298. The ground round about the mosque is very uneven ; 
several basalt pillars lie about, and there are foundations of several 
structures, as also a few tombs, which are said to be the resting- 
places of former Khddims. 

I now proceed to the inscriptions which I have arranged accord- 
ing to their age. 

A. Tribeni. 
Inscription I. (Arabic and Persian.) 

fiXD a^Xm** j+*s Uil j^JIjJ all I JVi - ^yx*jj]j£kjj { *-r^j* ^ 

-.UjH) ^ L« ^ju*J| *1UJ} &jJlc*Jy» j *^Usi J^Ij [sic) adilib 
aJU) go ) y cSi Jti aJIJ j^UJ) ^1 ^lU? &£l) Jj # ^u; *JU| ^o 

^^J UftJ) ; cJujaJI \*f0*ol* ^AsJ) jsr^^J |<i& ^ij* Id^J 

284 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. [No. 4, 

l v J^> AlJVj- iytJ j ai£ l^*^ ^s)y. ^J^ i^l^r ^ 

fc»)«4* I;; 1 ^^ tf**k Hif^ «*!>■ 4_ I; *^^ ^J ^jT^' 

* ,jU|^ 

God, vouchsafe unto us in this world a great comfort, and in the world to 
come a great comfort. [Qoran, II, 197.] A help from God, and an approaching 
gift ; announce it to the believers. [Qoran, LXI, 13.] 

God has said — ' Surely he will build the mosques of God who believes in 
Him and in a future life, and performs his prayers, and gives the legal alms, 
and fears no one except God. Such perhaps will belong to those that are 
guided. [Qoran, IX, 18.] That means [Persian], every one who builds mosques 
for God, is certainly and without doubt a believer and will find guidance* 
And he upon whom be peace [the Prophet] has said — ' To try and to begin is 
mine ; but the completion rests with God.' 

God has said — ' The mosques belong to God. Worship no one else but God.' 
[Qoran, LXXII, 18.] 

This Jami' Mosque has been erected by the Lord of the sword and the pen, 
the hero of the age and the period, Ulugh Majlis ulMajalis, the Majlis 
Ikhtiyar, the Commander-in-chief and Vazir of the town ofHusainabad 
theGreat, of the District ofSajlaMankhbad, Commander of the T h a- 
nahofLaobla and the town of Hadigar, who is known as Ruknuddin 
Ruk n K h an, son of 'A lau d d i n of Si rh a t — may God grant him long 
life, without end, and may He lengthen his reign over mankind, may He cause 
the benefits to last for ever, which he bestows upon the faithful, may God 
give him victory over the Infidels, to the glory of the true faith. Amen,0 
Lord of the universe. (Persian) He who repairs this mosque, will find mercy 
with God ; but should any one, which God forbid, dishonour this mosque, may 
God dishonour him. 

This inscription is fixed into the west wall to the right of the 
northern Mihrab (niche) in the Tribeni Mosque. Like all other in- 
scriptions in Tribeni and Satganw, it is in black basalt, and the let- 

1870.] Arabic and Fenian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. 285 

ters are raised. The characters are not in Tughra, and look awkward. 
Regarding the geographical names, vide below. I have placed 
this inscription first, as it appears to be the oldest, or at least of 
the same time as the next inscription. In neither of them do we 
find an allusion to the reigning king. 

The Jami' Mosque mentioned in the inscription cannot be the 
Tribeni mosque, which to judge from the next inscription, was built 
by Zafar Khan, although it is impossible to say when or wherefrom 
the slab was brought to the place where it now is. 

To the left of this inscription is another in black basalt ; but 
the letters are so broken and effaced, that only the words 

" — uddin Abul Muzaffar Husain Shah" are legible. As Husain 
Shah (II.) reigned in the beginning of the 10th century of the 
Hijrah, it is clear that this inscription also has been brought to 
the Tribeni mosque from some other place. 

Further to the left of these two inscriptions, we come to another 
Mihrdb, or niche. Although no Mimbar, or pulpit, stands within it, 
it would appear that this Mihrdb was the principal one. It looks 
like a walled up door ; the posts are of black basalt, and on them 
there is an inscription. The post opposite to the threshold is 
horizontal, and above it there is a long inscription, which, to- 
gether with the words on a small separate key-stone, forms a 
part of that on the posts. It is a long Arabic poem, a Qagidah 
with a rhyme in sin. The letters are, however, in many places 
illegible, especially those over the niche. The poem commences 
i on the right hand post, near the ground, goes upwards, and ends 
with a Tdrihh on the lower end on the other post. The follow- 
ing lines are all that I have deciphered. 

Inscription II. (Arabic.) 

(Zafar Khan's Mosque). 
# * # a- # * a- * * # 

286 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. [No. 4, 

And I [Zafar Khan] hope to obtain the pious wishes of such as are learned 
in the law, that God may strengthen my faith* at the time I am in the grave. 

May God r eward me ; for He is truly merciful, and liberal, and kind ; and 
[I hope that] He will honor me.f 

Then follows on the top — 

lj»\\&+]\ ilsr'lj (^/xaiJ # * # # * 

u«;b &&" er^^y 1 A - l$^j^ ****> w:.^ 1 ^ * * * * 

The seventh, and eighth liemistichs are illegible. 

jj*. * # xh ^yc AlJi^j^lgJilj # # 9 # 

* * * # ^a** liri^l c^ *-** ^^*^ 

The 15th and 16th henristichs are quite illegible. 

(J» * *h J*.j& i^Uk^ftJs «-G"S * * * * 

^jiyJl <**j jj^l *l*J **» ) * * * * 

* * Zafar Khan, the Tur k, the lion of lions, # * * * and the most excel- 
lent one of builders of benevolent edifices, after the heroes, and by smiting the 
Infidels with sword and spear, and lavishing treasures on every * * 

The remaining lines to the 24th hemistich are illegible. Then 
follow the lines on the left post — 

* ,^UsJ| *hJ\ ftc\ *JUS &Ua> hoyZA) AJc **la*J ) 

And by honouring all the learned of the faith, in order to elevate the stand- 
ard of God (?). 

The date is expressed by the Wafq letters ,jo } «., and ~ 5 according to the 
reckoning of him who counts. 

Unsatisfactory as the deciphering is, the date of the found- 
ation of the mosque and the name of the founder have escaped the 
ravages of time. Zafar Khan is called a Turk, and the found- 

* In allusion to the imtihdn id qabr, or the examination in the grave. Short- 
ly after the burial, the corpse is visited, according to the belief of the Muslims, 
by two angels who examine the dead man as to his creed. 

I have substituted for the sake of clearness the first person. The text has 
the third. 

f The reading is very likely ^J-RiUi *1U^, ' that He will raise his [Zafar's] 
turban,' i. e., that he will honor him. The preposition J ? like the ^J in oo>JjJ y 
seems to depend from j.a> jj # 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hiigli District. 287 

ationof his mosque at Tribeni on the ruins of the old Hindu edifices 
which he destroyed, is expressed by ^ + ^ -f £, = 8 + 90 -f 600, 
or 698 A. H., which corresponds to A. D. 1298. Zafar Khan's 
Madrasah, as will appear from the following inscription, was 
founded fifteen years later, in A. H. 713, or A. D. 1313. 

There is no doubt that the above verses are one of the oldest 
inscriptions, if not the oldest, in Lower Bengal. 

Inscription III. (Arabic.) 
(Zafar Khan's Madrasah.) 

•• yjj yjj . ^t ^ 

; UjJ) ^s, « ^i ^\jj v*JIju ' ^5! nl^ji ^yji * juji 

(sic)^j) '^UjJU cJIU i±>J^ *^JUJI v,. £Ai*j ^^s* 1 ! '^dJI 
^s^ J ) &,£ ^ « ( sic ) ^UJ^) Baa. ^ ' ajjdd ^ic &U) yikl 

^ *jU*Aau ^ $..&£ t^^lj £i*o 1 J) 1 ?LaJ) 

Praise be to Him to whom praise is due ! This Madrasah which goes by the 
name of Ddr ul Khairdt [house of benevolence], was built during the reign of the 
Lord of munificence, the owner of the crown and the signet, the shadow of God on 
earth, the generous, the liberal, the great, the master of the necks of nations, the 
sun of the world and the faith [shams uddunyd iva-ddin], who is distinguished 
by the graceof the Lord of the universe, the heir of the realm of Sulaiman, [Sham- 
suddin] Abul Muzaffar Firtiz Sha h — may God perpetuate his reign — 
(second slab) by order of the distinguished Khan, the generous, the respected, 
the liberal, the praiseworthy, the helper of Islam, the aider of mankind, the 
meteor of truth and faith, the supporter of kings and sovereigns, the patron of 
enquirers, Khan MuhammadZafarKha n — may God give him victory 
over his enemies and guard his friends. 

Dated 1st Muharram, 713. [28th April, 1313]. 

288 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugl'i District. [No. 4, 

This inscription is written on two long basalt tablets which 
are now imbedded in the northern side of Zafar Khan's tomb, 
in the second enclosure of the Tribeni Astdnah. The second 
tablet, which commences with the words bi-amril Khan, frc, has 
been placed by the ignorant masons first, and was pretty correctly 
deciphered by Mr. D. Money. According to the Kursindmah pre- 
served by the Mutawallis of Zafar's Tomb, it would appear that 
Zafar Khan came from Manrganw (jjfrjil* ), in the Parganah 
Kunwar Partab, Chaklah Murshidabad (Makhc/igabad).* From the 
above inscription it is clear that his name was Khan Muham- 
mad, Zafar Khan being his title. Common people, as Mr. Money 
says, pronounce Darap Khan, an interchange in position of an / 
and a liquid, as in qicfl (Arabic, a lock) and qui/, the pronuncia- 
tion current among the people. I heard also people pronounce 

The king mentioned in this inscription is Shamsuddin 
AbulMuzaffar Firuz Shah Sultan. His name is not 
given in the Tabaqdt i Akbari, nor by Firishtah, who copied from 
the Tabaqdt. Mr. E. Thomas, the distinguished numismatician, was 
the first that assigned him his proper place. In his essay on the 
Initial Coinage of Bengal, which forms the basis of our historical 
knowledge of the early Muhammadan period of Bengal (Journal, 
A. S. Bengal, 1867, pp. 1 to 73), Mr. Thomas describes coins 
struck by this Firuz Shah of Bengal between A. H. 715 and 722 ; 
another coin perhaps belongs to the year 702. The above inscription 
mentions 713, and it is clear that Firuz Shah must have then been 
firmly established in Western Bengal. 

It is remarkable that neither this inscription, nor the coins 
published by Mr. Thomas (/. c, p. 45), mention the name of the 
father of Firiiz Shah, or the words ^Ua-L, ^j 5 which are not left 
out on the coins of Euknuddin Kai Kaus ; and secondly, that the 
preceding inscription of A. H. 698, mentions no king at all, which 
agrees with the fact that up to the present time no coins have been 
found struck by a Bengal king between 695 and 702, i. e. for the 
beginning of the reign of 'Alauddin of Dihli. 

* I am told, there is a legend still current at Marganw that Ugwan Khan, 
Zafar's son, defeated Manpat Singh, Rajah of Birbhum. 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hiigli District. 289 

In point of execution and beauty of the letters, this inscription 
is superior to the preceding, which itself is vastly superior to 
Inscription No. I. It looks indeed as if all following inscriptions 
had taken this one as model. Even the latest inscription of 
Nucrah Shah of Satganw of the 10th century shews the same 
manner of execution. With the establishment of the Mughul 
government in India, the characters commence to change, and 
though Tughra letters are still in use, they gradually drift into 
modern Nasta'Uq. 

The following inscription, which stands to the right of the Mihrdb 
gives the same date as No. III. 

Inscription IV. (Arabic.) 

Blessed is God, the great creator, the creator of the people, * * 

Blessed is He in whose hands the kingdom is. His power extends over 
every thing. 

Blessed is He who has sent down the Qoran to His servant, that he may be 
a warner to all generations. 

Blessed is God, the great Creator. O God, God of the heavens, and the 
earth # * 

Dated 1st Muharram. 713. 


Inscriptions V and VI. (Arabic.) 



290 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. [No. 4, 

This inscription is of no interest, and consists in a well known 
verse from the Qoran (Sur. II., 256), which is frequently used for 
inscriptions on mosques. The verse itself goes by the name of 
A'yat ulkursi, because the word Jcursi (throne) occurs in it. Mu- 
hammadans have a very high idea of its beauty ; they often repeat 
it after prayers, and blow on their chests, or blow on their hands, 
which are then rubbed over the arms and the body. The bles- 
sings inherent in the verse are thus distributed over the whole 

The inscription stands to the right of the words uddin A bid 
Muzaffar Husain Shah, mentioned on p. 285. 

Another inscription of no value, to the left of the Mihrdb, com- 
mences with the words — 

^j^U p+i j # * * fH^ 1 l?*^ 1 ^ F* 

After several illegible words, we find — 

i, U UJ| JmJi 4b| * * * dty 
Of greater interest is the following. 

Inscription VII. (Arabic.) 
ds^l ^Jo • U^) *JU) £* |y:du Is &SI ^U-wJI d I Alii JU 

yj&j* ) Js^yj]^^ ^U. ^yi ^*^ ^U. Jxi^ ^;'^' 

i *jJU* c^^'^ ^/(?y L^b rV -i j d^^* %^** ***!/* J*}) * 

J»liJi ; lj J^&S Ju>UJI J^U| JjUJJ ciU) ^bvy jyJI 

God has said. ' The mosques belong to God. Worship no one else besides 
God. (Qoran LXXIL, 18). 

This mosque was built by the great Khan, the exalted grandee, Ulugh 
Ajmal Khan — may God preserve him in both worlds,— the Commander 
of the army of the exalted nobleman Iqrar Khan, who is the guardian 
Qdn&dr) of the honor of the royal Harem, Commander and Yazir of the District 
of Sajla Mank hbad, and the town of Laobla— may his exalted quali- 
ties endure for ever, — during the reign of the just, liberal, learned, and per- 
fect king, B a r b a k S h a h, son of M a h m ii d S h a h, the Sultan. Dated 
A. H. 860. 

1870.] Arabic mid Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. 291 

As far spelling and grammar are concerned, this inscription is 
one of the worst I have seen. Generally speaking, the Arabic of 
none of these inscriptions is classic. One curions mistake occurs 
on almost every Bengal inscription — the word^Jl abu is not changed 
to ^jM abi, though in the genitive case. Thus in Inscriptions III., 
VII, IX, X. ; and the word jj^o ' known as,' is not followed by the 
preposition bi, as it ought to be ; vide Insc. I and X. In the above 
lines we have Bildobld for Ldobld, and fi-Vahd, with the article, 
instead oifi 'ahd ! The date is so extraordinarily expressed, that I 
at first doubted its correctness (Proceedings, 1870, p. 189). But the 
difficulty may be got over by supplying &~J|, or &x*J\ t>: yo } between 
the ic dw and sittin. 

The inscription lies at present on the ground in the enclosure 
where Zafar Khan is buried, between the entrance and the tomb. 
The surface of the stone is about a square yard, and its thickness 
about a foot. On turning it round, I found that the reverse con- 
tained numerous serpents and dragons, cut in relief, but partly 
mutilated. The stone is of the same basalt as the buildings at 

Regarding the king and the date mentioned in the inscription, 
vide below No. X. 

B. Mulla' Simla', near Biddibdti. 

Biddibsiti is the station on the E. I. Railway after Serampore. 
About six miles west of it lies a village of the name of Mulla Simla, 
called on the maps Ilolnah Simla, where there is an old, low mosque, 
and the dargdh, or tomb, of ' Hazrat Muhammad Kabir pahib,' 
generally called ShahAnwar (jiyl)Quli of Aleppo. The 
Khddims attached to the Dargah know nothing about the saint, nor 
did they know the meaning of the inscription. They say that the 
mosque was built after Shah Anwar's death by some ambassador, who 
endowed it with lands, a copy of the sanad being preserved in the 
court at Hugli. They also point out two stones close to the tomb, 
where the saint used to kneel down (dozdnii) at the time of shaving, 
and the stones u still shew impressions of his knees." The saint 
is said to have been fond of looking-glasses ; hence pilgrims bring 
often with them small looking-glasses, which are placed on the tomb. 

292 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hvgli District. [No. 4, 

But after buying them, they must not look in them on their way to 
the dargdh ; " else misfortunes will surely befall them, as was the 
case with a man who some time ago, while on his way to Mulla 
Simla, fell down dead, because he looked at his face in the glass 
which he had bought for the saint." 

This curious custom of offering up looking-glasses seems to be 
connected with the birth-place of Shah Anwar. Aleppo was for- 
merly famous in the East for its glass wares. 

The inscription is on black basalt, in Tughrd characters, and 
is fixed over the entrance to the Dargdh, although it must have be- 
longed in former times to the mosque. The old mosque itself has 
at present no inscription. 

Inscription VIII. (Arabic.) 

J &i*+" 3 ***** &*• C5* a>^U^==* & f&sy\ Ul^l «XST-^| ^ii 

God has said, ' The mosques belong to God. Worship no one else besides 
God.' [Qoran LXXII, 18.] 

The Prophet— upon whom be peace — has said, * He who builds for God a 
mosque on earth, will have seventy castles built for him by God in Paradise. 

This mosque was built by the great Khan Ulugh Mukhlic Khan, in 
the year 777 [A. D. 1375.] 

If, as the Khadims say, the ambassador got rid of certain diffi- 
culties by praying at the tomb, one might think that he would 
have shewn his gratefulness by mentioning the saint's name 
on the inscription ; but the slab mentions neither Shah Anwar, nor 
the king who reigned in 777 [Sultan-ussalatin]. 

I owe this inscription to the kindness of Maulawi 'Abdul Hai, of 
the Calcutta Madrasah. 

C. Sa'tga'nw. 
Inscription IX. (Arabic.) 
(NdQir Husain Shah's Mosque.) 
^jJJ j aUU ^1 ^ jlUI j^Uwo^xj Ui] ^1UJ an Jj 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. 293 

sJ]jj ^ j a% J^ J^ ^« }£ J0» ) * ^V J ' <♦/* IrV^ ur 
A^lr aIj! ^U ^iJ) Jl>' ^ * ) ^| aJUI t x lys<*3 Hi ill d^.UJI ^i 
U# aJ a1J| ^ij Uiail ^i l.)?^* ^j ^ ajIs^I ; All ^ , 
****** *M) \^J 

uAksH c^Rs^I f yJl JLuJ) r fcSI ^s J l *Uu * *iUL ^ *,-! 

-A^ JUS ^ ax*j ^Uyi j.a.1 u»U] ^r ^IUj aJIJJ a*U ^s^J 

* ajUoUj ^ jJL«J1 ^ ^^Wl ax^m i 

God has said, ' That man will build the mosques of God who believes in Him 
and the last day, and performs the daily prayers and gives the alms demanded 
by the law, and fears no one except God. Such perhaps belong to those that 
are guided [Qoran IX, 18.] 

And He whose glory is glorious and whose benefits are general, has also 
said, ' The mosques belong to God. Worship no one else besides God.' [Qoran, 
LXXII, 18.] 

The prophet (upon whom be peace) has said, ' He who builds for God a 
mosque in this world, will have a house built for him by God in Paradise'. 

(# # # two lines broken and illegible) [of him 

who is strengthened*] by proof and testimony, the refuge of Islam and the Mos- 
lems, Nac ir u d d i n Abul Muzaffar Husain Shah, the Sultan. 
May God perpetuate his reign and rule, and elevate his state and dignity. 

This mosque was built by the great, exalted, and honoured Khan who has 
the title ofTarbiyat Khan. May God preserve him from the misfor- 
tunes of the end of time by His benevolence and perfect grace. 

In the year A. H. 861 [A. D. 1457.] 

This valuable inscription is written on a thin basalt tablet and is 
fixed into the northern wall of the enclosure of Fakhruddm's Tomb 
at Satganw. 

Kegarding the king mentioned above, vide Inscription X. 

Inscription X. (Arabic.) 

^ajJj JS ) # 1^1 *ifl t * lyrjJ V &U J^WI ^I^JW aUJ Js 

* The word **J j./o, muayyad, seems to have stood before burhdn. 

294 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Uiujli District. [No. 4, 
*J A.JU) ^Jo LidJI^i Icis^-* ^xj ^ JU ^ Ajdr a1!| ^a 

J3UII J^UJ) diiJI a v c ^i j.s-^1 ^j * K^s I'x^l^s 

•-iuuJI u^a^ r^^J ^^1 Js^ J | Jo # &XU aJUI jJ^ 
ric» ) S<*f&* %A*« i^>j£. j^ ) £*& y* ,y ^^Mi^ iJ! Jail ^ 

God has said, ' The mosques, &c.' [Qoran, LXXII, 18.]. And tho prophet 
(may peace be upon him !) has said, ' He who builds a mosque on earth will 
have a castle built for him by God in Paradise'. 

This mosque was built during the reign of the just and liberal king J a 1 a 1- 
ucldin Abul Muzaffar Fat h Shah, the Sultan, s o n of Mahmud 
the Sultan, may God perpetuate his reign ! 

The builder of this noble and great mosque is the Lord of the sword and the 
pen, Ulugh Majlis N u r, commander and Vazir of the district of S a j 1 a 
M a n k h b a d, and the town known as S i m 1 a b a d, and Commandant of the 
Thanah L a o b 1 a, and Mihrbak, District and Mahall (Perganah) of Hadi- 
gar, — may God preserve him in both worlds ! 

Dated 4th Muharram, 892, [1st January, 1487.]. Written by the humble 
servant Akhund Malik. 

This inscription is written on a long basalt tablet, which at pre- 
sent stands leaning against the northern wall of Fakhruddin's 

Inscriptions Nos. I., VII., and X. mention — 

1. The District of Sajld Mankhbdd. 

2. The District of Kadi (jar. 

3. The Thanahs of Laobld, or Zdobald* and Mihrbak, the 
first of which was called ' a town' in inscription VII. 

4. The town of Simlabdd. 

* There is a place 10 miles E. of Tribeni, on the other side of the Hugh', 
called on the maps Laopallah, near the Jamnah or Jabunah, mentioned above 
on p. 282, on the border of the 24-Parganahs. In an Arabic Inscription, 
c Laopallah' would have to be spelt ' Laobala.' It is also noticeable that there 
are several Muhammadan villages near this Laopallah. The maps show a 
Fathpur, Shahpur, Hathikhanah, &c. 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. 295 

I have not succeeded in identifying these five places, although 
six months of enquiry and search have elapsed since I first men- 
tioned them in the Proceedings of the Society (June, 1870, p. 188.) 

The name even of * Husaindbdd the Great? mentioned in Inscr. I. 
is somewhat doubtful; but the Husainabad in the Murshidabad 
district may be meant. The only name which is certain is that of the 
town of Sarhat (in Birbhuru), which on Inscr. I. is spelled Sirhat, 
with an i. 

It is noticeable that in none of the inscriptions the words SirJcdr 
and parganah occur. The word 'argah (*-y ) may be equivalent 
to sirlcdr, and the word mahall is used, even in the Ain, in the same 
sense as ' parganah.' The term y arcah seems also to have given 
rise to the name of the parganah Arsd, to which Satganw and 
Tribeni belong, though Arsd is spelt in the Ain, and by Muham- 
madans now-a-days, Uyl, not s^y-. In this case the real name of 
the district would have been omitted. There are many similar 
cases on record. Thus the parganah opposite to Tribeni is called 
Haweli shahr, and corrupted Hdlishahr, the proper noun having 
likewise fallen away. 

The word thdnah meant in those days a ' standing camp,' as the 
Muhammadans used to erect in newly conquered districts. 

The names and dates of the Bengal kings mentioned in these 
inscriptions, do not entirely agree, as might have been expected, 
with those given in our histories. The kings mentioned are — 

1. Shamsuddm Firuz Shah (I.),— A. H. 713 (Inscr. III). 

2. Barbak Shah, son of Mahmud Shah,— A. H. 860, (Inscr. 

3. Nacjiruddin Abul Muzaffar Husain Shah (I.),— A. H. 861, 
(Inscr. IX). 

4. Abul Muzaffar Yusuf Shah, son of Barbak Shah, no year. 
Vide below under ' PanduahS 

5. Jalaluddin Abul Muzaffar Fath Shah, son of Mahmud Shah, 
—A. H. 892, (Inscr. X). 

6. Nucrah Shah, son of 'Alauddin Husain Shah (II.),— A. H. 
930 {vide below Inscr. XI, XII). 

The place in history of the first king, Finiz Shah (I), has been 
alluded to above, on p. 288. 

296 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hiigli District. [No. 4, 

Of Barbak Shah, Marsden (II., 573) has published a coin, dated 
A. H. 873, which seems to agree with the statement of the histories 
that he reigned from A. H. 862 to 879. Inscr. VII. gives 860 ; but 
should no coin confirm this early date, I would almost doubt the relia- 
bility of the inscription which, as I said above, is full of mistakes. 
The unit might have been omitted. Besides, the year 860 seems to 
be rendered impossible by Inscr. IX., unless we assume that Barbak 
proclaimed himself king during the lifetime of Naciruddin Husain 
Shah. As correctly observed by Marsden, the histories make 
Barbak Shah the son of Nagir Shah, against the testimony of coins 
and Inscr. VII., which call his father Mahmud Shah. ButMahmiid 
Shah has not yet been assigned a place among the Bengal kings.* 

The third king, Nagiruddin Abul Muzaffar Husain Shah is called 
in the histories Nacir Shah, and is said to have reigned from A. H. 
830 to 862. Inscr. IX. mentions clearly 861, and thus confirms the 
histories as far the end of his reign is concerned. But the histories 
are wrong in calling him Nagir Shah, for the full name given in the 
inscription shews that he should be called Husain Shah (I). A similar 
confusion occurs in the name of 'Alauddin Abul Muzaffar Husain 
Shah al Husaini, father of Nucrah Shah, whom the histories call 
likewise by the first name 'Alauddin, instead of Husain Shah (II). f 

The fifth king, Fath Shah, appears like the preceding, with his 
full, or juliis , name. Inscr. X. confirms the fact, mentioned by 
Marsden and Laidley, that Fath Shah was the son of Mahmud Shah, 
and therefore brother of Barbak Shah. According to the histories, 
Barbak Shah died in 879, and was succeeded by his son Shamsuddin 
Abul Muzaffar Yusuf Shah, who is mentioned in Gaur Inscriptions 
of A. H. 880 and 885. He is said to have died without issue, and 
the throne was claimed by a member of the royal family, of the 
name of Sikandar Shah. But he was immediately deposed, and 
Fath Shah, uncle of Yiisuf Shah, ascended the throne. 

* The author of the Sharafndmah i Ibrdhimi, a Persian dictionary, praises 
Barbak Shah and calls him Abul Muzaffar Barbak Shah. But the only (incomplete) 
MS. which I have seen of the work, mentions no year. In Marsden's reading of a 
Barbak Shah coin, Area I., we find by mistake &+s?° for tj+s.' , though his 
translation has correctly Mahmud. 

The numerous Barbakpurs, Barbak Singhs, &c, in Bengal seem to refer to 
Barbak Shah. 

f For a similar incorrectness in Malwah History, vide Proceedings A. S. 
Bengal, for 1869, p. 267, note 3. 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. 297 

Inscriptions XI and XII (Arabic and Persian). 

(The Satganw Mosque.) 

Both inscriptions refer to the building of the Satganw mosque, 

the ruins of which still exist. The first inscription is a long basalt 

tablet, which stands in a slanting position within the enclosure of 

Fakhruddin's tomb, at the side of Inscr. X. 

JLo l-^^Hj i^_j.^<aj jo mLuu3\ AjJIc JlS ^ # /.f^^ c g * AAs: J ) 

* aa»J ^ **>l ^ ajjo) [ S ^y; *i& ] ^i>J^ ciULSl ^ j^^I 

^^a. ^j) *lw X^^fli^Ual^^AlaJI^I J^oKJI JjUl) ^UaLJ) ^Uf 

»*-i^I v 9j«ajjs) u_Aj>) ^ y/j^* AfiUa. aXSI^jUj # ajUju«J ^ juUIj 

Jllx*^ l^*U* ;o 15 4.y& ei^iU^. ^it« A$ ^ts£ )j oLaS 

God has said, — c O ye that believe, when the call to prayer is heard on 
Fridays, hasten to the worship of God, and give up buying and selling. This 
is good for ye, if ye did believe.' [Qoran, LXIL, 9]. Legacies are not to be 
taken possession of. The prophet, may God's blessing rest upon him, has 
said — , ' When thou goest out of thine house, and it be Friday, thou art a 
Muhdjir (companion of Muhammad's flight); and shouldst thou die on the road, 
thou wilt be in Paradise, in the highest.' And the prophet has also said, — 
' He who wrongly takes possession of the property of a mosque and legacies, 
acts as if he committed adultery with his daughter and his mother and his sister/ 
The mosques belong to legacies * * * (illegible) — the light of his countenance on 

298 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. [No. 4, 

the day of resurrection will be like that of the full moon. (Persian). This Jami' 
Masjid was built dnring the reign of the just and perfect Sultan, Abul 
M u z a f f a r Sultan Nucrah Shah, son of Hnsain Shah, the descendant 
of Husain, — may God perpetuate his rule — by the refuge of Sayyidship, S ay- 
yid Jamalud din Husain, son of SayyidFakhruddinofAmul, 
during the month of Ramazan, 936. [May, A. D. 1529]. Because the Mullas and 
Zamiudars (arbdb), if defrauding legacies, are overtaken by the curse of God» 
it is the earnest (bajdne) duty of governors and qdzts, to prevent such frauds, 
so that on the day of resurrection they may not be caught in their wicked 

The other (Arabic) inscription is fixed into the wall over the 
entrance to the mosque. 

ualji ^j***. aii ii jiM r J j yyi ^T , syiLaJi r ^T^ yj) 

God has said, ' That man will build, &c.' [Qoran IX., 18; vide Inscr. IX]. 

The prophet has said, ' He who builds for God a mosque in the world, will 
have seventy castles built for him by God in Paradise.' 

This Jami' Masjid was built in the reign of the just king, AbulMuzaffar 
NucrahShah, the Sultan, son of Husain Shah the Sultan, the descendant of 
Husain, by the worthy Sayyid Jamal Din Husain, son of Sayyid Fakhruddin of , 
Amul, the asylum of the Sayyids, and glory of the descendants of Tdhd [the 
prophet], — may God preserve him in the world and the faith, — during the 
blessed month of Ramazan, 936 [May, 1529.] 

Both inscriptions caU the son of Husain Shah Nucrali Shah 
( ^A^i, not \ycj, or i^j^j ), though the word ^aJ is generally writ- 
ten and pronounced e^aJ nucrat. For Nucrah Shah the histories, 
as is well known, have Nacih Shah ( *'-£ «-**^ ). The Gaur 
inscriptions and the two coins published by Mr. Laidley (Journal, 
As. Soc, for 1846, PL V-, Nos. 22 and 23, and p. 332) have 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hdgli District. 299 

likewise Nugrdh,* and give the/w^s-name in full, JSfdciruddin Abul 
Muzaffar JVugrah Shah. The year mentioned in the above inscription 
(end of 936) is important. It confirms the statement of the histories 
that NuQrah Shah reigned eleven years after the death of his 
father, which would make the date of his death 937 (end) or 988. 

Nucrah's brother was Mahmiid, of whom Mr. Laidley has pub- 
lished a coin dated 933. His julus-n&me is Ghiasuddin Abul 
Muzaffar Mahmud Shah. The year of the coin and that of the 
inscription would shew that Bengal was blessed by two rival kings. 
Mr. Laidley also mentions that some of the coins have the word 
Jannatabad on them, and it would be of historical interest to know 
whether that mint occurs on such of Mahmiid' s coinsf as were 
struck before Nucrah's death, because the possession of the capital 
generally makes a rival the lawful king. 

* The Arabic i[^.>, assistance, victory, has a zammah above the nun, 
not afathah. 

f The words within the concentric circle of Mahmud Shah's coin, which Mr. 
Laidley reads ls a[^, jCtJ } appear to me to be .-&1& «aj hack- i shdhi, 
* the royal full moon.' Silver coins are compared to the moon, and gold coins 
to the sun. Hence for example, Aurangzib's silckah i cliun mihr u mail. 

The correct legend on Marsden's and Laidley's Tajuddin Firuz Shah (Marsden, 
II., p. 575, and Laidley, I. c, PI. V., No. 17) is— 

which is readily suggested by the saja! or rhyme, of the legend. 

In Marsden's copper Fath Shah (II., p. 574), we observe the form -Jl-bJL* 

for (jlidL^ as on Jaunpur coins {vide Proceedings As. Soc. Bengal, for 
1870, p. 152). 
The word left out by Mr. Laidley in the obverse of his Ahmad Shah (p. 327) 

looks like Jo* $\ or (JaxJ\ m 

The title ^llw^l &J&, on Marsden and Laidley's Sikandar and A'zam 
Shah, should be +&#* ^J| £;y£ which is the standing epithet. 

Saifuddin's name as king is not clear on Marsden's plate. It looks like Kibrat 
Shall, or Kisrd Shah. The title Sultan ussaldtin is not on the coin. 

Marsden's Barbak Shah appears to have on the obverse the word cj^s and, 
as correctly read by Laidley, AJjJ^ on the reverse. The margin evidently 
contained the names of the first four Khalifahs. The words (jfjybUl *♦* 

. i*i 

&9^9 [ &'. ] J^y.\, and uM*J\ [ c^ cA^ 1 are clear - Tn © m * m in 'Umar, 
however, is not distinct. 

Laidley's Mahmud Shah (PI. V., No. 18) seems to have on the reverse the 
following words — 

300 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. [No. 4, 

Dr. W. Oldham, C. S., lately sent me a rubbing of a black 
basalt inscription in Tughra, found near the village of Sikandar- 
pur in the 'Azimgarh District. It refers to the building of a 
mosque which was completed on the 27th Eajab, 933, and NuQrah 
Shah is mentioned as the reigning sovereign. 

D. Panduah. 

The great mosque of Panduah has no inscription, nor did I see 
one on the tower. Plates VIII. to X. shew the interior of the 
mosque, its principal niche at the side of the pulpit, and three of 
the most finished basalt pillars, with the Budhistic bells, of which 
there are also many on the outer wall of the mosque. Plates XI. 
and XII. give views of the tower, east of the mosque, and its door. 
The tower is drawn froni a photograph ; the other views are 
excellent drawings by Mons. Jules Schaumberg. To complete the 
series of plates, a view of the mosque itself would be required, as 
also a drawing, shewing some of the numerous ornaments on the 
outer walls, which are in excellent preservation. 

The mosque which stands to the west of the Ast.nah of Shah 
fafi has four inscriptions, of which one is inside. They are un- 
fortunately very high from the ground, and it was with much 
difficulty that I could get a good facsimile of one, and an imper- 
fect one of the central tablet. I hope at some future time to get 
a complete rubbing of the latter, which is the most important of 
the four. From the imperfect rubbing which I have at present, it 
is clear that the mosque was built during the reign of AbulMu- 
zaffar Yusuf Shah, son of Barbak Shah (1474 to 1482). 
The other inscription contains blessings on the prophet, and has 
therefore no historical value. It runs — 

Inscription XIII. (Arabic). 

w i 

J* ^ r U y iJJjKj , a+s" J! ^ , ^" ^U J^> r «U) 

The lam and zi of ahzamdn are in one, and the ze touches the mim, which 
has the initial form. Here we have again the saja' 

Mr. Laidley says that there are many monuments in Bengal of Husain Shah's 
munificence. An Arabic inscription referring to the digging of a well in 

Jo-uxii. : As : S C : 3 en £ a"J ~V v"l : XXX2X , '£ £ I . "18 7 , 

:n :ix. 


»A i cKcaurOburg -fer.vt. 

JYvche -ltv the Moscjvlh oPEand<uxlv/MiLgtLT)is-bri£tj 

Jouxn ; As;Soc : B enga.1., VoJ :XXX3X,Pti I 1870 


$ : 


! ! 

Tl X 


! I 





TheJiousaUpMccrs zrvtheMosque ofTanda^h. fHuaT/JJu^nc^ 

Jc-ur*L-Asiat: Soc:BexLgal, Vol- XXXlX.Pt 1. 1870 


Vtejtr of the Tower- of J'zvri&MxJvfazLglo DLstrod>. ) 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. 301 

The characters of the inscription are Tuglird ; but unlike those of 
the Tribeni inscriptions, they abound in round strokes (dawair), 
which brings the writing nearer to modern Nasta'liq. 

The modern Qutb f ahib Mosque, so called from Hazrat Shah 
Qutbuddin, a pious man who is said to have come from Bhigalpur 
to Panduah, has the following inscription. 

Inscription XIV. (Persian). 

Hence the mosque was built in the 9th year of Muhammad Shah 
of Dihli, A. H. 1140, or A. D. 1727-28, by one Fath Khan, son of 
Shuja' Afghan Sur. The poet A'zad, who mentions, himself in the 
last line, I am told, was the son of Munshi Shakir, of whom a 
letter- writer exists, entitled Insha i Shakir. The first hemistich of 
the second verse is faulty in metre ; for in scanning the 'ain of 
Shuja' has to be eliminated, and ^ must be read &&fatah, accord- 
ing to the Hindustani pronunciation. The TdriTch also is awkward. 
The last migrd' gives 1 130 ; and the hamzah over the final h in ha' bah 
must be counted, as it does in scanning, for a yd, which gives 10 
more; hence 1140. 

Birbhum near the old Padishahi road by that King, -was published in 
Journal A. S. Bengal, for 1861, p. 390. The inscription mentions the year 
A. H. 922 (A. D. 1516). Two others of A. H. 908 and 909 (A. D. 1502 and 
1503) will be fonnd in the Proceedings for 1870, p. 112, note and p. 297. 

The legend on the Husain Shah published by Laidley, PL V. No. 21, is very 
unclear. The words after assultdn are evidently a du'd on the king. The 
first word looks like abqdhu or abqdhd, the second seems to be Ul-haffah ; then 
comes a broken word, after which there is a minanulm iva rnahdmiduhu 
li'indyat (?) illdhi. The rest is clear. 

302 Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. [No. 4, 

In the mosque of the Astdnah, there is a short inscription which 
shews that it was once repaired by a Hindu.* 

Inscription XV (Persian). 

TnE Kalimah. 

The lamp, the mosque, the niche, the pulpit, Abu Bakr, 'Uraar, 'Usman, 
and Haidar fAli). A. H. 1177. [A. D., 1763]. Built by Lai Kunwar Nath. 
E. Di'na'nath. 

Dinanath lies about a kos east of Madaran, in the parganah of 
Jahanabad, which forms the north-western portion of the Ilugli 
District. The farudgah mentioned in the Proceedings for this year, 
p. 120, has two inscriptions. The southern entrance has the follow- 
ing verses (metre, short Hazaj). 

Inscription XVI (Persian). 

Jar I tl&ifeUl al* ti A s^ • jj^J (j^ tt£<^j <a v xj 

+&&"*£&- \JS^ ij*^' «*£*"J * ^Sx> kij<e> ^Jali) ^Lj 

* As remarked on p. 123 of the Proceedings for 1870, darydhs of saints 
belong to the people, and the spiritual blessings attending on pilgrim- 
ages to holy places are distributed without reference to creed. I do not 
think that Muhammadans ever contributed money to the erection of Hindu 
temples, &c. ; but Hindus have done so for mosques, in order to please their 
rulers. Thus Rajah Bhagwan Das built during Akbar's reign the Jdmi' M 
of Labor. The heavenly rewards which Hindus thus earn in the opinion' of 
Muhammadans, are somewhat limited, and all that Muslims will say is to 

1870.] Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli District. 303 

In the reign of Muhammad Shah, when Nawab Asad Janghad left 
Orisa for Bengal, he encamped at this place which is called D i n an a t h, and 
devoted himself to establishing order in the Subah of Bengal, according to 
the strict order of the sovereign. The hearts of the subjects rejoiced at the 
happy news. This place has therefore been called Mubarak Manzal ; for the 
wishes of the people were fulfilled. 

When this happy spot was laid out, I (the poet) searched for a hemistich 
which was to give the tdrikh, and a voice from heaven whispered into my ear, 
* Mubarak Manzil e daulatsard ham'. 

This gives A. H. 1136, or A. D. 1723-24. 

On the northern gateway, there are two verses (metre Mujtass). 

Inscription XVII (Persian). 
Ac ts~° viAUJI ij+ly* c^ir* * *T"^ v-ajU cJ&fb+l+js Jt*« • 

When by order of the generous Nawab, this place of safety was erected, the 
voice from heaven said regarding the auspicious year the words ' Sardi Muta- 
minulmulk malja e 'dlam', this is the Sarai ofMutaminulmulk, the refuge 
of the world. 

The letters of the Tdrikh give A. H. 1143, or A. D. 1730-31. 
Eegarding Mutamin ul Mulk Shuja'uddaulah Asacl-jang Bahadur, 
vide Stewart's Bengal, p. 261. 

In conclusion I may be allowed to express a hope that the mem- 
bers of the Society will forward to Calcutta rubbings of inscrip- 
tions. It is thus alone that our imperfect knowledge of the history 
of this country can be completed. For Bengal especially, inscrip- 
tions are of great value, because old histories have perished, 
and coins and local records are the only available sources.*' 

repeat the words which the author of the Tabaqdt i Ndcvri has in praise of the 
unparalleled liberality of Lachman Sen, the last King of Bengal, ' kliaffafa 
Alldhu 'anhu-l 'azdb,' may God lessen his punishment in hell! (Tabq. Nd^irz, 
p. 149). 

* Since writing the above, rubbings and copies of (Muhammadan) inscriptions 
have been sent to the Society by Messrs. Delmerick (Kawulpindi), Harrison 
(Bareli), Tiery (Chaprah), Carlleyle (Agrah), Oldham (Ghazipur), and by a 
Muliammadan gentleman in Bard wan. They will be published in the next 
number of the Journal. Information has also been received of inscriptions 
existing at Ambika Kalnah (Culna on the Hooghly) near the tomb of oneUkul 

INDEX TO JOURNAL, Part I, for 1870. 


A'azzuddin Aburja, Malik, appointed Vazir, 19 

„ Malik, son of 'Ala Dabir, 1 

Abraham the priest, , 61 

Abdtalib, 60 

Acacia Arabica, 231 

,, catechu, , 216 

,, sunia, 232 

Achala Basanta, 168 

Adenanthera pavokina, 231 

Adilabad, the fortress of Muhammad Tughluq, 79 

Agati grandinorani, 231 

iEgle marmelos, 222 

Agraharam, 154 

Aibak Khan, . . , , 44 

'Ain-ul-mulk, Malik, of Multan, .... 1 

'Alamgir estate, 158 

'Alauddin, his measures for maintaining a standing army, . . 23 

,, interdicts the use of wine, 5 

,, prevents insurrections, 3 

,, oppressive measures of, 

,, fixes the price of grain, 25 

,, besieges Eantambhur, 1 

,, tolerates private use of wine, 6 

•Ali Beg, 48 

„ defeated by 'Alauddin, , 40 

'Ali, Covenant of, 60 

Alti, Parganna, 158 

Amir Darid, 44 

Amrohah, Battle of, 40, 43 

Anantachaturdas'i, 214 

Ananta, one of the great serpents, 202 

,, varma Deva, 156 

306 Index. 


Anekpal, first king of the Tiinwar dynasty, 70 

Antiquities of the Nalti hills, 158 

Arunodaya Saptami, 226 

As'okashtami, 226 

Assia hills, Antiquities of the, 158 

• Astik, 205 

Athap, , 60' 

Aurangzib defeats and kills Dara Shikoh, 275 

Autographs of Dilhi Emperors, 271 

Avdall, (Mr. J.,) on the Covenant of Ali, 60 

Azaddirachta Indica, 216 

Baran, 44 

Barbak Shah, King of Bengal, 295 

Bar-chana, 158 

Barani's and Nizam-i-Harawi's accounts of Mughul invasions 

compared, 45 

Barunibanta, 159 

Baudhayana on Funeral Ceremonies, 251 

Bayley, inscription of the Sue Vihar, 65 

Beames' rejoinder to Mr. Growse, 52 

Beder in the Nizam's Territory, 154 

Bengal kings, . , 295 

Bhardvaja on Funeral Ceremonies, 251 

Bhidatta Brahma Sinha, 129 

Bhikshu Atreswara, , 68 

Bignonia suaveolens, 231 

Birupa, The, 158 , 

Biyanah, a district in the Duab, 8 

Blochmann, H., Facsimiles of Autographs of Jahangir, &c, 

and note on Dara Shikoh, 271 

,, , Arabic and Persian Inscriptions in the Hugli 

District, , 279 

Bombax Malabaricum, 223 

Bonhara temple, Notes on the, 232 

Buddha-bhima, 130 

„ Ghosha, 128 

Index. 307 

Buddha-Mihira, ; . 128 

„ Rakhita, 128 

,, dasa Sanghaniitra, 127 

Buddhist figures in Naltigiri, 159 

Buhliil Lodi, Tomb of, 84 

Calligraphers, , 271 

Calophyllum inophyllum, 216 

Calotropis gigantea, » 223 

Chaldi Khan, 44 

Chalukya Dynasty, Safyasraya of, 153 

Chandra Sekhara Banurji (Babu), on Cuttack Antiquities, 158 

Chhinnamasta, Incarnation of, 200 

Chi tor, Investment and reduction of the fort of, 19 

Circle of stones in Eusoofzye, Measurements of a 59 

Clerodendron viscosum, 231 

Clitoria ternata, 227 

Cocos nucifera, , 231 

Colebrooke, on Funeral Ceremonies, 241 

Colocasia antiquorum, 228 

„ Indica, » 228, 232 

Copilmuni, Notes on the shrine of, 235 

Cordia latifolia, - , 223 . 

Curcuma longa, 228 

Cynodon dactylon, , , , 230 

Dabkai in the Sirkar of Kol, 8 

Dadar, town of, ... , 276 

Dadhikarna Devi, f . . 217 

Dakshin Eaya, 202 

Dsesius, Macedonian month, mentioned in Indian inscriptions, 67 

Dara Shikoh, 272 

Darpan, Qil'ah, 159 

Dates of Pulakesi determined, 155 

Datta-bhikshu, 130 

Datura alba, 230 

Dawson, Gondi Words and Phrases, «. 108 

,, „ Vocabulary, 172 

308 Index. 

** Page 

Dehba in the Sirkar of Ghazipiir, 8 

Delhi, Tremlett's Notes on, 70 

,, Pathan buildings at, , 87 

„ Purana Qil'ah of, 86 

,, Sieges of, , 44 

„ Sher Shah 84 

Delmerick, on the remains at Shah Id Dheri, 89 

Demonology and Sakta faith, 201 

Deora, battle of, 275 

Desmodium gyrans, , 231 

Devili, 127 

Dharmadasa, 129 

Dharmadatta, 1 30 

Dimila identified, 1 .35 

Dinanath, inscriptions at, . . . 

Durvashtami, t . 225 

Elmslie, Kashmiri Test words, , 95 ! 

Emblica officinalis, 222 

Erythrina Indica, 230 

Euphorbia antiquorum, worship of, 202 

Eusoofzye, Circle of stones in, 58 

Facsimiles of autograph of Dihli Emperors, 271 

Fakhruddin, Malik, 44 

Fathshah, king of Bengal, 296 

Ficus glomerata, , . 223 

„ religiosa, 215 

„ venosa, 223 

Firdzabad, The Palace of, 80 

Firuz Shah Tughluq, Tomb of, 81 

Firdz Shah, King of Bengal, 288, 299 i 

Foulkes, on copper Sasanams, r « « 153 

Fuller's Translations from the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, 1 

Funeral Ceremonies of the Hindus, 241 i 

,, processions, 254' 

G'haggar, The battle on the, 4l 

Ghazi Beg Tughluc-, , 44 

Index. 309 


Ghazi Malik, 44 

Ghiaspur, a portion of Delhi, , . . . . 5 

Ghias-ud-dm Balban, Tomb of, 78 

Gondi vocabulary 172 

,, Words and Phrases, , 108 

Growse, rejoinder to Mr.^Beames, 52 

Guilandina bonduc, 231 

Gujrat, causes of the revolt in, . . , , . # a , . . . . 1 8 2 

Gung', the Mughul chief captured by 'Alauddin, . 41 

Haji Maula, Eevolt of, , , 1 

Haraadan, 267 

Hainid uddin, Malik, son of 'Ala Dabir, 1 

Hamir Deo, Eai, put to death, 2 

Hashini, 60 

Hermits in Kashmir, 265 

Hindus, Funeral Ceremonies of the, 241 

Hiptage madablota, , 231 

Hiranya kesyantesthi prayoga, < 242 

Hugh District, Inscriptions, , , 280 

Husain Shah, King of Bengal, 295, 299 

Huvishka, 127 

Indarpat, a portion of Delhi, 5 

Inscriptions from Kalvakonda, 156 

,, from Mathura, 117 

,, at Satganw and Tribeni, Hugli District, 280 

,, of Shah ki Dheri, 90 

,, of the Sue Vihar, 65 

„ at Mulla Simla, 291 

,, at Dinanath, 302 

Ipomsea reptans, * , 231 

Iqbalmandah's invasion repulsed by 'Alauddin, 42 

Jahangir, autograph of, 271 

Jahan Khan, Mosques of, t . . . 80 

Jami, MSS. of his works, 172, 271 

Jarhnanjur, 43 

Jasminum fruticans, « , 215 

31G Index. 


Jaya Sinlia founds the Chalukya Dynasty, 154 

,, varma Deva, 156 

Jhayin, 8 

Jivaka Udiyanaka, 127 

Jonesia asoka, , 223 

Kabur in Sambhal, 8 

Kafiir Naib Hazar Dinari, 44 

Kali, Incarnation of, 201 

Kaliya, Discomfiture of, 204 

Kalu Kaya, 202 

Kalvakonda inscription, 154 

,, in Dimila, 153 

Kalyan, Capital of Kuntala, 154 

Kanaudi in the Sirkar Narnaul, , 

Kanishka, 67 

,, Samvat of, 67 

Karkotaka = 218 

Kashmir, its hermits, and Zidrats, 265 

Kashmiri Test words, 95 

Katehar in Eohilcund, 

Kharanthala, 60 

Khazinat ul Acfia, a work on Muhammadan Saints, 274 

Khekar, Battle of, 43 

Khiraj-guzar applicable by Muhammadan law to Hindu 

Tax-payers, , 11 

Khwajah Tash, 44 

Kili, 44 

Kiluk'hari, a portion of Delhi, 5 

Kirti varma, king of Kalyan, 154 

Kshetra palas, 202 

Kubja, Yishnu vardhana surnamed the, 154 

Kuntala, Kingdom of Yishnu vardhana, 154 

Lahor, Battle at, 44 

Landlords, The proprietory right of the Hindus under ' Alaud- 

din, , , 

Leucas Martinicensis, 231 

Index. 311 


Lexicography, Contributions towards Vernacular, 131 

Library of the Dihli Emperors, 271 

Luvunga scandens, 232 

Mabhikshu, 128 

Macedonian month. Dsesius in the Sue Yihar inscription, ... 67 

Madrasah at Tribeni, 287 

Mahdbhuj, Derivation of the word, 53 

Mahavinayaka hill, Antiquities of the, 158 

Mahishasura or the buffallo-demon, 200 

Mahmud Shah, king of Bengal, 296 

Malik Atabak, 43 

Manasa goddess, 202 

Manes worshipped in Vastii Yaga, 209 

Mangalisa, king of Kalyan, 154 

Mangifera Indica, 231 

Manik Malik, 44 

Manikpir, 202 

Market-Laws of 'Alauddin, 34 

Matcadnagar, 158 

Mathura Inscriptions, 117 

Max Midler on Funeral Ceremonies, 241 

Messua ferrea, 216 

Mihira, 130 

Mimusops elenchi, 216 

Mirobalans arguna, 232 

Momordica charantia, ,. 217 

Mosques in old Delhi, Construction of the, 74 

,, of the Qutb, 72 

Mubarak Shah, Tomb of, 82 

Mughul invasions in the reign of 'Alauddin, 43 

Muhammad Tughluq, fortress of, 79 

Murshid Qui! Khan, Nawab, 161 

Musa paradisaica, , 228 

Naciruddin Husain Shah of Bengal, 296 

Naga as distinct from Sarpas, , 205 

Nagabitha, 214 

312 Index. 


Naga Kesara, , 215 

Nagaja, 215 

Naganata, 69 

Naga panchami, 214 

Nagapasa, 215 

Nagaphala, 214 

Naga pushpa, 216 

Naga puslipika, 215 

Naga renu, 215 

Naga sambhava, 215 

Nagavalli, 214 

Naga vandhu, 215 

Naga yashti, , 214 

Nalti hills, Antiquities of the, 158 

Narayana, floating on the Ocean, 203 

Nasapriya, 129 

Nauclea cadamba and cordifolia, 230 

Nava patriea, 227 

Newall, Hermits in Kashmir, 265 

Nuan, derivation of the word, , 52 

Nisumbha demon, 200 

Nuc,rah Shah, King of Bengal, 295 j 

Ocimum ascendens, 231 j 

,, basilicum, 231 j 

„ sanctum, .... 231 ' 

,, vellosum, 231 

Olabibi, 202 

Oryza sativa, 228 ,' 

Padishahnamah, 272 

Palace of Firuzabad, 

Pallavas, King of the, 154 

Panchavati, 222 

Pandanus odoratissimum, 223 

Pankipachri granted by Eajendravarma, 756 

Parikshita, ^ 4 

Parosapachatrisa, 128 i 

Index. 313 


Pathan buildings at Delhi, characteristics of, 87 

Patrama, . . . . c 4 128 

Phaseolus Eoxburghii, 231 

Phayre, on a circle of stones in the Eusoofzye district, 58 

Phoenix paludosa, 232 

„ sylvestris, 231 

Piper betle, 214 

Poa cynosuroides, 231 

Pratapachandra Ghosha, on Tree and Serpent worship, . . 199 

,, , on Vernacular Lexicography, .... 131 

Pterocarpus santalum, « . 9 , 231 

Pterospernuni acerifotum, 232 

Pulakesi, grandfather of Yishnu vardhana, 155 

Punica granatum, 230 

Purana Qil'ah of Delhi, 86 

Pushto name of the circle of stones in Eusoofzye, 59 

Qutlugh Khwajah, 43 

Eahab, Battle on the, 44 

Eahu, derivation of the term, 200 

Eajendralala Mitra, on Funeral Ceremonies of the Hindus, . . 241 

,, , on Mathura Inscriptions, 117 

Rajendravarma Deva (Eaja), 156 

Eaktavija demon, > 200 

Eantambhur captured, 2 

„ Siege of, 1 

Rash Behary Bose (Babu), on the antiquities of Copilmuni, 225 

„ on the Bonhara Temple, 232 

Remains at Shah ki Dheri, 89 

Rishis in Kashmir, 365 

^omanak, residence of Kaliya, 204 

kccharum spontaneum, 231 

khan, . . . . , , 61 

Vakrotthan, 225 

*'akti, Worship of, 202 

5 y akya Bhikshu, 128 

Salvia plebia, , 231 

314 Index. 


Samanah in the Sirkar of Sarhind, 8 

Samogar, battle of, 275 

Samvat of Kanishka used in the inscription of the Sue 

Vihar, 67 

Sangha-pravira, 128 

„ putra, , 128 

Sarcostenia acidum, 231 

Sasanams, Vizagapatam, 153 

Satganw, inscriptions at, 292 

Sattipir, 202 

Satyasraya, 154 

Say ana's commentary on Hastagrabhasya, 264 

Serpent sacrifice, (The), 205 

„ The great 215 

„ Worship in India, 199 

Sesbania cefyptiaca, fc 228 

S 'esha serpent, 203 

Shah Far id, K 202 

Shahjahan, autographs of, 271 

Shahjumma Faqir, 202 

Shah ki Dheri, Remains at, 89 

Shams-uddin Altamsh, Mosque of, , , _ 75 

Shamsuddin Firuz Shah, of Bengal, 288 

Shuja'uddin, 161 

Sikandar Lodi, Tomb of, 84 

Sinha, 128 

Sipihr Shikoh, , 278; 

Siri, Encampment of 'Alauddin at, 21 

„ Siege of, , 43 

Strychnos potatorum, f 231 

Sue Yihar, Inscription of the, » 65 

Sulaiman Shikoh, 278 

Sultan Ghari, 76 

„ Tughluq, 44 

S 'umbha demon, 20C 

Sunnam in the Sirkar of Sarhindj, 

Index* 315 


Siiraj Kundh, in Old Delhi, 70 

Surana, 129 

Syzygium jambolanum, 223 

Takshaka, one of the great serpents, .' 204 

Talinga, invasion of, 2 

Tantras peculiar to Bengal, 302 

Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, Translations from, 1 

Taxes exacted by 'Alauddin, 7 

Taxila, Chinese writers on, 92 

„ Greek writers on, , 91 

„ Temple of the Sun, 93 

„ The site of, 89 

Ten, Symbol for, used in the Sue Vihar inscriptions, 67 

Terminalia chebula, 223 

,, Moluccana, • 231 

Timur, 266 

Tree worship in India, 199 

Tremlett, notes on Old Delhi, 70 

Tribeni, inscriptions at, 283 

Trichosanthes diseca, 214 

Trilochana, a PallavaKing, 154 

Tripitaka, 130 

Tughluq Khan, . . . , , 44 

Tughluq Shah, = 43 

Tunwar dynasty, Anek Pal, first king of the 70 

Turghi Khan, 44 

Udayagiri, 163 

Ulugh Khan, 43 

„ Death of, 219 

„ receives Bantambhur, , 2 

Upanishads, Dara Shikoh's Translation, 

Valas, « 60 

Vastu, 213 

„ Yaga, 199 

,, ,, Ceremony of, 206 

Vasuki, 218 

316 Index. 


Vasu Mihira, , . 128 

Vengiparam, Conquest of, 154 

Vernacular Lexicography, 131 

Visadika, 128 

Vishnuvardhana of Chalukya dynasty, 153 

Vizagapatam Copper Sasanams, 153 

Vocabulary, Gondi, 172 

Wilson's version of anjan, 262 

Yajnavalkya on Funeral Ceremonies, 253 

Yiisuf Shah, King of Bengal, 295 

Zafar Khan, 43, 287 

Zainul'abidin, King of Kashmir, 269 

Zrophis aspera, 231 




PAET II. (Natural History, &c.) 
(Nos. I to IV.— 1870.) 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such 
communications shall be long intermitted ; and it will die away, if they shall 
entirely cease." Sib Wm. Jones. 



Date of issue of the different numbers of Part II, Vol. XXXIX, (devoted 
to Natural History and Physical ScienceJ. 

No. i. — Containing pp. 1 — 60, pi. i — iv, and 

Meteorological Observations for Nov. 

and Dec., 1869, pp. lxxxiii to xcviii... 15th March, 1870. 
No. 2. — Containing pp. 61 — 157, pi. v — ix, 

and Meteorological Observations for 

Jan. and Feb., 1870, pp. i to xvi, .... 7th June, 1870. 
No. 3.— Containing pp. 158 — 275, pi. x — 

xiii, and Meteorological Observations 

for March — June, 1870, pp. xvii to li, . . 1st Sept., 1870. 
No. 4. — Containing pp. 277 — 432, pi. xiv — 

xviii, including Index to the whole Part 

II, and Meteorological Observations for 

July— Oct;, 1870, pp. liii— lxxxv, 28th Dec, 1870. 


Plats Pagd 

I-II. Godwin-Austen's Diphmmatince, 1 

III. Blanford's (W. T.) Indian Malacology, No. XI, . . 24 

IV. Day's species of the genus Ifara, « 37 

"V. Hemionitis Zollingeri, Kurz, 90 

VI. Schizostachyum, (species) ^ Kurz, 88, 89 

VII. Gymnandra globosa, Kurz, et Schizostachyum Zollin- 

geri, Steud., 80 

VIII. Blanford's (H. F.) Weather Chart, 133 

IX. Batrachia (by Stoliczka), 158 

X-XII. Reptilia (by Stoliczka), 228 

XIII. Jceschkea Gentianoides, Kurz, ... . * 229 

to Reptilia (by W. T. Blanford),. 335fe 

XVII. Shewing manipulations in the assay of silver (by 

Busteed), 394 

XVIII. Land shells from the Shan States and Pegu (by 

Theobald), 395 


p. 22, 


! 14 from 

above for A. gracilis 


St. gracilis. 

p. 31, 




„ „ Myragra 



p. 104, 




„ „ rujica'pilleun 



p. 106, 




,, ,, jlavala- 



p. 188, 




„ „ semifasciata 



p. 247, 




„ „ reach it 


reach them. 

p. 255, 




„ „ in a measure 



p. 256, 




„ „ 70 feet 


70 miles. 



Ball, V. ; — Brief Notes on the Geology and on the fauna 
in the neighbourhood of Nancowry harbour, Nicobar 
islands, 25 

Ball, V. ; — Notes on the Geology of the vicinity of Port 

Blair, Andaman islands, 231 

Ball, V. ; — Notes on Birds observed in the neighbourhood 
of Port Blair, Andaman islands, during the month of 
August, 1869, 240 

Blanford, W. T. ; — Contributions to Indian Malacology, 
No. XI. Descriptions of new species of Paludomus, 
Oremnoconchus, Cyclostoma and of Helicidae from 
various parts of India (with plate iii), 9 

Blantord, W. T. ; — Notes on some Eeptilia and Amphibia 

from Central India (with plate xiv— xvi), 335 

Blanford, H. F. ; — On certain protracted irregularities of 
atmospheric pressure in Bengal in relation to the Mon- 
soon rainfall of 1868 and 1869, (with plate viii), 123 

Blanford, H. F. ;— On the Normal Eainfall of Bengal, .... 243 

Busteed, H. E. ; — On the method of Assaying Silver as con- 
ducted at the Calcutta Mint (with plate xvii), 37 

Day, F. ; — Notes on the genus Hara (with plate, iv), .... 37 

Godwin-Austen, H. H. ; — Descriptions of new species of 

Diplommatinae from the Khasi Hills, (with plate i — ii), 1 

Godwin- Austen, H. H. ; — A List of Birds obtained in the 

Khasi and North Cachar Hills, 95 

God win- Austen, H. H. ; — Second List of Birds obtained in 
the Khasi and North Cachar Hill range, including the 
Garo Hills and country at their base in the Mymensing 
and Sylhet Districts, 264 

iv List of Contributors. 


Hume, A. 0. ; — Additional Observations regarding some 
species of Birds noticed by W. T. Blanford, in his " Or- 
nithological notes from Southern, Western and Central 
India," 113 

Kurz, S. ; — On some new or imperfectly known Indian 

Plants, 61 

Kurz, S. ; — Gentiana Jreschkei re-established as a new 

genus of Gentianacea3, (with plate xiii), 229 

Michell, R. ; — Statistical Data on the area of Asiatic 
Russia, compiled by Mr. W. Venuikof ; translated from 
No. Ill, 1865, of the Notes of the Imperial Russian 
Geographical Society, 41 

Montgomerie, T. G. ; — Narrative Report of the Trans- 
Himalayan Explorations made during 1868, 47 

Nevill, G. ; — On the land shells of Bourbon with Descrip- 
tions of a few new species, 403 

Stoliczka, F,.;— Observations -on some Indian and Malayan 

Amphibia and Reptilia (with plate ix), 134. 

Stoliczka, F. ; — Observations on some Indian and Malayan 
Amphibia and Reptilia, (continuation of the above) with 
plates x — xii, 157 

Stoliczka, F. ; — A Contribution to Malayan Ornithology, . . 277 

Surveyor- General ; — Abstract of Hourly Meteorological 

Observations, November and December, 1869, lxxxiii 

Ditto ditto, January to November, 1870, i 

Theobald, W. ; — Descriptions of new species of land shells 

from the Shan States and Pegu (with plate xviii), .... 395 

Venuikof, W. ; — Statistical Data' on the area of Asiatic 

Russia, (see Michell), 41 

Goawrx.A-nslen.Jour.: AS. 8. Vof XXXIX .I?t:Z 






- • "' ; '-. 



ft ' 




4.. a, 
-* Dipt:. Jatuvoana,, 3 /,- , <*, .. . 


Godwin JVust^n .. Jour, A. S. B . Vol: XXXIX . Pi 


PI. IT. 


1 r—-3k 






*-S-Vtpl>.p<u:HgcKeikui , viOe iP . 7 _ 

7* u*> im*T- vctfera,, Sen. s . , ;,. g 





No. I.— 1870. 

Descriptions of new species of Diplommatinje from the Khasi 
Hills, — by Major H. H. Godvin-Afsten, F. R. G\ S., 
Deputy Superintendent Topographical Survey of India. 

[Received 18th January, 1868 ; read* 7th July, 1869.] 
The following descriptions will form, as regards the genus 
Diplommatina, a continuation of those, in Part II, Vol. XXXVII of 
the Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, by W. T. Blanford, Esq., 
of the Geological Survey. It is trusted, with the help of the plates, 
they may be of some use to collectors, when identifying species of 
this interesting genus. All the species here described were collect- 
ed by myself within the last few years. 

i. Diplommatina Jatingana, n. sp. Pi. I., fig. 1. 

Shell dextral, ovate fusiform, solid, pale corneous ; specimens, when 
young, often of a bright sienna, diaphanous ; rather finely and sharply 
costulated on the four whorls near the apex, becoming fainter below, 
and from the ante-penultimate to the body whorl almost smooth, or 
with only a faint trace of ribbing ; spire conic, sides flattened, apex 

* The reading of this paper was postponed by desire of the author. 


2 Descriptions of new species of Diplommatina. [No. 1, 

rather acute, suture slightly impressed below; whorls 7£, the 
aute-penultiniate the largest ; penultimate whorl slightly constrict- 
ed at I turn behind the peristome, last whorl ascending chiefly 
behind the constriction ; aperture sub-vertical, broadly curiculate ; 
peristome solid, double, columellar margin straight, right-angled 
at base ; the usual tooth, large, coarse and blunt, sometimes 
descending ; lips very slightly expanded, outer more so than the 
inner, this last continuous, forming a strong callus upon the 
penultimate whorl. 

Animal, pale, almost colourless, tentacles brown, labial ribbon 
long and tapering. 

Height, 4 mm. ; diameter, 2 J mm. ; diameter of aperture, 1 mm. 

Habitat. — Hill at the junction of the Kayeng and Jatinga rivers. 
N. Cachar Hills. 

This is a very handsome and peculiar species, and one of 
the largest I have obtained in these hills ; it was only found 
on the above isolated hill, where it was abundant. I have 
named it after the large river, the Jatinga, that flows below. 
The species is nearly allied to D. Blanfordiana and B. scmi- 
sculpta : it is, however, somewhat more tumid, and has shallower 
sutures than either of these forms ; and while it has not the 
distant retro-relict peristome and rimation of the former, it ap- 
pears to be less sharply angulated at the base of the peristome 
than the latter. But the most distinctive character is the position 
of the slight constriction of the penultimate whorl which, instead of 
being in front of, or above, the aperture, as in B. Blanfordiana, B. 
semisculpta and B. pachycheilus, is at a considerable distance, 
about I turn behind it, (vide fig. la, pi. I). Hence the suture 
of the last whorl rises rapidly behind the constriction, runs for a 
short distance in front of it parallel with the preceding suture, and 
finally again ascends to the margin of the peristome. 

2. Diplommatina depressa, n. sp. Pi. I., fig. 2. 

Shell dextral, not rimate, ovate, depressed ; colour light amber, 
tinged rubescent at apex ; costulation throughout close but sharply 
defined, more distant on body whorl ; spire conoidal, apex blunt ; 
suture deeply impressed ; whorls 5, sides with considerable con- 

1870.] Descriptions of new species of Diplommatinm. 3 

vexity, ante-penultimate much the largest and tumid ; last whorl rises 
on the penultimate, almost to the suture, contracting the breadth of 
latter excessively ; aperture vertical, broadly auriculate ; peristome 
solid, double, the outer lip thick and strong, interrupted; the 
inner continuous, spreading in a broadly appressed parietal callus 
upwards on the sinistral side ; columellar tooth large and thick ; base 
prominent, descending. 

Operculum and animal not observed. 

Height, \\ mm. ; diameter, f- mm. ; diameter of aperture, \ mm. 

Habitat. — Woods at Jawai, Jaintia Hills ; also at Lailangkote, 
about 4000 feet, where the specimens were larger. 

The small size, few whorls, impressed suture, obtuse apex &c. dis- 
tinguish this form readily. As in the preceding species, the last 
whorl rises rapidly on the penultimate, and to a greater extent 
than in most species of this genus. In all these characters, it ex- 
hibits a nearer approach to Opisthostoma than any species ofDiplom- 
yet described. 

3. Diplommatina Sherfaiensis, n. sp. Pi. L, fig. 3. 

Shell dextral, ovate, fusiform, sub-rimate, thin, rubescent straw 
colour, diaphanous ; sculpture very fine, close, filiform, shewing well 
on all the whorls ; spire with sides slightly convex, apex sub- 
acuminate, conic ; whorls 6, convex, penultimate and ante-penul- 
timate of very nearly the same size, the former being slightly the 
largest and more tumid ; last whorl constricted in front of peris- 
tome above the aperture, ascending ; aperture sub- vertical, columellar 
margin much rounded, the tooth very small, and in some old speci- 
mens is hardly to be detected ; peristome thin, double and close, 
the outer very slightly expanded, the inner distinctly so, continuous, 
forming a thin broad parietal callus. Animal not observed. 

Height, 3 mm. ; diameter, If mm. ; diameter of aperture, f- mm. 

Hahitat. — On the highest ridges of the north Cachar hills, parti- 
cularly the peaks " Sherfaisip" and " Marangksi," about 5,500 
feet, in dense forest ; I have named it after the former, a culminat- 
ing point of the range. 

In figure 3b, of this species, the constriction on the penultimate 
whorl has been shewn. When looking over a large number of 

4 Descriptions of new species of Diplornmatince. [No. 1, 

shells of this genus, it is found to be a common feature in many 
species, but is not always visible, and more apparent and commoner 
in some species than in others. In form and size this species much 
resembles B. Puppensis, W. B 1 f., but is readily distinguished by 
its fine close costulation, and by the roundness of the aperture, 
(which is not angulated as in the above and many other species,) 
and by the thinness of the peristome. 

4. Diplommatina polypleuris, var., Pi. I., fig. 4. 

D. polyplewris, Benson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVII, Pt. II, 
1868, p. 83, PL iii, fig. 1. 

Shell dextral, ovate, cylindrical, not rimate, rather thick, pale 
amber colour, sub translucent, regularly, deeply and rather closely 
costulated throughout ; spire with sides elevately conoid, apex 
blunt ; whorls 6^, convex, suture deeply impressed ; the difference 
between the size of the penultimate and ante-penultimate is 
scarcely appreciable, and those towards apex decrease very re- 
gularly ; last whorl scarcely ascending ; aperture vertical, circular ; 
peristome double, moderately thick ; outer and inner lip equally 
developed, outer expanded angulate at the base of the columella ; 
the inner straight, continuous over the penultimate whorl in a 
thin narrow callus ; constriction in front of aperture. Animal 
not seen. 

Height, H mm., diam. § mm. ; diam. of aperture, ^ mm. 

Habitat. — North Cachar and north Jaintia hills, in damp woods. 

This peculiar variety is distinguished from D. depressa, which is 
of about the same size, by its cylindrical form, its greater thickness 
and opacity, and by its comparative regularity of form, the last 
whorl scarcely ascending on the penultimate. 

The specimen figured has the columellar tooth but slightly 
developed, in others it is seen much larger and pointed. 

5. Diplommatina Jaintiaca, n. sp. 

Diplomm. n. sp., Journ. Asiat. Soc, Bengal. Vol. XXXVII, Pfc. II, PI. iii, 
fig. 3. 

Shell sinistral, elongately ovate, rather tumid, sub -rimate, rich 
amber colour, sharply very regularly and distantly costulated, 

1870.] Descriptions of new species of Diplommatince. 5 

rather solid ; spire conical, slightly convex ; whorls 5£, sides convex, 
suture deep, penultimate whorl largest, last whorl strongly con- 
stricted in front of the aperture, rising very slightly behind the 
peristome, chiefly between the inner and outer peristome ; 
aperture slightly oblique, sub-circular ; peristome double, inner 
slightly expanded, scarcely thickened, terminating in a sinuation 
at the base of the columella ; outer greatly produced, expanded, 
continuous ; parietal callus thin, moderately extended ; columellar 
tooth blunt, moderately developed. 

Height, 2f mm., diameter, 1% mm., diameter of aperture with 
peristome, § mm. 

Habitat. — Locally plentiful in damp woods near Jawai, Jaintia 
hills, at about 4500 ft. elevation ; — very rare in west Khasi Hills 
where only one specimen was found. 

This species is very near D. gihbosa, from the same region, describ- 
ed by Mr. W. T. B 1 a n f o r d, and thus affording a second instance 
of a type intermediate between the dextral forms D. pachi/cheilus, 
D. diphcheilus, &c, and the sinistral forms of the Solomon Isles, &c. 
It is distinguished readily from D. gibhosa by its more regularly 
ovate form, its costulation, and the even, non-sinuated margin of the 
inner peristome. 

Since the transmission of specimens of Diplommatina, published 
in the Journal for 1868, to Mr. W. T. B 1 a n f o r d, I have been 
fortunate enough to discover this species again. As the above 
quoted figure, on pi. iii, of the " Contributions to Indian Malacology, 
No. IX." was taken^from a single shell, subsequently broken, the 
species remained unfortunately unnamed and undescribed. D. 
gibbosa I have found at Teria Ghat, but it is very rare in that 
locality, so rich in genera of other land shells. 

6. Diplommatina parvula, n. sp. Pi. I, fig. 5. 

Shell dextral, ovate, tumid, depressed, thin ; colour bright corneous, 
pale in some specimens, translucent, finely yet sharply costulated 
throughout; spire oval, apex very flat, and blunt. Whorls 5, 
with sides very concave, enlarging rapidly from the apex, ante- 
penultimate the largest, body whorl ascends slightly within a 
short distance of the peristome, suture deeply impressed ; aperture 

6 Descriptions of new species of Diplommatina. [No. 1, 

circular with, slight obliquity, columellar margin rounded, the 
usual tooth absent ; peristome strong, well developed, double, both 
outer and inner lips expanded, the former to the greatest extent, 
the latter forming a thick parietal callus. 

Height, 0.065 inch, (1^-mm.); thickness, 0.035, (1 mm.) 
Habitat. — Moyongon north face of Khasi hills, not very plentiful. 
This shell was found during the field Season 1866-67, and I am 
sorry that owing to some oversight it was not included among the 
Diplommatince sent to Mr. W. T. Blanford, whose description 
would have been so much more perfect. I have retained the name 
parvula, being the one selected by him, on inspection of a drawing 
of the shell. 

7. Diplommatina insignis, n. sp. PL II, fig. l. 

Shell sinistral, acuminateiy oval, colour corneous or pink, costula- 
tion close and strong on the upper whorls, obsolete on the two 
last ; spire rather pointed. Whorls 8, lower rounded, at apex 
flat-sided ; penultimate the largest, the constriction of this last 
situated in front and covered by the parietal callus ; suture im- 
pressed, aperture vertical, oval ; peristome double, outer much 
thickened, inner continuous, callus strong ; columellar margin round. 
ed, the tooth-like process moderate. 

Operculum, thin, spiral, no boss at the back. Animal pale 
colored, tentacles, black, rostrum pink ; the body spotted with 
black which shews through the shell in fresh specimens. 

Height 0.27 inch. ; diam. 0.13 inch. ; diam. of ap. with peristome 
0.10 inch. 

Habitat.. — In the forests of Burrail range, at about 3000 feet, Asalu, 
particularly the forest near Grarilo or Chota Asalu. 

This fine sinistral form is up to the present time the largest known 
species from India, It is a well marked shell, and differs widely 
from the other sinistral species from these hills, three of which are 
now known, D. gibbosaW* Blanf., D. Jaintiaca, Grod.-Aust. 
and the above, 

8. Diplommatina tumida, u. sp. Pi. II, fig. 2. 

Shell dextral, ovately and tumidly fusiform, color pale corneous, 
or pale green ; costulation fine and close throughout ; spire attenuate, 

1870.] Descriptions of neiu species of Diplommatince. 7 

rather pointed. "Whorls 8, lower tumid, sides rounded below, flat 
above, penultimate the largest ; suture impressed, — a well marked 
constriction of penultimate whorl situated close behind the peris- 
tome, last whorl rises slightly on the penultimate ; aperture vertical, 
circular, columellar, margin rather straight, tooth large, peristome 
double, moderately thickened and continuous, forming a callus on 
the penultimate. 

Height 0.23 ; diam. 0.13 ; diam. of ap. with peristome, 0.07. 

Habitat* — Burrail range near Nenglo, N. Oachar hills, in forest, 
and as usual among decaying leaves. 

This species is a close ally of D. pachjcheilus, B s., partaking also 
somewhat of the character of D. Blanfordiana, but tis a more tumid 
form, and particularly the position of the constriction separates it 
well from both those shells. 

Fifteen species of Diplommatina are now known from these hills 
alone, and when the Graro hills have been explored, and the higher 
portions of the Burrail and Patkoi ranges, Munipdr, &c, we may 
expect more additions. Even now it establishes this region as quite 
a centre of the genus, though I think it very possible many species 
have escaped observation in other places, from the small size and 
difficulty in finding these shells. 

Additional notes on Diplommatina, Alt/coeus, and Pup. imbricifera. 

On almost all the species of Diplommatina that I have examined a 
constriction of the penultimate whorl is to be found, and in the larger 
species it is very well developed. This constriction of the whorl 
marks of course the position of the operculum when the animal is fully 
withdrawn into, the shell, and the operculum of dead specimens 
is also to be found at this point. It would appear from an examina- 
tion of these shells, that the constriction also marks the commence- 
ment of the formation of the columellar tooth. Behind the con- 
striction the inside of the whorl appears thicker and is much 
more polished; with the constriction this contracts, leaves the 
outer surface of the shell and continues as a rim, like the sharp 
tli road of a screw, running down and round the columella, 
terminating on the columellar margin of the peristome in the more 

8 Descriptions of new species of Diplommatina. [No. 1, 

or less blunt tooth-like process, characteristic of the genus. 
Situated also at the constriction on the roof of the whorl at this 
point may be seen a long tube-like ridge, very similar to the 
external tube of Alycaus, only that it diminishes from the back 
forwards. The position of the operculum as regards both this and 
the lower rim is at the back. It does not seem to me at all clear, 
for what purposes this internal formation has been created. 
Possibly the extremity of the foot carrying the operculum travels 
along the screw-like thread, and the ridge above may give the 
necessary guiding surface to the operculum when the animal 
issues from its shell. The operculum, situated as it is so far from 
the aperture, would require some fulcrum or guiding edges, to pass 
it evenly and smoothly out of the shell. 

On plate ii, in figure 3, I have endeavoured to shew the position 
of the operculum and constriction from the front of Dipl. paclnj- 
clicilus ; in fig. 4, the interior of the shell from the left hand side, 
where t represents the spiral rim ; c, the position of the constriction ; 
r, the upper ridge or tube. 

Figs. 5 and 5a, are respectively a side view and plan of the 
relative positions of the operculum and the commencement of the 
spiral rim. 

In fig. la, pi, I, I have shewn the position of the constriction in 
D. Jatingana, situated behind the aperture, a considerable distance, 
and as yet peculiar to this species alone. 

Fig. 6 is the lingual ribbon of D, pacliychcilus, B s., — the outer 
laterals are very small and indistinct. 

In order to compare the lingual ribbon of Diplommatina with 
those of other allied genera, I have added figures of the dentition 
of an Alycceus and of a Pupina. (vide fig, 7 and 8, pi. II). 

Fig. 7, is taken frorn a large form closely allied, or identical with 
A. Ingrami, Bens.; fig. 8 represents the dentition of P. imbricifera, 

In Alycceus the form of arrangement is z f T T T fj, all the uncini 
being 5 cusped, with the exception of the outer on which I could only 
detect 4. It may be noticed that in the drawing the 5 cusps are not 
shewn in every instance, but it must be remembered that they can 
only thus be seen in certain positions, or from certain points of view 

1870.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XL 9 

the toothed edges being strongly curved, both longitudinaly and late- 
rally. In figure 7a, 7b the uncini are drawn on a larger scale, 
shewing the tube-like form of the roof and its base. The uncini of 
this species are peculiarly spreading and fan-like, especially on the 
1st and 2nd laterals. 

The lingual ribbon of Pupina differs considerably in form from the 
last, z }^ \ z f z . The laterals are four-cusped, the medial tooth 
only being tri-cusped, and after a long search I could not detect 
more than as given above. The breadth of the ribbon was -008 
inch. P s imbricifera is the only species that I have met with in 
these hills. Specimens from the Burrail hills are smaller and more 
tumid than those from the Khasi hills, but differ in no other 
respect ; the animal is quite black, of the usual Cyclophoroid form, 
tentacles moderately long and slender. 

Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XI. — Descriptions 
of New Species of Paludomus, Cremnoconchus, Cyclostoma and 
of Helicidce from various parts of India, — by William 
T. Blanford, A. K. S. M., F. G. S., &c. 

[Eeceived 25th June ; read 17th July, 1869.] 
The following species are from various collections. For speci- 
mens from the Khasi and Garo hills, and from Oachar, I am in- 
debted to Major Godwin-Austen. Those from "Western and 
Southern India have been found by Major Beddome, Major 
E v e z a r d, Mr. Fairbank and myself. 

i. Paludomus reticulata, sp. nov., pi. hi, fig. 1. 

Testa imperforata, ylobosa, solida, albida, epidermide fusca induta, liris 
reticulatis spiralibus et verticalibus decussato-sculpta, lirarum intersec- 
tionibus nodiferis. Spira brevis ; apice eroso ; sutura profunda. Anfr. 
superst. 2-3 convexi, ultimus infra suturam tumidus. Apertura ovalis, 
postice vix subangulata, parum obliqua, intus ccerulesoens ; peristoma 
temie, acntum fere rectum, ad basin vix retrocurvatum, intus minute cor- 
rugatum, margine basali expansiusculo ; columella mediocri. Operc. 


10 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XL [No. 1, 

normale. Diam. maj. 17, mm. I3h, alt. 19 mm. Apertura 13% mm. alta, 
10 mm. lata. 

Hab in Cachar. (Godwin-Auste n.) 

This is an ally of P. steplianus, B s., so far as form is concerned, 
but it differs widely in sculpture, and although that is not a 
character of much importance in the genus Paludomus and its allies, 
still, as no intermediate forms between the two are known, it ap- 
pears quite justifiable to separate them. 

2. Paludomus rotunda, sp. nov., Pi. in, fig. 2. 

Testa non rimata, globosa, rotunda, solida, epidermide fusca induta, 
sub -laevigata, striis increment* et liris sub-obsoletis conjertis, minutis, 
spiralibus decussantibus signata. Spira brevissima ; apice erosulo ; sutura 
vix impressa. Anfr. 2^-3 rapide crescentes, primi parum convexi, ultimas 
valde major, tumidus, antice non descendens, subtus convcxus. Apertura 
sub-ovalis, postice angulata, obliqua } intus fasciis 2-3 intrantibus omata ; 
peristoma simplex, acutum, margine basali expansiusculo ; columella 
albida, callosa, lata. Operc. normale. Alt. 15, diam. maj, 14 mm. 

Hab. in regione Travancorica. (B e d d o m e.) 

This is the most rounded form of restricted Paludomus with which 
I am acquainted. But for the operculum, it could scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from some specimens of Philopotamis globulosus. It 
is, however, easily distinguished from all other Indian Paludomi ; the 
nearest approach to its form is in the Burmese P. ornatus, B s. 

I am not acquainted with the exact locality which is, however, in 
the South West of the Indian peninsula, and, I believe, in the 
Travancore hills. 

3. Cremnoconchus conicus, sp. nov~, PL III, fig. 3. 

Testa imperforata, ovato-conica, solida, albida, fascia spirali castaned 
supra peripheriam inter dum omata, epidermide olivaced, haud nitidd, 
induta. Spira conica ; apice acuto, plerumque eroso ; sutura profunda. 
Anfr. 5 convexi, (primi sapissime carentes), ultimus ad peripheriam 
sub-angulatus, subtus convexus, non descendens. Apertura obliqua, ovata, 
postice subangulata, intus fulv esc ens vel alba, aliquando fascia castaned 
intranti instructa ; peristoma tenue rectum, marginibus callo junctis, 
basali sub-effuso, columella?' i calloso. Operc. normale, corneum,pauci-spirale, 

1870.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XL 11 

sub-basali, hand procul a latere columellari silo. Long, exempli 
spird perfectd 8, diam. 6, ap. long. 4£, lat. 3% mm.; 
exempli majoris, spird erosd, long. 9 J, diam. 7, ap. long. 6, lat. 5 mm. 
Hab. ad Torna, haud procul a Poona versus occidentem. 

Var. canaliculatus ; PI- III, fig. 4 ; sutura canaliculala, an- 
fractibus juxta suturam acute carinatis. Long. 8, diam. 6^-. 

Hab. ad Torna. 

In consequence of the preoccupation of the name Cremnobates for 
a genus of fishes,* I have in the Ann. and Mag. Natural History, 
for May, 1869, proposed to substitute Oremnoconchus. The present 
is a third species of this peculiar form of the Littorinidce, the others 
being C. Sghadrensis, the type of the genus, and C. carinatus, 
L a y a r d, originally described as an Anculotus. All these shells have 
a similar habitat, — precipices or steep hill sides in places where 
water runs over the rocks during the monsoon. G. Sghadrensis is 
found on the hills opposite Bombay. I have met with it not only 
at Khandalla where the first specimens were obtained, but also on 
Matheran hill and at Egutpoora. C. carinatus has only been found 
at Mahableshwar. The present form was met with abundantly on 
the steep slopes of Torna one of the old Deccan hill forts about 35 
miles west of Poona. The specimens were taken from rocks by 
the sides of the small torrents running down the hill side. 

The canaliculate variety serves to connect the typical form with 
carinatus, as many specimens have the angle at the periphery more 
marked than in the typical conicus ; but specimens of carinatus are 
of a somewhat different form, with considerably less swollen whorls. 
Perhaps all three forms should be considered as varieties of one 
species, for which, however, the name carinatus, which is not very 
appropriate even for full grown specimens of the Mahableshwar 
shell, can scarcely be retained with propriety. 

Mr. Layard's original description of the latter shell was taken 
from a specimen in Mr. Hugh Cuming's cabinet, which, like 
other Bombay shells in the same collection, was probably originally 
derived from Mr. F a i r b a n k, to whom also I am indebted for speci- 
mens, as I did not meet with the shell myself at Mahableshwar. 
I am inclined to believe that the type described by Mr. L a y a r d 
* Described by Dr. G ii n t h e r in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 374. 

12 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XL. [No. 1, 

was not adult, though, larger in its dimensions than the shells 
I possess ; I therefore, add the description and figure of a small 
adult specimen. 

4. Cremnoconchus carinatus, Layard, sp., Pi. Ill, 

fig. 5. 

Syn. Anculotus carinatus, Layard, P. Z. S., 1854, p. 94. 

Testa subperforata, ovato-conica, solida, olivacea, sub epidermide 
albescens, fascia lata rufescenti supra peripheriam notata. Spira conica ; 
apice eroso ; sutur a profunda, sub-canaliculata. Anfr. circa 5, plerumque 
2-3 superstites convexiusculi, ultimus juxta suturam et ad periplxeriam 
obtuse angulatus, subtus convexiusculus. Apertura oblioua, ovata, postice 
vix angulata, intus sordide albida, inter dum castaneo-fasciata ; peristoma 
tenue, rectum; margine columellari callose-expanso. Long. 7-|, diam. 
5 mm. 

Hab. ad Mailable shwar. 

The animal is very similar to that of C. SyJiadre?isis. Foot 
short, rounded, containing a few indistinct coloured granules as 
amongst the McJaniidm ; muzzle short, its breadth exceeding the 
length, blackish at the end, the remainder of the animal being 
white. Tentacles rather short, subulate ; eyes lateral, on slight 
projections at the base of the tentacles. The lingual ribbon is very 
long ; in one specimen it measured 14 millimetres. I have no note 
of the exact form of the teeth. The animal is amphibious in its 

5. Cyclostoma (Otopoma) Hinduorum, Pi. in, fig. 6. 

Syn. Otopoma clausum, Sow., apud Benson, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, Vol. IY, pp. 92, 95. 

0. LLinduorum, W. B 1 an f., A. & M. N. H., Ser. 3, Vol. XIII, 
p. 464. 

0. LLinduorum, Pfeiffer, Mon. Pneum. Supp. 2, p. 122. 

Testa imperforata, clausa, umbilicata, globoso-turbinata, solidula f 
nitida, striata, juxta suturam et circa umbilicum Icevis, extus versus 
peripheriam liris spiralibus sub-confertis nonnunquam obsoletis circumdata, 
carnea, vel albido-carnea ; apice pier unique nigro ; spira conoideo-convexa ; 
sutura impressa. Anfr. 4% convexi, ultimus teres, antice descendens, vari- 
cem imperfectum inter dum pone aperturam gerens. Apertura fere verticalis 

1870.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XI. 13 

rotunda ; peristoma obtusum, marginibus disjunetis, externo antice arcua- 
to, basali expansiusculo, columellari sub-late expanse, umbilicum omnino 
callo complente. Operc. testaceum, intus membranaceum, paucispirale, 
margine inter no anfractuum elevato, nucleo exeentrico. 

Diam. maj. 12, min. 11, axis 9, ap. diam. 6 mm. 

Hab. in Kathiawar. (W. Theobald.) 

From Cyclostoma ( Otopoma) clausum, Sow., to which. Mr. Benson 
referred the present form, it is distinguished by being much smooth- 
er, with a less excavated umbilical region and a higher spire. 

I have not previously published a complete description or figure 
of this shell. It is the most eastern form of the sub-genus known, 
other forms assigned to Otopoma found in the Indian and Burmese 
areas having been shewn to belong to the Cyclophoridce. 

6. Nanina plicatula, sp. nov., Pi. Ill, fig. 7. 

Testa vix perforata, depressa, tenuissima, cornea, confertim striatula, 
lineis minutis confertissimis spiralibus sub-lente undique decussata. Spira 
depresso sub-conica ; apice obtuso ; sutura parum impressa. Anfr. 6 con- 
vexiusculi, sensim accrescentes, penultimus extus ad suturam plicatus, 
ultimus carina e^tlicis obliquis validis constante instructus, subtus twnidior, 
antice non descendens. Apertura fere verticalis, rotundato-lunaris, ad 
finem peripherics vix angulata ; peristoma tenue, marginibus convergen- 
tibus, externo infra medium leviter sinuato, columellari sub-verticali, 
superne refiexo, perforationem fere tegente. Diam. maj. 22, min. 19., 
axis 11 mm. Apert. 10 mm. alta, 12 lata. 

Hab. in montibus Khasi (Grodwin-Austen.) 

This shell which I suppose to be a Nanina, is quite peculiar 
amongst Indian forms, and I do not know any to which it can be 
compared, nor am I quite clear as to its proper section. It may 
be easily distinguished by its strong plicate keel. 

7. Nanina Pollux, Theobald, var. 

Testa perforata, depressa, lenticularis, acute carinata, tenuis, cornea, 
nitida, striatula, lineis spiralibus minutissimis sub-lente, fere obsolete, 
decussata. Spira depresso-conica; apice obtuso ; sutura linearis. Anfr. 5%, 
intus convexiusculi, extus concaviusculi et colore saturation, ultimus juxta 
carinam compressus, subtus convexus, non descendens. Apertura obliqua 

14 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XL [No. 1, 

angulato -lunar is ; peristoma tenue, marginibus callo tenui junctis, basalt 
leviter undulato, juxta perforationem vix reflexo. Diam. maj. 30, min. 27, 
axis 111 mm - 

Hab. Nongliulong et Habiang in montibus Khasi (Godwin- 

This appears to me a variety of Mr. Theobald's species, differ- 
ing only in the last whorl being a little narrower. Mr. Th eobald's 
tj'pe of which I have a specimen is from Teria Ghat on the south 
side of the range. Major God win- Austen's specimens are 
from the North side. 

8. Nanina Cherraensis, sp. nov., Pi. Ill, fig. 8. 

Testa perforata, depressa, acute carinata, lenticular is, tenuis, nitidula, 
castaneo-comea, striis increment i et Uueis minutis spiralibus undique con- 
fertim decussata ; spira depresso conica ; apice obtuso ; sutura linearis. 
Anfr. 6, intus convexiusculi, extus planulati, ultimas juxta carinam com- 
pressus, subtus convexus, non-deseendens. Apertura obliqua, angulato- 
lunar is ; peristoma tenue, margin/' basal i leviter undulato, columella)' i juxta 
perforationem vix reflexo. Diam. maj. 32, min. 29, axis 13^ mm. 

Hab. ad Cherra Piinji in montibus Khasi. (Godwin-Austen.) 
I shoidd not have distinguished this shell from N. Pollux, 
Theobald, had not Major Godwin-Austen assured me that 
the animal is totally different from that of the shell described above. 
It is distinguished hy its higher spire, darker colour and by the 
more marked spiral striation. A few specimens only were met with 
in the deep valley below Cherra, 

9, Nanina rubellocincta, sp.nov., Pi. Ill, fig. 9. 

Testa perforata, depressa, tenuis, cornea, loevis, nitidula, minute striatula, 
lineis minutissimis spiralibus sub-lente sub-obsolete decussata. Spira fere 
plana ; apice vix prominulo ; sutura partem impressa. Anfr. 6-6^, prim* 
vix convexi, intus cornel, extus rufi, ultimus adperiplicriamsub-angulatus et 
fascia latdrufd, utrinque gradatim pallidescente cinctus, subtus tumidior. 
Apertura subverticalis, late lunata ; peristoma tenue, marginibus callo 
tenui junctis, basali leviter arcuato, columellari obliquo, superne ad 
umbilicum brevissime reflexo. Diam. maj. 35, min. 31, alt. 14, 
mm. Ap. 19. mm. lata, 12 alt a. Exempli minoris diam. maj 31, 
min. 28, alt. 12, mm. 

1870-] Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XI. 15 

Hab. ad Habiang in montibus Garo. (Godwin-Austen.) 
This shell is somewhat allied to the Tenasserim N. acerra of 

Benson, but it is much less globose and easily distinguished by its 

rufous periphery. 

10. Nanina Austeni, sp. nov., Pi. III. fig. 10. 

Testa imperforata, conoidea, depressa, tenuis, cornea, acute carinata, 
superne confertim arcuate costidata, costulis infra carinam evanescentibus, 
subtus. Icevis, polita, radiato-striatida. Spira breviter conoidea, lateribus 
concaviusculis ; apice obtuso; sutura nonimpressa. Anfr. 6|- planulati, lente 
accrescentes, cujusque margine externo leviter projiciente, ultimus parum 
latior, compresse carinatus, antice non descendens, subtus convexus. 
Apertura angulato lunaris, parum obliqua ; peristoma obtusum album, 
infra carinam leviter sinuatum, marginibus callo tenui junctis, columellari 
obliquo, magis incrassato, superne haud reflexo. Diam. maj. 15, min. 13^, 
axis 7 mm. 

Hab. ad Habiang in montibus Garo, extra fines meridionales provincice 
Assam in India orientali. (Godwin-Austen.) 

This very pretty little species, which I name after the discoverer, 
is intermediate in some respects between JSf. semda, B s. and JV. 
climacterica, B s., resembling the former above, and the latter be- 
neath. It is distinguished from the first by being imperforate and 
from the latter by the higher spire, stronger sculpture and the pro- 
jection of the external edge of each whorl just above the suture. 

ii. Nanina falcata, sp. nov., Pi. Ill, fig. n. 

Testa aperte perforata, conoidea, depressa, cornea, oblique arcuatim costu- 
latoplicata, plicis infra periplieriam evanescentibus, subtus Icevigata, polita, 
radiato striatula. Spira parum elevata, depresso conoidea ; apice obtuso; 
sutura impressa. Anfr. 6 convexi gradatim crescentes, ultimus paulo latior, 
subtus convexus, peripheria sub-angulata antice rotundata. Apertura 
lunaris, parum obliqua ; peristoma tenue, infra periplieriam late sed non 
profunde sinuatum, margine columellari juxta perforationem brevissimo, 
sub-verticali, reflexiusculo. Diam. maj. 13, min. 12, axis 7 mm. 
Hab. ad Habiang in montibus Garo (Godwin-Austen.) 
This shell is somewhat allied to JV. ornatissima, B s., but is much 
smaller, less depressed, with the last whorl broader in proportion 
and one whorl less. It belongs to the same general group (Ilemi- 
plecta ? ), as Austeni, climacterica, ornatissima, &c. 

16 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XI. [No. 1, 

12. Nanina Koondaensis, sp. nov., Pi. in, fig. 12. 

Testa perforata, depressa, cornea, carinata, tenuis, superne oblique striata , 
lineis minutis confertis spiralibus sub-lente decussata, subtus Icevior, nitidtda 
radiato striatula, sculptura spirali infra carinam gradatim evanescente. 
Spira parum elecata, depresso-conoidea ; apice obtuso ; sictura vis impressa m 
Anfr. 5 convexiusculi, ultimus latior, subtus tumidus, carina antice ob- 
tusiori. Apertura obliqua, angulato-lunaris ; peristoma obtusum, rectum, 
intus tenuiter albido-labiatum, margine columellari obliquo, juxta perfora- 
tionem reftexiusculo. Maj. diam. 25, min. 22, axis 12, mm. Apertura 
13 mm. lata, 12 alt a. 

Hab. ad Sispara in montibus Koonda, ad latus occidentale montium 
Nilgiri Indice meridionalis. 

Found by both Major B e d d o in e and myself at the locality men- 
tioned. It is allied to iV. indica, Pfr. and S hip lag i, Pfr., but 
distinguished from both by much finer sulpture and by being more 
swollen beneath. 

A young specimen was obtained by Dr. Stoliczka in the bo- 
tanic garden of Calcutta ; it was probably imported with plants from 
South India. 

13. Nanina (Trochomorpha) apicata, 9, nov., PL in, 

fig. 13. 

Testa sub-perforata, vel sub-ollecte perforata, trochiformis, tenuis, cornea, 
sub-lcevigata, parum nitida, oblique striata. Spira conica, lateribus fere 
recti's ; apice acuto ; sictura non imp>ressa. Anfr. 6 planulati gradatim 
crescentes, ultimus ad periphcriam acute carinatus, infra carinam com- 
pressiusculus, antice tumidior, circa perforationem com exus, antice non 
descendens. Apertura obliqua, angulato-lunaris sub-rkombea ; peri- 
stoma tenue, margine basali sinuato, columellari obliquo, reflexo. Diam 
maj. 14, min. 13, axis 10 mm. 

Hab. in summis montibus Nilgiri in India meridionali ad Coonoor, 
Neddiwuttom, &fc. 

This is far from a rare shell on the Nilgiris, and I suspect that 
the reason why it has hitherto remained without a name is, that it 
has been confounded by others, as it long was by myself, with N. 
cacuminifera, B s. That, however, is a larger shell, with a lower 
spire, very concave sides, and much stronger sculpture. So far as 

1870.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XL 17 

I know it has only been found at Sispara on the Western edge of 
the Nilgiri plateau, whilst JV". apicata is found on the Northern and 
Eastern portion of the hills. 

The present shell may be destinguished from most of its allies, 
such as N. hypliasma, Pfr., by its want of marked sculpture, its 
straight sides and high spire. 

14. Nanina (Ariophanta) immerita, sp. nov. 

Testa sinistrorsa, anguste umbilicata, depressa, sublenticular is, fulvo- 
cornea, tenuis, oblique striata ; spira parum elevata, conoideo-convexa ; 
apice perobtuso ; sutura vix impressa. Anfr. 4^- convexiusculi, ultimus 
magnus, acute carinatus, carina antice obtusiori, subtus tumidiori, nitidula. 
Apertura obliqua sub-securiformis ; peristoma tenue, rectum, margine 
columellari sub-verticali, reflexo. Diam. maj. 25, min. 21, axis 14 mm. 
Apertura 13 mill, longa, 11 lata. 

Hab. " South Canara" (B e d d o m e). 

This species approaches JV. interrupta, B s. (JV. Himalayana, L e a), 
but has the sculpture finer and not decussated. I have only seen 
two specimens one of which is quite young, and it is possible that 
the one above described is also immature, but there appears no doubt 
that the form is undescribed. The specimen having been returned 
to Major Beddome, I am unable to figure it at present. 

15. Helix (Plectopylis) macromphalus, sp. nov. PL 

III, fig. 14. 

Testa sinistrorsa, late umbilicata, depressa, discoidea, tenuiuscula, pal- 
lido-cornea, superne plicis arcuatis obliquis incrementi et liris spiralibus 
decussata, ad periplieriam et subtus fere Icevis, striatula : striis nonnullis 
spiralibus circa umbilicum aliquando distinguendis ; spira plana ; apice vix 
emergente ; sutura leviter impressa. Anfr. 4% — b^planulati, arete voluti ; 
ultimus vix latior, supra periplieriam sub-angulatus, ad latus atque subtus 
convexus, antice leviter descendens. Apertura irregulariter lunaris, 
superne compressa, diagonalis ; peristoma albido-labiatum, parum incras- 
satum, reflexiusculum, marginibus convergentibus, callo tenui junctis, 
externo supra periplieriam arcuato. JPlicatio interna per similis* ei He- 
licis Pinacis et H. plectostomatis : e lamina unica parietali, vertical i et 
plica tenui long iusculabasali, atque plicis 5 palatalibus : hasali tenui sim- 


18 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XI. [No. 1, 

plici, ceteris duplicibus, constant. Diam. maj. 6\, min. 5j, alt 2f mm. 

Hab. ad Mairung in montibus Khasi, et varietas minor in valle Bung- 
nu prope Darjiling in SikJcim. 

I procured specimens of this shell, 3^ to 4i mm. in diameter, 12 
years ago at Darjiling ; they were considered by Mr. Benson a 
small variety of Helix Pinacis, (See Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, for 
April, 1860). Eecontly the same form has been found by Major 
Godwin-Austen in the Khasi hills. It differs so enormously in 
size from H. Pinacis, the respective diameter of the two shells being 
6^ and 14 millimetres that, as no intermediate forms have been met 
with, it is evident that the two should be distinguished, and there 
are several differences of sculpture and form which appear to me to 
bear out the separation. Thus the mouth in II. macromphalus is 
compressed above the periphery, whereas in the larger form the 
mouth is regular. H. Pinacis too has spiral striation below, which 
is absent in the new form ; and the former has 6, the latter only 5 
internal palatal plicae, which moreover differ from the 5 lower plicso 
of H. Pinacis slightly in form. The last named shell also is much 
more angulate at the periphery. 

16. Bulimus vicarius, sp. nor. PL III, fig. 15. 

Testa prof unde rimata, oblongo-turrita, tcnuiuscula, opaca, fulvesccnte- 
castanea, oblique striatula, lineis mi nut is confer tissimia flcxuosis sub- 
obsolete decussata ; spira turrita } hdcribus convexis ; apice obtuso ; sufura 
impressa. Anfr. 8 convex/', ultimas \ longitudinis sub-ccquans, basi sub- 
compressus, antice sub-ascendcns. A.pertura fere verticalis, truncato-ovalis; 
peristoma undique expansum, album, marginibus convergent ibus callo tenui 
junctis, columellari ' vertical i. Long, lb, diam. 5, apert. cum perist. 5 
longa, 4 lata. 

Hab. ad Habicmg in montibus Garo (Godwin-Austen). 

The nearest ally to this shell is B. Xilagaricus, P f r., which, singu- 
larly enough, also occurs in the Khasi Hills, having been found 
by Major Godwin-Austen. The present form is distinguish- 
ed by greater slenderness and smaller mouth. 

17. Bulimus Caleadensis, Bed dome, MS. 

Testa sinistrorsa, snb-obtecte perforata, elevato trochiformis, solidula, 
striatula, albida, epidermidefulva? {yelftavescenti, forsan varie coloratd) 

1870.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, So. XL 19 

obtecta ; spira conica ; apice obtuso ; sutura impressa. Anfr. 5^ convex i f 
regulariter crescentes, ultimus |- longitudinis sub-cequans, carinatus, subtus 
convexus, antice tumidior. Apertura diagonalis, sub-rhomboidea ; peri- 
stoma non incrassatum, expansiusculum, marginibus distantibus, callo 
tenui junctis, columellari triangulatim refiexo, perforationem fere tegente. 
Long. 23, diam. 17 mm., ap. c.perist. 11 mill, longa, intus 8 lata, 

Hab. " Calcad hills,'''' Travancore. 

Of this peculiar sinistral heliciform Bulimus a solitary specimen, 
much weathered but perfect, was found by Major Beddome. It is 
evidently a coloured shell but only traces of the epidermis remain- 
ed. It is allied to B. allizonatus, Ev., and B. intermedins, Pfr., of 
Ceylon, but is sinistral and has a shorter more conical form. 

As with LL. immerita, I have returned the original specimen to 
Major Beddome, and cannot, therefore, add a figure. 

18. Glessula filosa, sp. nov. Pi. Ill, fig. 16. 

Testa sub-rimata, turrita, tenuis, cornea, verticaliter plicato-striata, 
parum nitida ; spira elevata ; apice obtuso, brevissime conico, sub-mu- 
cronato ; sutura impressa. Anfr. 8 convexi, ultimus ^ longitiodinis 
sub-cequans, basi rotimdatus. Apertura verticalis, lunato sub-ovalis ; 
peristoma rectum, tenue ; columella arcuata, albida, lamellif or miter 
exstante, tenui, oblique truncata. Long. 21, diam. 9 mm. Apert. 7 
mill, longa, 5 lata. 

Hab. in Travancore (Beddome). 
. A peculiar form easily distinguished by its strong sculpture, ab- 
rupt subconical apex, and by the columella standing out from the 
last whorl, so as to have a groove running along its side. 

19. Glessula Singhurensis, sp. nov. Pi in, fig. 17. 

Testa pyramidal 'i, turrita, tenuis, cornea, polita, nitida, levis, vix 
striatula ; spira elongato conica ; apice sub-acuto ; sutura impressa^ 
minute corrugata. Anfr. 8 convexi, ultimus ^ longitudinis vix cequans, 
subtus rotundatus. Apertura fere verticalis, ovato oblonga ; peristoma 
obtusum, albescens ; columella valde arcuata, antice oblique truncata. 
Long. 12^, diam. 44, ap. long. 4, lat. 2h mm. 

Hab. frequens ad Sinyhur, prope Poona. 

20 Contributions to Indian Malacology, JS T o. XL. [No. 1, 

This is allied to the Nilgiri G. Jerdoni, Bens., but the sides of 
the spire are less convex, the shell being more regularly pyramidal 
with a less obtuse apex. 

In some of the specimens of this species collected alive, but in 
which the animal had subsequently dried up, I found young shells. 
It would thus appear to be viviparous. 

I have observed the same circumstance (the occurrence of young 
shells inside the old one) in G. Cassiaca, B s. In other species of 
this genus I have found small round eggs with a calcareous shell, 
but these may be hatched, before they are deposited by the parent. 

20. Glessula rugata, *p. nov. PL m, fig. is. 

Testa turrita, cornea, tenuis, parum nitida, verticaliter confertim 
plicato striata : striis sub-lente minute et regular iter granulatis, inter- 
stitiis lineis minutis confertis transversis (spiraUbus) in anfractibus 
superis validioribus, decussatis ; spira elongato conica ; apice obtuso ; 
sutur a profunda. Anfr. 7-\ convexi, ultimas J longitudinis sub-cequans. 
Apertura obliqua fere ovata ; peristoma tenue, rectum; columella valde 
arcuata, antice oblique truncata. Long. 6, (Ham. 2 mm., ap. li mill. 
long a, 1 lata. 

Hab. ad Singhur, prope Poona. 

Var. major, long. 7 mill. 

Hab. ad Poorundliur, (E v e z a r d). 

No described Indian species of Glessula possess sculpture at all 
resembling that of the present small form. Under an ordinary lens 
the shell appears to have a plicate striation, but beneath a stronger 
power the strire are seen to be regularly nodose, and the decussating 
lines become distinctly visible. The markings are very elegant and 
regular, almost resembling those on some West Indian forms of 
Cyclostomidce, as Choanopoma. 

21. Glessula lyrata, sp. nor. 

Testa ovato-turrita, solidula, cornea, parum nitida, verticaliter cos- 
tulato-plicata, sub-lente lineis minutissimis confertis spiralibus, scepe 
obsoletis, decussata ; spira pyramidalis, lateribus vix convexis ; apice 
obtusulo ; sutura profunda. Anfr. 7^ convexi, infra suturam obsolete 
sub-angulati, ultimus antice paulo ascendens. Apertura verticalis f 

1870.] Contributions to. Indian Malacology, No. XL 21 

truncata, semiovalis ; peristoma obtusum ; columella mediocriter arcuata, 
antice oblique truncata. Long. 12, diam. 5%, ap. long. 4, lat. 2^ mm. 
Hab. ad Mahableshivar, infrequens. 

Var. Matheranica, PL Hi, fig. 19. 

Minor, magis polita, lineis spiralibus carentibus, sculptura in anfractu 
ultimo obsolescenti. Long. 10 lat. 4^ mill. 

Hab. Mather an, haud procul a Bombay. 

This shell resembles in form A. Oreas, Bens., but is distinguished 
from that and. all other allied species by its stronger sculpture. 
Possibly the two varieties should be ranked apart, as there is consi- 
derable difference between them. A third form, shorter and more 
tumid, occurs near Poona. As other intermediate varieties proba- 
bly exist, I prefer for the present classing all in one species, but it 
may hereafter be desirable to distinguish them. 

22. GlesSUla pulla, sp. nov. PL III, fig. 20. 

Testa parva, turrita, tenuis, fusco cornea, parum nitens, levigata, 
striatula ; spira elongato sub-conica, lateribus convexiusculis ; apice 
obtuso ; sutura impressa. Anfr. 7-8 convexi, breves ; ultimus |- longitudi- 
nis sub-cequans, subtusrotundatus. A/pert. obliqua sub-ovata ; peristoma 
tenue ; columella arcuata, antice oblique truncata. Long. 7, diam. 2f , 
ap. long. 2, diam. 1% mm. 

Hab. ad Torna, (Evezar d). 

This is allied to A. Fairbanlcii, B s., but distinguished by its more 
conical spire, smaller size and darker colour. 

23. Glessula hebes, W. Blanf. sp., PL III, fig. 21. 

Testa sub-cylindrico turrita, tenuis, pallido cornea, translucens, polita, 
striatula ; spira elevata, subtus sub-cylindrica, lateribus versus apicem 
obtusum convexis ; sutura impressa. Anfr. 9 — lOf convexi t regular iter 
crescentes, ultimus brevis, \ — \ longitudinis sabcequans. Apertura 
ovato oblonga, parum obliqua ; peristoma tenue ; columella valde arcuata, 
antice oblique truncata. Long. 17 — 22, diam. 5 mill. Ap. 4-4£ longa, 
2^-3 lata. 

Hab. Leo Ghat ad laius meridionale urbis Poona, (E v e z a r d). 

Syn. Achatina hebes, W. Blanf., Pfr. Mon. Pneum., Vol. YI, p. 

22 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XI. [No. 1, 

The nearest ally to this species appears to be G. Tamulica, "W. 
and H. Blanf., from near Trichinopoly, which is distinguished by 
greater diameter in proportion to the length, and a more regularly 
tapering spire. Intermediate forms may hereafter be found how- 

A specimen from the Shevroy hills near Salem in Southern 
India, sent to me by Major B e d d om e, only differs from G. hebes in 
being longer and slightly more attenuate towards the apex. It has 
13 whorls. 

The present species has been already described by Dr. Pfeiffer 
(i. e.) from specimens sent to Mr. Hugh Cuming by Major 
E v e z a r d, the discoverer. Dr. Pfeiffer justly remarks that it ap- 
pears to be a different shell from Spiraxis Itches, W. and H. Blanf. 
The latter is a Stcnogyra allied to A. gracilis {Bulimus gracilis, 

24. Glessula Tornensis, sp. nov., PL ill, fig. 22. 

Testa ovato oblonga, tenuiuscula, levigata, nitida, polita, sub-obsolete 
striatula, fulvo cornea; spira elongato conoidea, later ibus convex is ; a pice 
valde obtuso ; sutura impressa, superne sub- cor rug at a. Anfr. 7-7\cutirexi, 
ultimus J- longitudinis super am, subtus rotundatus. Apertura sub-ver- 
tical is, oblong semiovalis ; peristoma rectum, tenue, marginibus callo tenui 
Junctis; columella valde arcuata, albescens, ant ice fere vcrticaliter truncata. 
long. 25, (Ham. 14 mill. ; apert. oblique 12 mm. longa, 7 lata. 

Hab. in monte Torna dicto, hand procul versus occidentetn ah urbe 
Poona in India. 

This rather fine species abounds on the hill mentioned, where it 
has been procured in large numbers by Major Evezard. I only 
found a few specimens myself. It is amongst the finest of the spe- 
cies of "Western India. In form it is remarkably similar to G. 
textilis, W. Blanf., froni the Anamullay hills, but it entirely wants 
the coloured markings of that species. 

I have adopted the genus Glessula of E. von Martens (JElcctra, 
Albers), as there appear to me to be good generic distinctions, 
both of the animal and shell, from Achat ina. The genus is most 
abundantly represented in the Western ghats, more so than in the 

1870.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XI 23 

25. Succinea rutilans, sp. nov., PL in, %. 23. 

Testa sub-ovata, tenuis, aurantiaca, striatula, nitidula ; spiraconoidea ; 
apice sub-papillato ; sutura impressa. Anfr. 2 J, penultimus convexus, 
ultimus tumidus £■ longitudinis formans, basi rotundatus. Apertura 
obliqua, ovata ; peristoma rectum; columella regulariler arcuata, sub- 
simplex, long. 10£, diam. 6%, alt. 4|, ap. long. 8, lat. infra medium 
5 mm. 

Hab. ad Cherra Punji, (Gr o cl w i n - A u s t e n). 

A more regularly ovate shell than S. daucina, Pfr., which it 
otherwise resembles. 

26. Succinea (Lithotis) tumida, sp. nov., PL III, fig, 24. 

Testa ovata, oblique elliptica, tenuis, rubello -cornea, parum nitida, obli- 
que striata; spira brevi ; apice papillari ; sutura profunda. Anfr. 2-2^ 
jumidi, lira infra-suturali obtusa, antice in exemplis veteribus aliquan- 
do fere obsolescenti. Apertura obliqua, magna, ovalis, postice non angu- 
lata ; peristoma tenue, rectum, continuum, margine columellari tenuiter 
calloso, appresso. 

long. 6^-, diam. 5, alt. 3, ap. long. 5j, diam. vix 4 millim. 

Hab. ad Singhur. 

Var. STlbCOStlllataj costulato-striata, lira infra-suturali vali- 

Hab. ad Poorundhur. 

This is a second species of the remarkable sub-genus Lithotis, much 
more tumid than the type Succinea (Lithotis) rupicola, and with ai 
proportionally more developed spire ; it serves to connect that form 
with the typical rock inhabiting Succinece of Western India, such as 
S. Girnarica, Theobald, and a new species from Mahableshwar, 
the animal of which is very similar to that of Lithotis. 

The specimens figured are not the largest that have been found. 
Major Evezard possesses shells from Poorundhur measuring 9 
millimetres in length, 6 in diameter, and 4 in height (when laid with 
the aperture downwards). In these the sculpture is much less re- 
gular and weaker, than in the accompanying figure which represents 
a young specimen. The largest Singhur specimen in the same col- 
lection measures 8, 6, and 3j millimetres in its 3 dimensions, the 
aperture being 6 mill, by 4. 

24 Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. XL [No. 1, 

27. Helix Ochthoplax, Bens. 

This fine species was described by Mr. Benson from a specimen 
in the collection of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, said to be from 
Pegu. Specimens exactly similar to the type have lately been dis- 
covered by Major Godwin-Austen at Mcrvang in the Khasi 
hills, and near Asaloo in North Cachar. The animal is a true 
Helix. The locality Pegu is in all probability erroneous, the shell 
having never been met with by either Mr. Theobald, Mr. 
F e d d e n, or myself in that province. 

I have already in the " Contributions" and in the Annals andMaga- 
zine of Natural History mentioned several of the shells discovered or 
re-discovered by Major Grodwin-Austen. There are, however, 
still several novelties which want description. Amongst the spe- 
cies not previously found on the Khasi hills, but known from other 
localities is, as already mentioned, Bulimus Nilagaricus, which Mr. 
Theobald has also identified amongst the shells collected by Mr. 
F e d d e n in the Shan States, east of Ava. This occurred at Nongbri 
and in the North Khasi hills. Ennea stenopylis, Bens., first met 
with at Darjiling, was found at Maotherichan. The Pegu Alycceus 
sculpt His, Bens., and a small variety of A. nit id us, "W. Blanf., 
have also been sent by Major Godwin-Austen from the 
Khasi hills. Nanina rimicola, Bens., Nanina subjecta, Bens., 
and a small shell which appears to me identical with. N ? planiuscula, 
H u 1 1 o n, form part of the same extensive collection. 

Explanation of Plate III. 

1. Paludomus reticulata, sp. nov., natural size ; p. 9. 

2. P. rotunda, sp. nov. ditto; p. 10. 

2. a. Operculum of P. rotunda, ditto; p. 10. 

3. Cremnoconchus conicus, sp. nov. magnified 2 diameters; p. 10. 

4. C. conicus, var. canal 'iculatus, ditto; p. 11. 

5. C. carinatus, Layard, ditto; p. 12. 

6. Cyclostoma (Otopomd) Hinduorum, W. Blanf., natural size; 
p. 12. 

7. la. Nanina pi icatula, sp. nov. ditto; p. 13. 

8. 8 a. N. Cherraensis, sp. nov. ditto; p. 14. 

9. 9 a. N. rubellocincta, sp. nov. ditto; p. 14. 

W. T. BIANFORD, Journ: Asiat ; Soc bengal. VolXXXDCPt: 2, 1870 




■■ %? . 

i-* a. 


20. a, 

For explanation, of the Hywres see p. Z4-. 

1870.] Brief notes on the Geology Sfc. of Nancowry harbour. 25 

10, 10 a. N. Austeni, sp. nov. natural size; p. 15. 

11, 11 a. N.falcata, sp. nov. ditto; p. 15. 

12, 12 a. JV. Koondaensis, sp. nov. ditto ; p. 16. 

13. JSF. apicata, sp. nov. ditto; p. 16. 

14, 14 a. Helix (Plectopylis) macromphalus, sp. nov., magnified 

2 diameters; p. 17. 

15. Bulimus vicarius, sp. nov., natural size ; p. 18. 

16. Glessula flosa, sp. nov., ditto; p. 19. 

17. G, Singhurensis, sp. nov., ditto; p. 19. 

^18. G. rugata, sp. nov., magnified 2 diameters, 18«. do. natural 
size; p. 20. 
19. G. lyrata, sp. nov., var. Matheranica, natural size; p. 21. 
21. G. pulla, sp. nov., magnified 2 diameters, 20a do. natural 
size ; p. 21. 

21. G. hebes, W. Blanf., natural size; p. 21. 

22. G. Tomensis, sp. nov., ditto ; p. 22. 

23. Succinea rutilans, sp. nov., natural size ; p. 23. 

24. 24 a. Succinea (Lithotis) tumida, sp. nov., magnified 2 diame- 
ters ; p. 23. 

25. ditto. var. subcostulata, ditto ; p. 23. 

HOOD of Nancowry harbour, Nicobar islands, — by V. Ball, 
B. A., Geol. Survey of India. 

[Read 9th Oct. 1869, received 20th Oct. 1869.] 
The following observations* nave been made on a short trip of 
eight days to the new settlement at the Nancowry harbour, situated 
between parts of the southern coast of Oamorta, and the nor- 
thern coasts of the island Nancowry. To the north of the entrance 
of the harbour lies Trinkut, to which also a short visit has been 
paid. All three islands belong to the northern, or rather middle, 

* An abstract of the Journal has been published in the October Proceedings 
of the Society for 1869, (p. 250), but as the Government of India has since 
resolved to publish all the available literature regarding the history and 
physical condition of the islands in their " Selections," the present account 
has been restricted to those observations which may prove of immediate inter- 
est to the scientific reader. 

26 Brief notes on the Geology §-c. of Nancowry harbour. [No. 1, 

group of the Nicobars which, on account of the trade with cocoa- 
nuts and trepang are much better known to the Malayan traders 
than the southern larger islands. The history of the various 
attempts made by the Danes, Austrians and by French Mis- 
sionaries for a settlement on these islands are well known 
from the records of the voyages of the Danish Corvette* " Ga- 
lathea," (1847), from Dr. Eink'sf " sketch of the Physical geo- 
graphy and geology" of these islands, and from the manifold reports 
relating to the Nicobars by different members of the Austrian expe- 
dition with the Frigatte "Novara," (1858). \ In these works mu%k 
has also been published relating to the fauna of these islands, but the 
accounts are not always the results of personal observations, and 
as such, the few notes which I have to place upon record will, I 
trust, prove of some interest. 

For the notes on the fishes collected by me, I am indebted to Dr. 
F. Day, and for those on the Mollusca to Mr. G. N e v i 1 1. 


The geology of these islands as forming a portion of the Nicobar 
group has already been described by Dr. Eink, geologist attach- 
ed to the Corvette " Galathea," and by Dr. Hochstetter, of 
the " Novara." 

My field observations, I find on comparison, are siniply confirma- 
tory of the views as to the structure of these islands held by the 
last mentioned distinguished geologist, and which have recently 
been published in the Records of the Geological Survey of India. § 
I do not, therefore, give them in detail here, but I shall briefly al- 
lude to the general results. 

Dr. Eink separates the sedimentary rocks into two formations, 
calling the clay stones and their associated conglomerates of Ca- 
morta, Nancowry, Trinkut, &c. " Older Alluvium" ; and the sand- 
stones and slates of the southern islands " brown coal formation." 
Dr. Hochstetter does not agree in this opinion, believing 

* Steen Billes account of the voyage of the Corvette " Galathea" round the 
world, Copenhagen, Leipzig, 1852. 

f Copenhagen, 1847. 

J Voyage of the Novara by Dr. Karl Scherzer, and Results of the 
scientific discoveries of the Novara expedition &c. 

§ Vol. II, Part 3, 1869. 

1870.] Brief notes on the Geology SfC of Nancowry harbour. 27 

that they are only " petrographically different products of one and 
the same period of deposition." 

The sandstones and slates of the southern islands are apparently 
identical with those of the Andaman s which I examined at Port 
Blair. They both contain fragments of drift wood changed into 
coal, and impressions of plants resembling Fucoids. As the two sets 
of rocks have not been seen, and so far as is known, do not occur iu 
contact, it is impossible to assert anything positively with regard to 
their mutual relations. 

If they are to be regarded at all belonging to one formation, then 
local circumstances must have determined the great difference in 
lithological character which exists between the rocks of the north- 
ern and southern islands, while at the same time the processes at 
work during the deposition of the formation produced uniform re- 
sults at places not only so distant as Port Blair and the great 
Nicobar, but as Arracan and Java. Mr. Blanford has stat- 
ed it as his opinion* that the Andaman sandstones, from specimens 
brought by Mr. S. K. u r z, are identical with those of Arracan. 
Dr. Hochstetter, (1. cit.) discusses the probability of the 
Nicobar rocks being the same age as some occurring in Java and 

The terms " older alluvium" and " marl" which have been used 
by Dr. E i n k, and Dr. Hochstetter respectively, neither 
accord very closely with the character of the Oamorta and Nancowry 
rock, according to the generally accepted English system of rock 

The term alluvium can scarcely be applied to rocks of the age 
of the claystones of Camorta, rocks whose strata are much disturb- 
ed, occasionally even being nearly vertical. A marl should contain 
some percentage of lime, the amount of which is disputed. The 
Camorta rocks, however, rarely contain even a trace of lime. 

The rocks of these islands which determine the character of the 
soil are — 

1st. — Coral rocks 'all round the coast. 

2nd. — Magnesian claystones with interbedded conglomerates, of 
which an admirable section shewing a roll in the beds is well seen 

# Report on the vegetation of the Andaman Islands, by Mr. S.Kur z, p. 2. 


Brief note* on the Geology SfC. of Nancowry harbour. [No. 1, 

in Nancowry haven, on the Camorta and Nancowry shores. At the 
western entrance, there are great beds of conglomerate, some al- 
most vertical, striking N. W.— S. E. 

3rd. — Gabbro and Serpentinous rocks, well seen on the highlands 
east and west of the village of Alta Koang on Nancowry. 

The coral rocks together with the sea drift form the soil in which 
the cocoa-nuts and vegetables cultivated by the natives grow and 

The magnesian claystones, on disentegration, form a soil incapa- 
ble of supporting more than a crop of grass. In the valleys where 
this formation occurs, the accumulating of vegetable matter &c. 
brought down by the streams, has proved sufficient in many cases 
to support a jungle of large trees. But in the hot house climate of 
the Nicobars, the poverty of the soil is so great, that the tops of 
some of the hills are perfectly bare, or are only able to support a 
fern, Gleichenia dichotoma. The presence of a conglomerate bed 
has the effect, by the decomposition of its contained pebbles of 
igneous rocks, of locally improving the character of the soil. 

The igneous rocks, Gabbro and Diorites, produce a much better 
soil which is capable of supporting a dense jungle. 

To the variability in the fertility of the soil which is thus ex- 
plained is due the peculiarity of the scenery at Nancowry. 

In the southern Nicobars, according to all accounts, and certainly 
in the Andamans, the greater uniformity is due to less variability 
in the character of the soils, derived from the rocks forming those 

As to the economic resources of the rocks, they cannot be esti- 
mated at a high rate. The coal of the southern islands is evident- 
ly similar to that of the Andamans, being simply derived from 
fragments of drift wood and forming little strings and nests in the 
sandstones in which it is imbedded. Dr. Rink discusses the pos" 
sibility of gold being found in the igneous rocks. No trace of it has, 
however, been found. It is extremely improbable that the Nicoba- 
rians know its value. 

Both Dr. E i n k and Dr. Hochstetter obtained small traces 
of copper in the igneous rocks. This fact could not, however, be 
used as a proof of its occurrence in large quantities, though it might 
justify a closer and more extended examination of the locality. 

1870.] Brief notes on the Geology Sfc. of Nancowry harbour. 29 

As to the occurrence of amber*' in the Nicobars, a belief 
which seems to be entertained by some, I can offer no decided opi- 
nion. Prima facie there is no argument against it ; on the contrary, 
the rocks are such as might be expected to produce amber ; but 
with the exception of some fossil resin, a sort of pseudo-am- 
ber found by Dr. Rink, I have searched in vain in the accounts 
of the Nicobar islands for any reliable testimony of its occurrence, 
or even of its having been seen with the natives, though it is men- 
tioned incidentally in one account as being one of the exports. I 
am strongly inclined to believe that the ambergris which is found 
on the shores and exported, has given rise to the belief in the exis- 
tence of amber. 

I did not succeed in obtaining any mammals ; they appear to be 
very rare near the settlement. The evidence in favor of Buffaloes 
existing on the island of Camorta has as yet not received further 
confirmation than what we know from the records of Dr. ~R i n k. 
The animal does not appear to have as yet been seen by any Eu- 
ropean, but foot-prints were observed. A few species of monkeys, 
bats and othersf have been noticed by Mr. B 1 y t h (J. Asiat. 
Soc, Yol. xv, p. 367), and in the No vara scientific report. 

During the short period of my stay in the Nicobar islands on the 
hulk anchored off the new settlement on Camorta, my time was 
principally taken up by long boat trips to various parts of the 
neighbouring islands of Nancowry and Trinkut ; I had, therefore, but 
little leisure for making a collection of birds. I am unable to add to 
the scanty avifauna of the island, as already known, the description 
of a single new species. Two birds were, however, observed by me 
which have not hitherto been recorded, unfortunately I did not pro- 
cure specimens of either : they were a small Quail, Turnix sp. f 
and a species of JEgialitis (possibly JE. minutus). 

* The reference to amber has no doubt originated in the word amlra which 
is generally used in German accounts, signifying ambergris. (Stoliczka.) 

f I have lately obtained through my collector a very interesting species of 
Mwinae, but it has not yet been identified (Stoliczka.) 

30 Brief notes on the Urology ftc. of Nan cowry harhour. [N<>. 1, 

That the number 45 which, so far as I can ascertain, is about that 
of the birds hitherto found in the Nicobars, represents more than 
a small proportion of the birds actually existing in the island 
difficult to believe. Still it is singular that the collection made 
by Captain Lewis and Mr. Barb e, and described by Mr. 
B 1 y t h in 1 846, is, with a few exceptions, simply repeated by 
mine of the present year. 

The principal result to be recorded is, that T have been able to 
compare several Andaman and Nicobar forms as to the identity of 
which some doubt existed ; of these the principal to be noticed 
are, Pahconns Xicolaricwt, Gonl d, P. cryothrogenys, B 1 y t h ; 
GeocichJa innotata, B 1 y t h, G. albogularis, B 1 y t h ; Eulabes 
Anclamanensis, T y 1 1 e r, &c. 

From my specimens, the Andaman and Nicobar Imperial Pigeons 
would appear to be quite distinct species, the vinaceous tinge being 
present in the former and quite absent in the latter, which is also 
a slightly larger bird. Tliis question has, however, already been 
discussed by Mr. B 1 y t h. 

1. Hallzetus leucogaster. — A pair of fishing eagles, apparently 
belonging to this species, were frequently seen in Nancowry haven. 
They seemed to live chiefly on refuse from the ships which they 
picked off the surface of the water. 

2. Pal/Eorxis Nicobaricus, Gould. — Proc. Z. S., 1866, 
p. 555; Birds of Asia, 1857, PI. IX; P. erythrogenys, B 1 y t h, 
J. A. S. B., 1846, XV, p. 23, and 1858, XXVII, p. 81. Ibis 
N. S. 1867, III, p. 319. Novara Exp., Vugel. 1865, p. 97. 

This bird is very abundant both at the Andamans and Nicobars. 
I obtained two specimens in the latter islands. The natives also 
brought for sale some live birds, which they had captured with 
bird lime. 

The adult male has the upper mandible a beautiful cherry red. 
The young male, as in other species of Palceornis, has the plumage 
and bill colored as in the female. The brilliant red of the cheeks 
fades much in dead specimens. 

In the Andamans I used to see large flocks of these birds passing 
Viper island every day, going to and returning from their feeding 

1870.] Brief notes on the Geology Sfc. of Nancowry harbour. 31 

3. Todiramphtjs occipitalis, B 1 y t h. — J. A.S. B.,XV, pp. 23, 51 ; 
Halcyon occipitalis, Novara Exp., Vogel, p. 46. 

This noisy bird may frequently be seen perched on the bushes 
in the clear spaces near the new settlement on Camorta. It also 
frequents trees on the sea coast. 

4. Nectaeenta pectoealis, Horsf. — PL Col. 138. I shot a 
female on Camorta. The bird appeared common in the forest near 
the old Danish settlement on Nancowry. 

5. Zostebops palpebeosits, T e m. — PL Col. and J. A. S. B., XV, 
p. 370. Shot a female of this species also on Camorta. 

6. Hypsipetes virescens, Blyth. — J. A. S. B., XV, p. 51; 
IT. Nicolariensis, Horsf. and Moore, Cat. East India Mus., I, 
p. 257 ; Novara Exp., Vogel, p. 76, PL iii, fig. 2. Probably abun- 
dant on Camorta, shot one specimen. 

7. Myeagea azueea, Bod d. — Birds of India, I, p. 450. 31. 
coerulea, Blyth, J. A. S. B., XV, p. 370. My specimen which was 
shot on Trinkut, appears to be the young of this species, but it is 
not in sufficiently good order for one to be certain of its identity. 

8. G-eocichla inwotata, Blyth, J. A. S. B., XV, p. 370 ; 
G. albogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B., XVI, p. 146 ; Ibis N. S., HI, 
325. My specimen from Camorta corresponds exactly with one in 
the Indian Museum labelled by Blyth, G. innotata from the 
Nicobars,but for which he suggested I. c. the name albogularis. Both 
have the wing f of an inch shorter than an Andaman specimen, 
while they are exactly the same size as in another specimen, 
apparently too from the Andamans. 

9. Oeiolus maceoueus, Blyth. — J. A. 8. B., XV, p. 46; 
Novara Exp., Vogel, p. 74. This well marked Oriole seems tolerably 
abundant ; I also saw another species, distinct from melanocephalus. 

10. Eulabes Andamanensis, T y 1 1 e r. — Ibis, New Series, III, 
p. 32 ; Gracula Javana, Cuv., in Exped. Novara, Vogel, p. 88 ; G. 
intermedia, A. Hay, apud Blyth, Adventures and researches 
among the Andaman Islanders, Appendix, p. 359. — Procured a 
specimen of this Maynah on Camorta. A very much injured skin 
given to me in the Andamans, enabled me to compare the birds 
from both localities. I can detect no difference between them ; this 
confirms Lord Walden's belief as to the bird extending to the Nico- 
bars. (Vide " Ibis," New Series, III, p. 331). 

32 Brief notes on the Geology $c. of Nancoicry harbour. [No. 1, 

11. 0. insularis, Blyth. — Adventures and researches among 
the Andaman Islanders, Appendix, p. 361 ; Carpophay a sylvatica, var. 
Mcobarica, T i c k e 1 1, J. A. S. B., XV, p. 371 ; C. Aenea, var. Nco- 
forafl,Novara Exp., Yogel, p. 105. As to the distinctness of this bird 
from true sylvatica there can be no doubt. It is in every respect a 
larger bird than the one from the Andamans which is identical with 
specimens of sylvatica from Cachar and Manbhum, Damin-i-Koh, &c. 

Bill to gape. Wing. 

Nicobar Bird, U inch 10 inch. 

Andaman Bird, 1£ inch H inch. 

There is a total absence of the vinaceous tinge on the lower parts 
of the Nicobar bird. The feathers of back, wings and tail are a bluish 
bronze, those of the Andaman and Indian birds being greenish 

12. Carpophaga myristicivora, Scop. — J. A. S. B., XY, 371 ; 
C. bicolor, Scop. Blyth, Cat, 1406 ; Novara Exp., Yogel, p. 107. 
This bird is tolerably abundant, feeding on the same fruits as the 
last species. 

13. Chalcophaps Indica, Linn.— J. A. S.B., XY, 371 ; Novara 
Exp., Yogel, p. 110. I saw this bird on several occasions, but did 
not procure a specimen. When startled, it often flies close past 
one's face. 

14. Macropygia rufipexnis, Blyth. — J. A. S. B., XY, 371 ; 
Novara Exp., Yogel, p. 109. A small flock of these birds was seen 
dimng my stay on Camorta. 

15. Cauenas Nicobarica, L.— J. A. S. B., XY, 371 ; Ibis N. S. 
Ill, 332; Novara Exp., Yogel, p. 110. This beautiful bird cannot 
be very common, as I did not succeed in seeing a single specimen. 
Probably, as Mr. Wallace found in the Malayan Archipelago, it is 
chiefly confined to the very small islands where it can feed un- 
molested on the fallen fruits. The Novara Expedition procured a 
specimen on the small island of Treiss. 

16. Megapodius Nicobariensis, Blyth. — J. A. S. B., XY, 372 ; 
Novara Exp., Yogel, p. 110, PL iv, figs. 1 — 3. This bird seems to 
be tolerably abundant on Camorta. I shot three specimens one 
morning close to the settlement. The first of them had flown 
into a tree, much in the manner that Indian jungle fowl do when 
suddenly startled. 

1870.] Brief notes on the Geology Sfc. of Kancowry harbour. 33 

It has a peculiar not easily describable call, consisting of a gut- 
tural sound, reminding one of the croak of a bull-frog ; it may be 
perhaps represented by the syllables KiouJc, Kioulc, Xoh Koh K6k 
repeated. Some who had heard this call, assured me that there were 
peacocks on the island, but it has no resemblance to the cry of 
a peacock. Unfortunately, by an accident, I did not examine the birds 
myself ; but if my bird-skinner has not deceived me, there is but little 
if any difference between the sexes. By a most fortunate chance, on 
the very day upon which I got the birds, the Nicobarese brought 
two of the eggs to the ship for sale. 

The dimensions of a bird measured in the flesh are as follows : — 

Length, bill to tail, 15 \ inch. 

Length, bill to claw, 1 9£ ,, 

Wing, 9i „ 

Extent, about 27 ,, 

Bill, from gape, 1£ it 

Tarsus, 3 ,, 

Claws, f >> 

Girth, H „ 

Eyes, dull orange yellow. 

Length. Circumference, 

Egg, No. 1, 3 T V 6f 

Ditto, No, 2, 3i 6f 

Colour, brick red. 

The only remaining egg in the Indian Museum of those men- 
tioned by Blyth has become quite white. 

17. Turnix sp. ? — Saw several specimens of a small dark quail, 
one which I shot was lost in the long grass. The legs appeared 
to be deep orange, as in T. Dussumierii. 

18. Numenius ph^eopus, Linn. — I saw a small flock of whimbrel 
perched on some trees bordering a creek on the island of Trinkut ; 
one which I shot is almost identical in length of bill and other 
variable characters with a specimen obtained by Mr. Blyth in the 
Calcutta bazar, and which is now in the Indian Museum. This 
bird is also recorded from the great Nicobar by the Novara ex- 


34 Brief notes on the Geology &c. of Nancowry harbour. [No. 1, 

19. JEgialitis, sp. ? — I saw a small plover, either JE. Philippen- 
sis or minuhis, feeding near the water line on the beach at 

20. Denugretta coxcolor, B 1 y t h. — Ardea concolor, B 1 y t h ; 
Novara Exp., Vogel, p. 122. I procured a specimen of this bird 
near the western entrance of Nancowry haven, where it was feeding 
along the shore. 

I saw several young birds of I believe the same species in capti- 
vity at the Andaman b. The dimensions of the bird which I shot, 
measured in the flesh, being somewhat different from those given 
by Mr. B 1 y t h, I append them here. Colour senty ashy throughout, 
darker on the inner web of the secondaries and tertiaries and on the 
tail ; underneath the wings silvery ashy, occipital plumes consisting 
of decomposed feathers about 1£ inches. 

Scapulars much developed, some extending to the end of the tail. 

Wing, 10f incn - 

Tail, 4 „ 

Extent, 38 ,, 

Bill, H „ 

Tarsus, 3 ,, 

Legs dirty yellow, inside of toes bright yellow. Iris bright 
yellow, pupil large. 

20. Ardeola leucoptera, Boo d. — I think I saw an individual of this 
species perched on the mangrove roots in a creek on the island of 
Trinkut. He escaped wounded, so that I cannot be sure of his 

21. Onychoprion melanauchen, Temm. — Very abundant both on 
he Andamans and Nicobars, breeds on the rocky islets. 

Notes on the fishes ; by Surgeon F Day. 

I have examined 21 specimens of fish presented to the Calcutta 
Museum, by V. Ball, Esq., who collected them at the Nicobars ; 
they belong to the following eleven species.* 

* During my short visit to the Nancowry haven in October last, and after- 
wards through my collector, whom I have sent on two subsequent occasions 

1870.] Brief notes on the Geology Sfc. of Nancowry harbour. 35 

1 Serranus Sonnerati, C. V. 

2 Ambassis Dussumieri, C. V. 

3 Garanx hippos, Linn. 

4 Sillago sihama, Forsk. 

5 Trypauchen vagina, Bl. Schn. 

6 Atherina Forshalii, 0. V., 5 specimens. 

7 Pomacentrus punctatus ? Qu. and Gaim. 
D if, A T * 7 , L. 1. 28. 

Height of body J- : length of head I : of caudal f of the total 
length. Preorbital denticulated, longer than deep, a notch between 
it and the suborbital ring, caudal lobed, the upper the longest. 
The dorsal spines gradually increase in length to the last. Colour 
brownish, head dotted, a light spot on each scale ; a blackish 
brown band, anteriorly edged with white, exists upon the free por- 
tion of the tail posterior to the dorsal fin : opercles darkest 

8. JYuriamalabarica, Day (variety), two specimens each 2£ inches 
long. Pectorals elongated reaching to the middle of the ventrals, 
barbels extending to the base of the ventrals. A well marked 
black spot at the root of the caudal fin. 

9. Clupea Neohowii, C. V., five specimens. 

10. Chatoessus chacunda, H. B. 

1 1 . Temera Hardwickii, Gray. 

General remarks on the Mollusca, by G. N e v i 1 1, Esq. 

The collection of Mollusca* made by Mr. Ball at the Andamans 
and Nicobars, though not very extensive, still includes a few very 

to the Andamans and Nicobars for the purpose of chiefly collecting Reptiles 
and Mollusca, I have also obtained above 30 species of fishes, among which 
there are several new species. Dr. Day is at present engaged in an examina- 
tion of these. (S t o 1 i c z k a.) 

* I now possess about 20 species of land-shells from the Nicobars, and a 
somewhat larger number from the Andamans; from both groups of islands 
there are several interesting new species, the descriptions of which are now in 
preparation. Of marine shells I obtained on my own visit, and through my 
collector who was most kindly aided by Capt. Eundall, about 200 species 
from the Nicobars, and about 300 species from the Andamans. From the 
latter I have a large number of little shells, chiefly obtained with the dredgyt. 

36 Brief notes on the Geology Sfc. of Nancowry harbour. [No. 1, 

important forms, to any one who takes any interest in this branch 
of the marine fauna of the Indian seas ; amongst them is a 
species of Corbis, and several new and interesting forms of different 
genera, belonging to the Mitridce, Pleurotomidce, Kassiiice, &c. 
identical or very similar to Philippine species, and which I have 
never found, or heard of, from places further west, not even from 
the coast of India. From the data which I, up to the present, 
possess, the Marine Molluscous Fauna of the Andamans seems to 
me nearest allied to that of Arracan — of late most ably worked out 
by Mr. W. Theobald witli the assistance of Mr. S. H a n 1 e y, that 
of the Nicobars approximating more closely to that of Singapore. 
There is one great difficulty everybody out here has to contend 
with, who is desirous of working on the range of species in the 
Indian seas, that is, the absence, in all of the Calcutta Libraries, of 
Krauss' " Siid-Afrikanische Mollusken," a standard work of pri- 
mary importance for this subject. From the small collection I was able 
to make at Natal, and from that of Mr. B 1 a n f o r d ' s from Annesley 
Bay, I should say the species ranging as far as these places are but 
veryfew in number : Cypraa annulate, hehola, sm&pellu serpcntis, Pur- 
pura tubcrculata, Xerita albicilla and polita, Katiea mam ilia and 
one or two others, the number of species common to both incri 
considerably at the Seychelles and Bourbon, and still more at Cey- 
lon. Of the 128 species collected by Mr. Ball, 70 are well known 
forms and widely spread in our seas ; amongst the rarer or 
more local species, I may mention Conns zonatus, marcliionatus 
and, mustelinus, Jlitra phcata, Grilneri, semifasciata, cruentata, 
exasperata, Jlammigera (?), and 3 probably new species. Phos 
Blainvillei, Pleurotoma abbreviata and tigrina, Cerithium Traillii and 
alveolus, Strombus columba, Columbella ?, Papa papyracea, Trochus 
fenestratus, Euehelus foveolatus, Pohjdonta incamata, Purpura mu- 
sica and bitubercularis, Murex nigri-spinosus and adunco-spinosus, 
Natica - albula and n. s. (?), Actceon coccinata, Tectura Borneen- 

When at the Andamans I have with pleasure observed the collecting zeal of 
many of the officers of the settlement, and I have little doubt that their exer- 
tions will soon enable us to obtain a very fair knowledge of the Molluscous 
fauna of these islands. Dr. Day on his late visit in connexion with the 
fisheries has also collected largely mollusca, both land and marine shells. 
[S toliczka]. 

F. DAY -JW :Aai»t:Soc: Beiigal.Vol-XXXIX.Pt: II. £>■ TV 


I-,:-. -v&. 

1. HaroulSuxihiCuixiJUj ; 2 .H. JeroLorw; 3. H. Corvta-/ 

1870.] Notes on the Genus liar a. 37 

sis (?), Pyramidella auris-cati, Nassa albescens, costellifera livida 
and globosa, Scintilla n. sp. ; Mactra n. s. ('?), Tellina rhomboides, 
Venus affinis and alabastrum, Ccecella n. s. (?) Corbis fimbriata, Hemi- 
cardium cardissa, Rocellaria n. s. (?), Loripes n. s. (?). 

Notes on the Genus Hara, — by Surgeon F. Day. 
[Received 10th Feb., read 2nd March, 1870.] 

In the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, for 1860, p. 152, 
Mr. B 1 y t h proposed forming the genus Hara, for the reception 
of some siluroid fishes which had been described by different natu- 
ralists, and he placed the four following Indian and one Chinese 
species as component parts of it. 

1. Pimelodus hara, H. B. termed Hara Buchanani, Blyth. 

2. ,, conta, H. B. ,, ,, conta* 

3. ,, aspera, McOle Hand, ,, „ aspera. 

4. ,, carnaticus, J e r d o n, , ; ,, carnatica. 

5. Hara filamentosa, Blyth. 

Farther enquiry, however, appears to show that this list requires 
revision ; first as regards Hara ? (PimelodusJ aspera, McClelland, 
the description is far too vague to be able to decide whether his fish 
really belongs to this genus, whilst his figure is equally unsatis- 
factory, and useless for the purpose. It appears very like the 
Hemipimelodus (PimelodusJ cenia, H. B., which is also re-figured in 
S y k e s' Fishes of the Beccan as Pimelodas itchkeea, S y k e s, a species 
which extends from the Bombay side of the Deccan, and the Maha- 
nudclee, certainly as far as the Irrawaddi. However, without fur- 
ther materials, or an examination of the original specimen, the 
species must remain doubtful, which is not material with reference 
to the Indian Fish fauna, as it came from Chusan. 

Omitting then McClellan d's fish, we have, according to Mr. 
Blyth, four Indian species remaining, but of these one does not 
appear to belong to this genus, namely, the Pimelodus carnaticus, 
J e r d o n, which is the young of the Bagarius Yarrellii, S y k e s. 
I obtained an identical specimen to the one described from the same 
locality, the Bowany river in the Madras Presidency. 

38 Notes on the Genus Hara. [No. 1, 

Hara filamentosa, B 1 y t h, as I have already remarked in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, is the same as Hara (Pimelodus) 
conta of Hamilton Buchanan. This reduces the Indian 
species to two, to which, however, I will add a third one, Hara 
Jerdoni, a new species which I shall describe and figure from a 
specimen given me by Dr. Jerdon, who lately obtained two in 
the Sylhet district. 

Before, however, describing the new species, I propose offering some 
remarks on the genus Hara, as it does not appear that any Indian 
specimens have reached European Museums, neither have any 
drawings been published. Amongst the original sketches in H. B. 
MS. collection is a very good figure of the Pimelodus Hara, H. B. 

The genus has been referred to the group Bayarina defined by 
gill membranes not confluent with the skin of the isthmus, their 
posterior margins being free, even when united together, &c, but 
in reality it forms a portion of the group JBhimoglanina, defined by 
gill membranes confluent with the skin of the isthmus, anterior and 
posterior nostrils close together with a cirrus between ; rayed dorsal, 
if present, short, and belonging to the abdominal portion of the 
vertebral column ; the ventrals (except in one genus, so far as is 
known) being inserted behind it. 
Ge:n us — Haka, B 1 y t h. 

Head somewhat depressed, osseous superiorly, mouth small, ter- 
minal or sub -inferior, gill openings narrow, and the membrane 
confluent with the skin of the isthmus ; cirri eight, the maxillary 
ones having broad bases ; eyes small, subcutaneous. Yilliform teeth 
in the jaws, and in a band on the palate. First dorsal with a 
serrated osseous spine and 5 or 6 rays ; adipose dorsal of moderate 
length, ventral with six rays, and rather short, caudal forked. 

The geographical distribution of the genus in the British Indian 
Empire, appears to be from the Mahanuddee on the west to the Sal- 
win in the east, whilst I have taken them as far inland as Mandalay in 
Upper Burma. I have not obtained specimens in any of the Madras 
rivers, although one would contend that they are probably present 
in the Kistna and Godavery, whose fish fauna in the siluroid family 
generally resembles that of the Mahanuddee. 

1870.] Notes on the Genus Hara. 39 

These little fishes in their external appearance are so generally 
similar to the Bagarius y that the native fishermen of Orissa persist- 
ed that they were merely their young. They frequent the same 
localities, namely rivers which are swollen to floods during the 
rainy season. They get beneath vegetation and under stones, and 
are generally found mixed with the shells, slime, and refuse which 
is drawn by nets to the shore, but being small and valueless as food, 
are frequently overlooked. 

Hara Jerdoni, sp. nov. PI. IY, figure 2 a. I. c. 

D4P.£? V.6. A.10 C.12. 

Length of head £, of caudal £ of the total length. 

Height of body £ of the total length. 

Eyes, three diameters from the end of the snout. 

Head depressed, half wider opposite the opercles than high, and 
slightly wider than long. Its upper surface rugose, and its supe- 
rior longitudinal furrow extending nearly to the base of the occi- 
pital process, where it terminates in a small pit. Snout rounded, 
mouth small, transverse, with the upper jaw slightly the longest. 
The nasal bones terminate in a small spine on either side above 
the centre of the mouth. Maxillary cirri reach the gill opening, 
all the others are shorter. Occipital process 1^ times as long as 
wide at its base. Shoulder bone moderately triangular, rugose, 
and with two prominent ossicles posterior to, but in a line with it ; 
between it and the occipital process and parallel with them is an 
intermediate bony prolongation reaching to opposite the basal bone 
of the dorsal fin. 

Fins.— The dorsal spine equals the length from the posterior 
margin of the orbit to the end of the snout, it is serrated posterior- 
ly. The length of the base of the adipose fin is a little more than 
half that of the dorsal fin. Pectoral spine flattened and slightly 
longer than the distance between the snout and the base of the 
dorsal fin, when laid backwards it reaches nearly as far as the end 
of ventrals ; it is strongly denticulated internally with 12 curved 
teeth, whilst externally it has 26 smaller ones directed backwards ; 
ventrals inserted posterior to the base of the dorsal, caudal forked, 
none of its rays elongated. 

Skin smooth. 


Note on the Genus Bar a. 

[No. 1, 

Colours — brownish, irregularly banded with a darker tinge, cirri 
annulated with black. 

The three species of Indian Hara may be distinguished one froin 
another by the following characters : — 

Hara Buchanani, Fig. 1, a.b. c, skin with blunt spinate ossicles ; 
pectoral spine as long as the head from the base of the occipital 
process to the end of the snout, its external spines alternately 
directed forwards and backwards, no elongated caudal ray. 

Hara Jerdoni, Fig. 2, a. b. c, skin smooth ; pectoral spine as long 
as from the base of the dorsal fin to the end of the snout, its exter- 
nal spines directed backwards, no elongated caudal rays. 

Hara conta, Fig. 3, a. b. c, skin tuberculated (having smooth 
tubercles, giving it the appearance of that of a Geckoid lizard) ; pec- 
toral spine as long as the head, from the base of the occipital 
process to the end of the snout, its external spines directed back- 
wards. An elongated ray in the upper lobe of the caudal fin. 

mo,] 4i 

Statistical Data on the Area of Asiatic Russia, compiled by 
Mr. W. Venuikof; translated from No. Ill, 1865, of the 
Notes of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, bg Mr. R. 
Mich ell, E E. G. S., and communicated, by Lt.-Col. J. T, 
Walker, R. E. 

[Received 13th February, 1868.] 

On his return from Asiatic Russia in 1860, Mr. Venuikof, 
made a calculation of the surface of the Asiatic provinces of Russia, 
with the aid of all the best maps of that period, the results of which 
were published in a monthly Almanack of the Russian Academy 
of Science for 1864. The figures he then arrived at have again 
been revised and amplified by him this year, after the issue of 
S c h w a r t z's map embracing the whole of South Eastern Siberia, and 
the re-issue of corrected maps of Western Siberia, and of the Oren- 
burg region. On the two last named maps, the distinct outline of 
the Russian limits to the South and East of the Kirghiz Steppes was 
not preserved, so that Mr. Venuikof had still to be guided by 
the old boundaries of the Empire, as he found them in 1860. 

His authorities in his later calculations have been : — 

(1.) The General Map of Asiatic Russia, published at the Mili- 
tary Topographical Depot in 1860, on the scale of 200 versts (133^ 
English miles) to the inch. This map, however, only served to assist 
him in his calculations as to the extreme northern parts of Western 
Siberia from 65° northwards. 

(2.) The General Map of Western Siberia on the scale of 50 
versts (33 1 English miles) to the inch, corrected to the end of 1861, 
and to 1863, as regards the southern limits of Issik-kul. 

(3.) A similar map of the Orenburg region, corrected to 1863. 

(4.) The Map of Eastern Siberia, published at Irkutsk in 1858, 
by which Mr. Yenuikof made a calculation of the superficial 
extent of all those portions of Eastern Siberia which were not shown 
on Schwartz's Map. The Western boundary of the Government 
of Yeniseisk he drew from the map of Western Siberia, and 
the Southern boundary of the Yakutsk region he traced from 
Schwartz's map, so as to reconcile his calculations for the separate 
provinces with those for the entire country. 


42 Statistical Data on the Area of Asiatic Russia. [No. 1, 

(5.) The map of the countries of the Amoor river and of por- 
tions of the Lena and Yenisei rivers. — S chwartz, published by 
the Eussian Geographical Society in 18G3. 

(6.) The map of the Khanat of Kokan, constructed by Mr. 
V enuiko f himself in 1861. From this map he obtained the 
area of the Trans-Chui country. 

In compiling his statistics, Mr. Yenuikof adopted the fol- 
lowing limits : — 

In the North — the Ocean ; the islands therein situated are esti- 
mated separately, and necessarily only approximately, their outlines 
being but imperfectly known, as are those also of the Taimyr pen- 

In the East — the Pacific Ocean from the embouchure of the Tu- 
men-Ula to Behring's Straits. Here the areas of the Islands are 
more accurately computed. The Island of St. Lawrence does not 
enter into his calculations. 

In the South, — the Caspian Sea from the mouth of the Ural to 
44° of latitude ; the 44th parallel ; the northern shore of the Sea 
of Aral, and the Jaxartes. With reference, however, to this por- 
tion of the Steppe, Mr. Yenuikof made use of the known re- 
sults of former calculations. Those lands of which he has freshly 
calculated the areas, are bounded in the south by the rivers Chui, 
Kostekara, the upper course of the Jaxartes, Karkara and Charyu, 
and by the conditional frontier line along Drungaria and Mongo- 
lia — as traced on the maps — to the Argun, Amoor, Tungachan, 
and to the Tumen-Ula. 

In the West, — the Ural Mountains, the boundaries of the Go- 
vernments of Peru and Orenburg, and the region of the Orenburg 
Kirghizes to lake Telekul. Although Mr. Y e n n i k o f has not 
himself calculated the areas of the Steppes of the little horde of 
Kirghizes, that having been done with sufficient accuracy at the 
General Staff, he has, from the sum total of these areas, deducted 
the figure for that portion of the Steppes which is apportioned to the 
Kirghizes of the Jaxartes. By the Trans-Chui region, he compre- 
hends the country between the Chui and the Talus extending to a 
line connecting Aulieta with Turkistan. 

1870.] Statistical Data on the Area of Asiatic Russia. 


From this lie obtained the following results — 

Areas in Bbitish square Miles. 

Zones and Countries. 

In Western In Eastern 



North of 70° lat. exclusive of 





Between 70° and 65° latitude. 




„ <X° „ 60° „ 




„ 60° „ 55° 




,, 55 ,, 50 ,, 




,, 50° „ 45° 




South of the 45th Parallel to 

the river Chui. 




Islands of the Arctic and 

Pacific Oceans, 








Country of the Orenburg 


• * • • 



„ „ „ Kirghizes 

of the Jaxartes, 

. . • • 


Trans- Ohui land, approximate 


Total, . . 


Adding 92,570, — the extent of the Trans-Ural portion of the Go- 
vernments of Peru and Orenburg, — the whole surface of the Rus- 
sian dominions in Northern and Central Asia is found to measure 
5,788,700 square miles British. 

The total of 5,696,130 is made up of the areas of Governments, 
territories and regions as under — 

Region of Orenburg Kirghizes, « 348, 180 

Country of Syr-Daria, 25,320 

Trans-Chui Country, 22,610 

Region of Siberia Kirghizes, 313,450 

Ditto ditto Semipalatinsk including the 

Balkhash, - 204,650 

Carried over, 9 1 4, 2 1 

44 Statistical Lata on the Area of Asiatic Russia. [No. 1, 

Brought forward, 914,210 

Governments of Tobolsk, 552,550 

Ditto ditto Tomsk, 335,150 

Ditto ditto Yeniseisk, 972,960 

Ditto ditto Irkutsk with the Baikal, , 279,800 

Region of Yakutsk with Islands of the Arctic Ocean, . . 1,587,050 

Trans-Baikal Eegion, 234,490 

Amoor ditto, 155,650 

Maritime Eegion with Islands of the Pacific, 664,270 

Total .. 5,690,130 

These figures Mr. Venuikof compares with the figures of the 
Academician K e p p e n, and with those given in the " Almanack de 
Grotha" for 1864, and he is confident that the results of his more recent 
computations are more correct than either of those with which he com- 
pares them, but more especially as regards the general total. He does 
not pretend that they are strictly accurate ; it is almost impossible 
that they can be so, while there is not that mass of trigonometrical 
and astronomical determinations which is so necessary for the con- 
struction of fresh maps. In this respect, there is a great deficiency as 
regards the Eussian possessions in Asia ; for instance, as to the Go- 
vernments of Tobolsk, Yeniseisk, the regions of Yakutsk and of the 
Siberian Kirghizes. 

Mr. Yenuikof adds the further particulars relative to Asiatic 

(1.) On the length of the land, fluvial and mari tine frontiers. 
(2.) On the areas of such separate lands as peninsulas and islands. 
(3.) On the dimensions of the principal river basins. 
(4.) On the plains of large lakes, and 

(5.) On the proportions of lands suitable or otherwise for per- 
manent settlement. 

1 . Asiatic Eussia is bounded on three sides by Seas : On the 
North, East and South-West. The length of coast in the Arctic 
region from the Kara-Bight to Behring's Straits is not less than 
11,000 versts (7,333 Engish miles). The length of the shores of 
the Pacific from Cape Chukotsk to the mouth of the Tumen-Ula is 

1870. J Statistical Data on the Area of Asiatic Russia. 45 

about 9,100 versts (6,067 English miles). The shores of the Cas- 
pian and Aral Seas may be computed at 1,750 versts (1,167 English 
miles). So that the proportion of coast line to area is 14,567 to 
5,696,130, or 1 linear mile of coast to 391 square miles of country • 
a proportion which might be considered advantageous, if it were 
not a fact that half of the Siberian waters are not available for 
navigation. Taking then into consideration only the Pacific Ocean 
and the Caspian and Aral Seas, the relative proportion of coast line 
to Continental area is 1 linear mile to 790 square miles, a circum- 
stance as unfavourable as in the case of purely Continental Africa. 

The land frontier of Asiatic Russia, from the Caspian and Aral 
Seas to the mouth, of the Tumen-Ula is about 10,000 versts (6,667 
English miles). Of these 3,300 versts f2,200 English miles,) are 
described by the course of the Jaxartes, Charyn, Argun, Amoor, 
and Usouri, the remaining 6,700 versts (4,467 English miles) are 
open land frontier. One half, however, of this extent of 6,700 versts 
is occupied by mountains, such as the Celestial, Alatau, Altai, and 
Sayan mountains, and the spurs of the Yablonoi range, all of which 
generally speaking are difficult of access. 

2. The Mainland of Siberia has only two striking and well de- 
fined tongues, Sapalin area 23,554 square miles, and Kamschat- 
ka* 99,770 square miles ; — the entire area of the islands of the 
Pacific and Arctic Oceans does not exceed 24,630 square miles, so 
that in the aggregate the members are to the body as 1 is to 38, 
which is another proportion as unfavourable as in Africa. Al- 
though to these might be added, the peninsula between the Obi 
Bight and the Kara Sea, and the Taimyr peninsula which even 
beyond the parallel of the 75° of latitude, measures about 18,300 
square miles, yet both these tongues of land project into a sea 
which is ice-bound, and which can never serve to establish rela- 
tions between them and other countries. 

3. Siberia has four first class river-basins : those of the Obei, 
Yenisei, Lena and Amoor. The watersheds of the second class 
rivers, viz. the Olenen, Yana, Indigirka, Kobyma, Anadyr, Udaure 
Hi, although great in themselves, are nevertheless so inconsidera- 

* The northern bormdary of Kamschatka is described by a line drawn between 
the mouths of the Penjyna and Olintora. 

46 Statistical Data on the Area of Asiatic Russia. [No. 1, 

ble as compared to the four principal ones, that there is found to 
be no necessity for calculating their surface, the more so as all of 
the latter basins are quite without the pale of historic life. The 
Jaxartes which might be included in the number of great rivers, 
has no affluents within the limits of Asiatic Russia.* 

With respect to the extent of the basins of the chief rivers, and 
the lengths of their main torrents within the boundaries of Siberia, 
they may be thus expressed in figures : — 
For the Ovi (Trtysh) 1,119,500 square miles, 2,090 linear miles. 
,, Yenisei (Seleuza) 958,000 ,, 2,300 ,, 

„ Lena 732,000 „ 2,420 „ 

,, Amoor (Onon) 473,500 ,, 2,530 „ 

Of the best of these basins (that of the Amoor) more than one-third 
lies outside of the Russian limits. On the other hand the fact of these 
four main rivers embracing in their aggregate 3,283,000 square 
miles, or three-fifths of the whole of Asiatic Russia, points 
to the conclusion that sooner or later cheap water communication 
will extend throughout the greater portion of Siberia, from Ya- 
kutsk and the Pacific Ocean to the foot of the Ural mountains, 
and from Turukhausk to Barnaul, Alinousiusk, Kiakhta, and to 
the country of the Asouri river. There may occur not more than 
two land stages in each of these water ways, but these stages may 
be improved by the construction of railroads. 

4. There are several large lakes in the interior of Asiatic Rus- 
sia, which afford much scope for local fishing industry and serve to 
moisten the dry continental atmosphere. There is navigation on 
some of these, but in Siberia, as generally in the case of lakes every 
where else, the lakes do not form centres for the settlement of large 
industrial populations. 

The areas of those lakes whose dimensions exceed 200 square 
miles inclusive of the Zaisau on which there are Russian fisheries, 
are as follows : — 

sq. m. 

sq. m. 

sq. m 





Sumy 410. 



C hairy 


Kulundinsk 280. 

* The Ai-ys and Chircbik are now die facto Russian since the occupation of 
Chemkend and Tashkeud. 

1870.] Report on Trans- Himalayan Explorations, Sfe. 47 

Issyk-kul 2,500. Alakul 600. Chukchagyr 260. 

Piasino 2,410. Dengiz-Citter 560. Barun-torei 210. 

Zaisau 1,490. Abyshkau 540. 

The following were Mr. Venuikof's rough estimates in 1860 
of the areas of land in Asiatic Eussia, unsuitable for settled life. 

sq. miles. 
Steppes in Western Siberia, and in the Orenburg region, 753,000 
" Tundras" (marshes) and frozen land in Western and 

Eastern Siberia, . . 2,584,000 

Mountainous country and highlands in the Thian-Shan, 

Alatau, Sayau, Altai, Yablonoi and Stanovoi Mts. &c. 431,000 

Total, English miles 3,768,000 
In other words, the extent of country unfitted for harbouring a 
settled industrious population in Asiatic Eussia, constitutes two-thirds 
of the whole country ; the rest or 1,930,000 square miles is less than 
European Eussia, and throughout that extent the only portions 
that are naturally capable of attracting voluntary settlers are : 1. 
Sahalin. 2. The basin of the Amoor, and especially the Usowri 
district. 3. The Trans -Baikal region south of that lake. 4. The 
Minousiusk district. 5. The Western portion of the Altai, and 
6. The sub -mountain zone of the Trans-Ili and Trans- Chui regions. 

Narrative Eeport of the Trans-Himalayan Explorations made 
during 1868, drawn up ly Major T. Gr. Montgomerie, 
E. E., Gr. T. Survey op India, from the original Journals 

[Seed. 15th December, 1869.] 

Early in 1868, preparations were made for sending an exploring 
expedition beyond the eastern watershed of the Upper Indus river. 

The explorations of the P u n d i t s during 1867, had supplied to- 
lerably certain information as to various Tibetan districts lying 
between Eudok and the Thok-Jalung gold field, and between the 
latter and the Tadum monastery, on the great Lhasa road ; moro 
vague information had also been received, as to an upper road 

48 Report on Trans- Himalayan Explorations, fyc. [No. 1, 

running from Thok-Jalung through, various gold fields to the great 
Tengri-noor, or Nam-tso-Chimbo lake, and thence to Lhasa : several 
traders had been met with who had actually travelled along this 
upper road, but they were all rather reluctant to tell the Pundits 
much about it, being afraid of spoiling their market. Having the 
above information to go upon, Major M o n t g o m e r i e decided upon 
sending the exploring party to Pudok, and thence through the 
districts of Eawung and Tingche, to the north of the great Aling- 
Gangri group of peaks, which were discovered last year. 

From Thok-Jalung the exploration was to be carried, if possible, 
along the upper road to the Tengri-noor lake and thence to Lhasa ; 
failing that, to take the route through Majin and Shellifuk towards 
the Taclum monastery. 

The Chief Pundit required a rest after his last expedition, 
and the 3rd Pundit was consequently selected for the work. 

This Pun dit assumed the character of a Bisahiri, and taking a 
few loads of merchandize started in April with a party of real 
Bisahiris (or men of Koonoo) whom he had induced to accompany 
him. He made his way from Spiti, through the upper part of 
Chumurti and La dak, to Demchok on the upper Indus. Here the 
3rd Pundit measured the velocity of the Indus by throwing a 
piece of wood into it, and then noting how long it took to float down 
300 paces. The velocity turned out to be 2 T \ miles per hour, with a 
depth of 5 feet, and a breadth of about 270 feet in the month of 
July. From Demchok he went northwards through Churkang and 
Booksum, (or Pokjung), to Pudok. 

Churkang was found to be a favourite place for holding monthly 
fairs. Pooksum turned out to be a large standing camp where one 
great annual fair only is held, but that a very large one, the Jong- 
pon (or Zongpon) always attending it in person. 

Pudok has hitherto never been actually visited by any European, 
for although Captain H. Strachey reached a point about 12 miles 
to the east of the Fort, and Captain Gr o d w i n- A u s t e n another point 
about the same distance to the north, they were neither of them able 
to advance any farther, and could never get an actual view of the 
place itself, owing to the jealousy of the Jongpon who resides there, 
and governs this most north-westerly district of Tibet. 

1870.] Report on Trans- Himalayan Explorations, Sfc. 49 

Though, there was but little doubt that the position assigned to 
Pudok was nearly correct, it was hardly satisfactory not to have a 
trustworthy account of the place, and the 3rd Pundit was ordered 
to get all information about it, and to take observations, for its 
latitude and height, and this he succeeded in doing. 

He found that the Fort was built on a low rocky hill, rising 
about 250 feet above the flat ground at its base, having the Budhist 
monasteries of Sharjo, Lakhang, Marpo and Nubradan close up 
to it on the east, south, and west, with about 150 scattered houses 
along the foot of the hill. 

A stream called the Ghuling-chu passes the Fort, and flowing in 
a north-easterly direction for 3 or 4 miles, joins the Churkang- 
chu, another large southern feeder of the great Pangkong lake 
which is about 9 miles from the Pudok Fort. 

The 3rd Pundit heard that there is a small lake about 2£ miles 
north of Pudok, which has not hitherto been shown on any map ; 
it swarms with wild fowl and is celebrated on account of a place 
called Kalpee Mhai, on its north-eastern shore, where the ground 
is so intensely hot that it smokes, and readily burns any wood, &c. 
that may be thrown into it. This place is much resorted to for the 
purpose of worship. The three monasteries round the Fort contain 
about 150 monks. 

The 3rd Pundit remained a couple of days at Pudok, and in 
his assumed character as a Bisahiri, he and his party excited no 
suspicion though they were summoned before the Jongpon. 

Leaving Pudok on the 22nd of July the party marched back to 
Pooksum, and then turning eastward by a new road, advanced 
through the districts of Pawung and Tingche to Dak-korkor, a 
large standing camp, where an annual fair is held. Several small 
lakes and a large salt lake called Pawung-Chaka, or Phondok-tso, 
were passed on the way. These lakes supply salt to Bisahir, 
Spiti, &c. 

During the last three marches to Dak-korkor no water of any 
kind was met with, and the party were forced to carry a supply in 
skins. In this arid part of the county, the soil was of a dazzling 
white, a peculiarity which extended as far as the Pundit could 


50 Report on Trans-Himalayan Explorations, Se. [No. 1, 

The Pundit was informed that 5 days' march to the north, there 
was a large district called Jung Phaiyu-Pooyu, and that through- 
out its whole extent, the earth is of the same white kind as that 
they were crossing over, so white in fact that the eyes of people 
who are unaccustomed to it, get inflamed from its glare, just as if 
they were suffering from snow-blindness. The district is inhabited 
by Bokpa people ; it is under Lhasa, but said not to form part of 
Narikhorsum, having a separate Sarpon, or gold commissioner, of 
its own. The largest encampment in it is called Thok-daurapa said 
to have at least 200 tents. The district abounds in small tarns. 
It must be very elevated, as the inhabitants are said to eat very 
little if any grain. 

A large river is said to flow from Jung Phaiyu-Pooyu northwards 
and then to the east towards China. The district is said to take 
its name from some high snow} r peaks which are probably those 
at the eastern end of the Kiun-Lun range. 

The Whor (or Hor) country is said to be due north of the district, 
and from information gathered elsewhere there is little doubt but 
that Whor (or Hor) is the Tibetan name for eastern Turkistan. 

As to the district of Phaiyu-Pooyu, with its river flowing towards 
China, it is difficult to decide whether it is known by any other 
name, but it probably lies considerably to the east of north, com- 
municating with Lhasa by the Tengri-noor lake district. A simi- 
lar white soil has been noticed to the east of the Chang-chenmo, and 
Mr. Johnson, when seven marches to the north of that valley at 
a place called Yongpa, reported that " on looking down from a height 
the whole plain has the appearance of being covered with snow." 
He attributed this to saltpetre. M a h o m m e d A m e e n, 
in the route he supplied, said that " beyond the pass (north of 
Chang-chenmo) lies the Aksai-Chin, or as the term implies the 
the great Chinese white desert or plain. It is sandy and gravelly 
and covered with brush-wood. Its breadth here from south to 
north may be reckoned to be about sixty kos. It extends into 
Chinese Territory, to the east. There are several lakes and gold 
mines in it, &c." This quite answers to the accounts that the 
3rd Pundit heard, a separate gold Commissioner proving the ex- 
istence of many gold fields. No high, peaks were seen to the east 

1870.] Report on Tram-Himalayan Explorations, 8fc. 51 

of the Chang-chenmo, Mr. Johnson having noticed from the 
peaks he ascended large plains to the east and south-east, which 
are believed to merge into the Chang-thang plains of Rudok, 
Whilst he also gathered that the Kiun-Lun range only ran about 
100 miles east of the Karakash river and then terminated on an 
extensive plain also communicating with the Charig-thang plains. 

The Pundit whilst marching from Rudok to Thok- Jalung saw 
no high peaks to the north or east, evidence which all tends to 
prove the existence of a large plain in that direction, the term 
Changthang meaning moreover the great plain. 

According to modern maps this plain extends a great way east, 
nearly up to the end of the great wall of China near the city of 
Sewchoo, to which place the Chief Pundit appears to have got 
a rough route when in Lhasa. In his first journal he referred to 
a place, which he called Jiling, about one month's journey north of 
Lhasa. This turns out from farther inquiries made by Major 
Montgomerie to be the same as Siling. The ChiefPun- 
d i t says that the Lhasa people call it Jiling, but he heard others 
calling it Siling, and from what he says it is evidently identical with 
Siling or Sining in North Latitude 37°, East Longitude 102°, which 
A s 1 1 ey describes as u a great and populous city, built at the vast 
wall of China, through the gate of which the merchants from India 
enter Katay or China." 

Lord Strangford, who took great interest in the travels of the 
Pundit, and was able to identify nearly all the places mentioned 
by him, was greatly puzzled by the Pundit's description of Jiling, 
given in his first journal, where it is said to be in Tartary and 
to produce gold lace, silks, carpets, and other products of a tolerably 
civilized country. At first the Pundit understood that it was a 
month or two months' journey to the north of Lhasa, but from farther 
inquiries during his second expedition, he made out that it was 
considerably to the east of north, and having this hint, there was 
no great difficulty in identifying it with the large town of Sining 
on the borders of China proper, the only place from which such 
civilized products were likely to reach Lhasa from the northwards. 

The Dak-korkor Camp, which the 3rd Pundit reached, lies 
about 20 miles to the north of the Aling Gangri peaks, on the right 

52 Report on Trans-Himalayan Explorations, eye. [No. 1, 

bank of the Aling-chu river and not very far from the Thok-Nianmo 
gold field, He arrived just as the annual fair was commencing ; 
about 150 tents were already pitched and both the Jongpon and Sar- 
pon were present ; but in spite of their presence a band of mounted 
robbers came down upon the camp and threatened to loot it. These 
robbers seem to be numerous all over Tibet. This particular band was 
said to come from the great Nam-tso (lake) district. The men actu- 
ally began to rob, but the Jongpon told thorn to stop, and he would 
make each tent contribute something as black mail. The Jongpon 
then made out a list of those assembled and ordered each tent to con- 
tribute a parcha (of about 5 lbs.) of tea, and each trader to give from 
1 to 2 rupees according to their means. This arrangement was agreed 
to, and the proceeds having been collected were handed over by 
the Jongpon to the robbers who took their departure. 

The ChiefPundit, in describing the above, expressed an opi- 
nion that the Jongpon was in some mysterious way benefited by the 
contributions, possibly retaining a considerable share, as it is well 
known that the robbers never succeed in looting his camp nor that 
of the Sarpon ; both of them perfectly understanding how to defend 
themselves against all comers on the plateaux of Tibet. 

The 3rd Pundit paid his contribution and saw the robbers de- 
part, but he came to the conclusion that they might appear again at 
any time, and that it would not be safe to take his merchandize with 
him, he consequently, after consultation with his Bisahiri friends, 
decided upon sending the greater part of his goods back by the In- 
dus so as to meet him at Lhasa, or on the great road to that place. 
One of his men was despatched for this purpose ; his adventures 
will be adverted to. 

The 3rd Pundit, starting again from Dak-korkor, continued 
his march eastward down the Aling-chu river till it fell into the 
Hagong-tso, a large brackish lake which appeared to have no exit 
for discharging superfluous water, though the Aling-chu river 
which feeds it was found to be 150 paces in width with a rapid 
stream just before it fell into the lake. The shores of the lake had 
marks which showed that it had once been more extensive. Con- 
tinuing his journey the Pundit passed the Chak-chaka salt lake 
from which the greater part of the Tibetan salt, which goes down 

1870.] Report on Trans- Himalayan Explorations, Sfc. 53 

to Almorah, Nepal, &c, is extracted. The salt from Tibet is pre- 
ferred by the people of Kumaon and most hill men, though the 
salt from the plains is to be had at much the same price. 

The P n n cl i t heard of another salt lake to the east of Chak- 
ckaka, which with other similar lakes probably supplies a portion 
of that which is generally understood to come from Chak-chaka. 

The next place of importance seen by the Pundit was Thok- 
Sarlung which at one time had been the chief gold field of the 
district, but had been in a great measure abandoned on the dis- 
covery of the Thok-Jalung gold field. The Pundit passed a great 
excavation, some 30 to 40 feet deep and 200 feet in width and two 
miles in length, from which the gold had been extracted. He 
heard of another gold field to the west, but his route took him di- 
rect to the Thok-Jalung gold field, which he found in much the 
same state as when visited by the ChiefPundit. The Pundit 
and his party excited no particular notice, and they were conse- 
quently able to march on after halting a day to rest. 

From Thok-Jalung they passed through the Majin country, part- 
ly undulating and partly quite level, but all about the same alti- 
tude, viz. — .15 to 16,000 feet above the sea. The drainage sloped 
towards the east, and nothing but comparatively low rounded hills 
were visible in that direction; whilst on the west the party skirted 
a large plain of a yellowish colour said to be drained by the Upper 

The party passed numerous lakes producing salt and borax, and 
after 9 days' journey in a south easterly direction, found themselves 
at Kinglo, a large camp on the banks of a river called the Chu- 
sangpo, which is so large that it cannot be forded during the sum- 
mer. This river flows eastward and falls into the lake called Nala- 
Eing-tso or Tso-Sildu, said to be about the same size as the Man- 
sarowar lake ; it has a small island in the centre. The lake is re- 
ported to receive a large stream from the south, another from the 
east, and a third from the north, the latter draining part of the 
Phaiyu-Pooyu district. Though receiving so many streams, (one 
of which, as noted above, is a large one), the lake is nevertheless 
said to have no exit. 

To the south of the lake there is a well known monastery called 

54 Report on Tram-Himalayan Explorations, 4c [No. 1, 

Shellifuk, the residence of a great Lama. Still farther to the south 
there are some high snowy peaks, and a district called Poonjor, 
"while to the north are the districts called Gyachun and Girke, the 
latter probably adjoining Phaiyu-Pooyu. To the east he heard of 
another district called Shingwar. 

From Kinglo the Pundi t wished to march on to Lhasa by the 
northern route past the Tengri-noor lake, but the Chief of Majin 
(Kinglo) would not permit it, and the party were consequently 
obliged to take a south-westerly route to the Mansarowar lake. — 
They followed the course of the Sangpo-chu nearly to its source, 
crossing one very high range called Nakchail, and another called 
Biego, and finally descending to the Mansarowar lake. The Nag- 
chail and Riego ranges are evidently off-shoots of the Kailas peak. 
The Nagchail peaks appeared to be very high both on the east and 

When crossing the range the Pundit saw a very large herd of 
wild yaks; his party counted over 300 of all sizes before the herd 
ran off: the yaks were all black. These wild yaks are called 
" Dong;" they were mostly seen between Majin-Kinglo and the 
Mansarowar lake. Great herds of wild asses were seen through- 
out; sometimes as many as 200 were in sight at the same time 
when the plateaux were extensive. The Hodgsonian antelope, 
wild goats, and sheep, (the latter including the gigantic Ovis am- 
nion), were all seen in numbers. Large grey wolves were constant- 
ly seen, but never more than two or three at a time, though packs of 
them were often heard yelling at night. Numbers of reddish hares 
and a kind of fox were seen on every march. Marmots were very 
numerous, their subterranean villages being met with wherever 
grass and water were at hand. Quantities of geese, ducks, and 
storks were seen on the lakes. Eagles and vultures appeared to be 
the same as those in the Himalayas, and were seen every where. 

"Whilst marching from Rudok to Thok- Jalung the Pundit 
heard descriptions of no less than 7 separate gold fields, viz. those 
of Thok-Sarkong, Thok-Dikla, Thdk-Ragyok, Thok-Thasaug, 
Thok-Maroobhoob, Gunjee-Thok and Thok-Nianmo, besides those 
of Thok-Sarlung and Thok-Jalung which he actually visited, and 
those of Phaiyu-Pooyu of which he heard vaguely. The Pundit 
understands the word " Thok' 

1870.] Report on Trans- Himalayan Explorations, 8fc. 55 

Several salt lakes were passed and others heard of. He de- 
scribes the celebrated Chak-chaka salt lake as being all but con- 
nected with the Hagong-tso (lake, ) and stated that an area of about 
20 miles by 10 is all about on a level with those lakes. This space 
is filled with salt, the water having evidently at one time covered 
the whole. 

Borax fields were seen at Rooksum and Chak-chaka, and num- 
bers of people were working on them. No gold or salt mines were 
seen or heard of between Thok- Jalung and the Mansarowar lake ; 
but numerous borax fields were seen, at one of which about 100 
men were at work near a camp of some thirty tents. The other 
fields were not being worked when the Pundit passed. The 
borax generally was said to find its way down to Kumaon, Nepal, &c. 
Altogether this portion of the third Pundit's route has brought 
to light the positions of a large number of gold, borax, and salt 
fields, testifying to an amount of mineral wealth, as to the value of 
which we have hitherto had no information. In marching south 
from Thok- Jalung the Pundit appears to have left the gold-bear- 
ing rocks, and from the information he received, the line of gold 
fields is continued more to the north ; but it is evident that this 
part of Tibet contains an inexhaustible supply of gold. 

As to borax, there appears to be any amount of it to be had for 
the digging, the Lhasa authorities only taking a nominal tax of 
about 8 annas (or a shilling) for ten sheep or goat loads, probably 
about 3 maunds or 240 lbs. Borax sufficient to supply the potte- 
ries of Staffordshire and all Europe would be forthcoming, if the 
supply from Tuscany should ever run short. 

The salt fields appear to be the source from which the hill -po- 
pulation from Nepal to Kashmir draws the greater part of its sup- 
ply of salt. 

Throughout his march, the Pundit was at an elevation of over 

15,000 feet, and yet an encampment was met with nearly every 

day. Thieves were numerous, and threatened the party several 

times ; but on seeing that the Pundit's party were armed, they 

i invariably went off again, not liking the look of an English gun. 

The party arrived at Mansarowar in safety ; and the Pundit de- 

( cided upon waiting for the Ladak Kafila, which was known to be 

I on its way to Lhasa. "Whilst there, the Pundit made a careful 

56 Report on Trans- Himalayan Explorations, Sfc. [No. 1, 

traverse of the Mansarowar lake, with bearings to the peaks north 
and south. A map of the lake will be given hereafter. Though the 
water was sweet no exit was seen : at one point on the west the 
ground near the Ju monastery was low, and looked as if water had 
perhaps at one time flowed through, towards the Pakas Tal lake, 
though it is now too much above the lake to admit of it. 

The Pundit was unable to join the Ladak Kafila; but made 
his way by himself along the great road to Shigatze, where he was 
stopped. This he found was by an order of the Gartok Garpon 
sent after him by the couriers. lie was unable to advance farther. 
Whilst marching between the Mansarowar and Skigatze he was able 
to take bearings to various peaks north and south of the road, 
which no doubt will add considerably to our knowledge of the 
mountains on either side, of that route ; but as the Pundit lias 
only just returned, there is no time to give any further account of 
his route and adventures in the present report. 

His servant, who was sent back from Dak-korkor, managed to join 
part of the Ladak Kaiila, and reached the Tadum monastery ; but 
the mounted messengers of the Gartok Garpon found him out there, 
and prevented him from advancing farther. He very narrowly 
escaped being sent back to Gartok, and would have been lucky to 
have escaped severe punishment. The Ladak merchant fortunately 
remembered his old friend the C h i e f Pundit, and on being told 
that the man was carrying merchandize on his account, did what he 
could to protect him ; and though he said it was impossible to take 
him to Lhasa, he managed to get him released, and ultimately the 
man was allowed to cross over the Himalayas by a southerly road past 
Muktinath into Nepal. In this way he was able to join on to the 
route the 2nd Pundit traversed during their first explorations. The 
permission to take a new route, is surprising, as the Lhasa officials 
are always careful to make suspected individuals return by the road 
they entered, so that they may at any rate not get fresh information 
as to the country. Their carelessness in the present instance was 
probably due to the humble and rather stupid look of the man, but it 
has supplied an important link between the Tadum monastery and 
the Muktinath slmne on the Saligrami, a great feeder of the Gun- 
duk river. The man, an inhabitant of Zaskar, in spite of his appear- 
ance, has a shrewd idea of distances and of the points of the compass ; 

1870.] Report on Trans-Himalayan Explorations, fyc. 57 

lie was able to give a very intelligible though rough route between 
the two points, which agrees very fairly with the positions assigned 
to them by the 1st and 2nd Pundits. 

"When this Zaskari found that he would not be allowed to go to 
Lhasa, he told the Ladak merchant that an agent of the Chief 
Pundit had gone on ahead, to whom he was to have delivered some 
goods, and requested that he would see that they were delivered to 
the agent : the merchant promised to do this and took charge of the 
packages. The Zaskari then put his own baggage on a couple of 
sheep and started off south. Though early in December he was able 
to cross the Brahmaputra river on the ice, which was then strong 
enough to bear laden yaks. The first day he reached the Likche 
monastery, where he found two men from Lohba in the Mustang 
district, north of Muktinath. These men had gone beyond, to the 
north - of Tadum, for salt and were returning with it. The Zaskari 
managed to make their acquaintance, and on hearing that he was a 
Bisahiri (or man of Koonoo) going to worship at Muktinath, they 
agreed to take him with them. Their salt was laden on about sixty 
yaks, each carrying from 1£ to 2 maunds (120 to 160 lbs) . The two 
men were able to manage this large number of yaks as the road was 
a good one. 

Prom Likche they ascended gradually over a great plain or pla- 
teau, with plenty of grass and scrub ; the latter making good fuel 
even when green. Three easy marches took them over this plain 
and landed them at Lohtod, four or five miles beyond or south of 
the Himalayan watershed. The plain had a few small knolls on it, 
but was otherwise flat or undulating. The ascent, even up to the 
watershed, was very slight indeed. Prom the pass, which the man 
hardly thought worthy of calling a pass, there was a slight descent 
or four or five miles. He got a good view of Lohtod, a village of 
sixty houses surrounded by a number of scattered houses, which he 
thought might make a total of several hundreds : the houses were all 
built of sun-dried bricks. He noticed a great many fields, and 
found that they cultivated barley, buckwheat, mustard, radishes, and 
a small proportion of wheat, all indicating a moderate altitude, 
though the only trees visible were two or three poor willows. This 
is confirmed by the easy slope of the ground to Muktinath, which 


58 Report on Trans- Himalayan Explorations, <Sr. [Xo. 1, 

the 2nd Pundit found to be 1 3, 1 00 feet. The next day the Zaskari 
reached Loh-niantang, where the Loh Gyalbo (or Eaja) lives in a 
stone fortlet, near a small town of some 200 houses, surrounded by a 
great deal of cultivation. 

From Loh-mantang three days' easy march landed the Zaskari at 
Muktinath. On the route he passed a large village called Asrang, 
where the Gyalbo has a house, and at every three or four miles he 
saw a group of a few houses, mostly to the west of his road, but he 
met with no tents south of the Himalayan watershed. 

Muktinath (or Lohchumik) stands in an open spot, with 4 vil- 
lages of about 50 houses each, lying a mile to the south of the shrine. 

The Zaskari has given some farther routes which are new and 
will no doubt prove useful hereafter. The route given above is 
more especially interesting, as giving another line across the Him- 
alayas : it makes the crest very much as given in the map with 
the first report of the P u n d i t 's explorations, and shows how very 
far behind, or north of the great peaks, the Himalayan watershed 
actually lies, and what a great breadth the highest parts of the 
range cover. 

Another explorer was employed to the east, who made a route- 
survey of 1,190 miles in length, advancing by one route 640 miles 
and returning by another 550 miles in length. 

A small portion of this man's route was quite new, as he ma- 
naged to penetrate behind or north of the great Mount Everest 
peak. His progress in that direction was checked by the obduracy 
of the Lhasa officials on the Tingri-maidan. As far as it goes 
this portion of the route is, however, interesting, insomuch as it 
gives another determination of the Himalayan watershed, and 
throws a little more light on that part of the mountains which lies 
behind or north of the great peaks, seen from the Hindustan side. 

The remainder of the route is in a great part new ; but some of 
the former explorations went over portions of the same ground, 
and the positions of several places have been entered on pub- 
lished maps from various information, though hitherto without 
any regular connection. These new routes will supply the neces- 
sary connection, and when combined with former explorations, will 
add much towards the elucidation of the Eastern Himalayas. 
A map will be prepared on this basis, but no reference can for 

1870.] Report on Trans-Himalayan Explorations, $fc. 59 

obvious reasons be made to names &c, whilst the work is in 
progress, the explorers having been somewhat impeded by the 
publicity given to the results of former expeditions. 

On the north western frontier of India a Mahommedan gentle- 
man, generally known as the M i r z a, has been employed for some 
time in exploring the countries beyond the Hindoo-Koosh, the 
Mustagh, and Karakoram ranges. The M i r z a was regularly 
trained, and having acquired the necessary facility in the use of a 
sextant, and in the method of route-surveying practised in these 
exjolorations, was started on an expedition via Afghanistan. He 
made his way to Oandahar ; but there his progress was for a time 
arrested owing to the war which resulted in re-seating the Amir 
Ali on the Cabul throne. 

The M. i r z a, it may be as well to state here, was one of the lads 
brought originally from Herat byPottinger, and had received a 
partial English education, by which he has benefited considerably. 
Being a native of Afghanistan he has kept up his acquaintance 
with that country, and though for some time in the British service, 
has spent the greater part of his life in that country. His former 
residence in Cabul more especially favoured him, and he was at 
once able to accompany the Amir. He witnessed various actions 
that took place during the Amir's advance from Candahar, and 
supplied our Gfovernment with accounts of them and the general 
state of affairs ; accounts which at the time were rather valuable, 
as it was difficult to get any other accurate information. The M i r z a 
was detained for some time at Cabul, owing to the disturbed state 
of the country, but ultimately was able to pass over to Badukshan, 
thence he ascended, through the Upper Yalley of the Oxus, to 
Lieutenant Wood's Sirikul (or "Victoria) Lake. From this lake he 
made his way through a part of Sirikul district to Tashkurgan, 
crossing the watershed which divides the Oxus from Eastern Tur- 
kistan. At Tashkurgan, he was placed in a sort of open arrest, 
being allowed to do what he pleased, though always watched. 
From Tashkurgan he made his way over the mountains direct to 
Kashghar, still accompanied by men from Tashkurgna, who insisted 
upon seeing him into Kashghar; fortunately they did not interfere 
with his using his instruments, and he was able to continue his 

60 Report on Trans- Himalayan Explorations, §c. [No. 1, 

At Kashghar lie was detained for some time by the Koosh-Begie, 
or Atalig Grhazi. He asked for permission to go on to Kokhan, 
but it was refused; and he was ultimately glad to be allowed to 
return via Yarkund and the Karakoram pass to Ladak, and thence 
into British territory. 

The M i r z a has just returned, and there has only been time to 
roughly plot his routes, which are complete from Cabul to Kash- 
ghar, and from the latter to the vicinity of the Karakoram. 

His route from the Sirikul lake to Kashghar, is entirely new, 
and promises to be the most interesting portion of his work. It 
may perhaps throw some light on Marco Polo's route from 
Europe to China, as that traveller stated that he went direct from 
Budukshan to Kashghar without passing through any larger town. 

No particulars can be given as to the Mirza's work, but the 
whole of his route-surveys, &c. will be reported on as soon as they 
have been worked out and tested. 

With reference to farther explorations, an attempt will be made 
to advance farther along the margin of the Aksai Cheen, or great 
white desert, and if possible to cross it, and generally to explore 
farther east towards the end of the great wall of China ; but the 
jealousy of the Chino-Tibetun officials renders success very doubt- 

Expeditions are being organized to carry the explorations still 
farther to the north of the Hindoo-Koosh, so as to account for the 
geography of the upper branches of the Oxus, of the Pamir Steppe, 
&c. ; and there is some chance that in the present state of Afghani- 
stan, it will be possible to carry out these projects and thus to reduce 
the absolutely unknown ground in that direction to a small area 
within a reasonable time. 

Further routes will be made with a view to complete our know- 
ledge of the geography of the Eastern Himalayas ; and it is hoped 
that the obstacles in that direction may be surmounted within a 
short time. 

The total length of route-surveys amounts to 1,820 miles with 66 
latitudes and 61 heights of various places. The area of altogether 
new ground of which the geography has been determined, is about 
20,000 square miles, irrespective of a very large area of partially 
new country, for the geography of which improved materials have 
been collected. 





No. II.— 1870. 

On some new or imperfectly known Indian Plants, — 

by S. Kuez, Esq., Curator of the Calcutta Herbarium. 

[Received 12th December, 1869, read 5th January, 1870.] 

(With plates V-VI1.) 


1. Clematis floribunda, Kurz, in Seem. Journ. of Bot., V, 
240. — This specific name is to be changed, as Mr. Bentham 
has given previously the same name to a Peruvian plant. I now 
propose to call the species C. subumbellata . 


2. Uvaria cordata, Wall., Cat. 6486, is united with V. maero- 
phylla, Eoxb., by the authors of the " Flora Indica, but it certainly 
is different from that species. It is identical with Blume's U. 
ovalifolia which is, in my opinion, a good species. 

3. Uvaria Hamiltonii, H f . et Th., Fl. Ind., I, 96. — Some 
forms of this are so near to Anomiantltus heterocarpus, Zoll., 
{Uvaria heterocarpa, Bl. ?) that I should be inclined to unite both, 
but I have no fruits to compare. 


62 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

4. Miliusa Roxlurghiana, Hf. et Th., Fl. Ind., I. 150. — This 
has a solitary erect ovule, quite similar to that of Phceanthus nutans, 
to which it shows close resemblance ; it will, therefore, be necessary 
to refer the former to the same genus, and as JJvaria dioica, Rox- 
burgh, Fl. Ind., II, 659, is identical with it, the species may be 
called 'Phceanthus dioicus. 


5. PachygOIlG dasycarpa, n. sp. — Frutex scandens, ra- 
mulis novellisque tomentosis ; folia ovalia, 1J — 2 poll, longa, pet- 
iolo gracili tomentello \ — 1 pollicari suffulta, obtusiuscula, v. rarius 
emarginata, mucronulata, coriacea, glaberrima, nervosa, lucida ; 
racemi pedicellique crassi, flavicante tomentosi ; drupae oblique 
obovales, dense flavicante tomentosse, pisi majoris magnitudine. — 
Siam, Kanbiiri (Teysmannin Hb. Bog. No. 5993.) 

Besides the very different indumentum of the drupes and inflo- 
rescences the shape and nervature of the leaves differ considerably 
from those of P. ovata. 

Thwmiscium pyrrhobotryum, M i q., in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., 
IV, 81 = Tinom. phytocrenoides y Kurz, in Tydsch. Nat. Vereen. 


6. CappariS roydsisefolia, n. sp.— Frutex scandens, g la- 
berrimus ; folia oblonga v. elliptico-oblonga, breve et crasse petiolata, 
basi rotundata v. obtusa, apice obtusiuscula et mucronata, sub- 
coriacea, 6-8 poll, longa, glabra, in sicco flavescentia, subtus nervis 
prominentibus percursa et laxe reticulata ; aculei stipulares, breves, 
patentes, stricti ; flores 4 — 5-ni, supra foliorum axilla orientes, breve 
pedicellati, racemum terminalem formantes ; sepala marginibus 
lanata ; petala cire 6 lin. longa, obovato-lanceolata, floccoso-pube- 
rula ; gynophorum abbreviatum, circ. J lin. longum, unacum ovario 
glaberrimum ; stamina numerosa ; baccse* . — Siam (T e y s m a n n, 
in Hort. Bogor.) — A very distinct species, closely resembling in 
foliage Moydsia suaveolens. 

7. CappariS flavicans, n. sp. — Frutex habitu Cadah® Indi- 
ca, novellis omnibus unacum foliis fulvo v. flavicanter tomentosis, 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly Icnoivn Indian plants. 63 

aculeis brevissimis, rectis, patentibus armatus ; folia variabilia, 
obovata, oblonga v. subcuneato-obovata, basi rotundata, acuta v. 
obtusa, breve et gracile petiolata, £ — 1, raro 1£ poll, longa, retusa 
v. obtusa, chartacea v. eoriacea, juniora dense fulvo-pubescentia, 
mox glabrescentia, nervis subtus prominentibus ; flores parvi, 
solitarii v. gemini, pedicellis 6-8 lin. longis dense fulvo-tomentosis 
suffulti, vulgo in apicibus ramulorum brevium tomentosorum siti 
et saepius racemum v. corymbum spurium formantes ; sepala dense 
fulvo-tomentosa ; petala extus glabra, intus dense lanata, circ. 4 lin. 
longa ; gynophorum crassum cum ovario dense fulvo-tomentosum ; 
baccse pisi maximi magnitudine, puberulse, ovatae, apiculatse, 2- 
loculares, loculis monospermis. — Siam, near the village Kankian, 
Eadburi (Teysmannin Hb. Bog.) 


8. AlSOdeia longiracemOSa, n. sp.— Arbuscula parva v. 
frutex glaberrima ; folia decidua, oblongo-lanceolata, breve et gra- 
ciliter petiolata, utrinque acuminata, serrata, chartacea, glabra ; 
racemi elongati, 3-5-poll. longi, parce puberuli ; nores parvi, vires- 
cente-albi, pedicellis strictis longiusculis suffulti ; calyx puberulus ; 
capsulse pedunculatse, glabrae. — Martaban (Dr. B r a n d i s.) 


9. Polygala arvensis, Willd. — There exists great uncertainty 
amongst the different varieties of the above species and others near- 
ly allied to them, especially with regard to P. triflora of L i n n 4. 
Mr. Edgeworth has seen the authentic specimens of P. triflora, 
and declares them to be P. rosmarinifolia. If this be the case, 
P. arvensis would really have to be identified with P. triflora, as Dr. 
Anderson has done in his " Florula Adenensis ;" but P. Vahli- 
ana, erioptera and their allies cannot, in that case, be connected 
with it, on account of the very different structure of the wings. 
By the form of the latter many Indian forms, now described under 
different names, might be brought together into natural groups. 
Thus we should obtain for the group with thick herbaceous 
green and acuminated sepal-wings, P. glomerata and P. arvensis 
with a long series of synonyms, all these having short racemes > 

f>4 On seme new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

those with elongated racemes would be P. ciliata, WA., P. elongata, 
Heyne (including P. macrostachya) and P. Wightiana, which latter 
requires close comparison with the former. — The other group with 
coloured thin obtuse and usually petal-like wings would comprise 
P. Vahliana, P. Heyneana and P. Javana (the 2 latter species being 
rather too closely allied), P. Persicaria and P. elegans (including P. 
KJiasyana, H assk.). The latter species forms to some degree a 
connecting link between the two groups. 


10. Disci stigma fabrile, Miq., Suppl. Fl. Sumatr., 496, (Gar- 
cinia fabrile, ejusd., in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., I, 808), is not different 
from G. cornea, L. 

1 1 . Xanthochymiis cannot be retained as a genus, different from 
Garcinia, for there occur pentamerous and tetramerous flowers 
on the same tree of X. pictorius, as I had several times the oppor- 
tunity of observing. 

12. CalophyUum cymosum, Miq., Suppl. Fl. v. Sumatr., 497, is 
the same as C. spectabile, W i 1 1 d. 

13. Calophylhim plicipes, Miq., Suppl. Fl. v. Sumatr., 499, is 
identical with C. pulcherrimum, "Wall. 


14. Ternstrcemia macrocarpa, Scheff., in Obs. Phyt., 15, does 
not differ from T. Penangiana, C h o i s. 

15. Schima crenata, Korth., Yerh. Nat. Gesch. t. 29, 143, 
is undoubtedly identical with Roxburgh's Gordonia ohlata, 
(Fl. Ind., II, 572) and the name should, therefore, be changed into 
Schima ollata. 


16. Dipterocarpus tuberculatus, Roxb., Fl. Ind., II, 614; DO. 
Prod., XYJ, 614, — differs from D. grandifohus, Miq., simply 
in having the leaf buds, the leaves underneath, and the inflores- 
cences quite glabrous, not puberulous ; the fruits are the same in 
both species. 

17. Dipterocarpus cordifolius, Wall., in DC. Prod., XVI, 612. 
— De Candolle describes this species as having winged fruits, bu 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly Jcnoivn Indian plants. 65 

I suspect these fruits must have come by some mistake to the leaves, 
which latter are decidedly those of D. obtusifolius, Teysm., in 
Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., I, 214 ; DC, 1. c. 608. 

18. Bipterocarpus pilosus, Eoxk, Fl. Ind., II, 615; DO. 
Prod., XYI, 614.— I have no doubt that D. Baudii, Kort h., is 
the same species as the above. The fruits are alike, the flowers of 
the former, however, unknown. Anisoptera Palembanica, Miq. (only 
leaves) is not distinguishable from some forms of D. pilosus. 


Calycis tubus brevissimus, toro adnatus, lobis manifeste valvatis 
subaequalibus. Stamina 15 — 18 ; filamenta minima, antheris 
breviora, connectivum glandula brevi acuta terminatum. Ovarium 
calyci adnatum, 3-loculare, stylus filiformis, stigmate capitato-tri- 
lobo. Calycis fructigeri lobi 5, omnes aucti, quorum 2 multo 
longiores. Nux globosa, matura calycis usque ad ^ partem longi- 
tudinis adnata, monosperma. 

19. Synaptea grandiflora, (ITopea grandiflora, Wall., DO. 
Prod., XYI, 634; Sunaptea odorata, G r i f f., Not. Dicot., 516. 
t. 585, A, f. 5 ? I cannot follow Bentham and Hooker in 
their identification of this species with Vatica Chinensis, as the 
authors do not state, whether they have seen L i n n e ' s specimens. 
It is impossible to retain this species in the genus Vatica, on 
account of the distinctly valvate calycine lobes, &c, so perfectly 
dissimilar to what Lamarck has figured. With Hopea, where 
De Candolle places it, the species has nothing to do at all, but 
it is evidently very similar to Anisoptera. 

S. Bantamensis ( Anisoptera Bantamensis Hassk) is another 
species which is very nearly allied to the above but at once distin- 
guished by the much broader lobes of the calyx, &c. 

20. Shorea leucobotrya, Miq, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., 1,218, 
and Sh. obtusa, Wall., apud DC, Prod., XYI, 62';}, are one and 
the same species. 

PAEASHOEEA, n. gen. 

Calycis tubus brevissimus. Stamina 12-15; filamenta antheris 
breviora, sequalia ; antherae oblongo-lanceolatao, connectivo in 

66 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants, [No. 2, 

mucronem minutam producto adnatse. Ovarium liberum, 3- 
loculare, stylus filiformis, stigmate truncate Tubus calycis frueti- 
feri haud auctus ; lobi calycini 5, valvati, basin versus attenuati, 
omnes valde aucti et aliformes, aequales v. 2 paullo breviores, 
subpatentes. Nux monosperma, libera, nee loborum basibus arete 
contorto-cincta, ut in Shorea. — Arbores ingentes, foliis lucidis et 
floribus albidis dense racemose- -paniculatis. 

21. Parashorea Stellata, ». sp. Arbor ingens, glabra; 
folia ovato-lanceolata, acutiuscula v. apiculata ; lobis calycis fructi- 
geri aliformes, sequales et subpatentes ; nux ovata v. oblongo- 
ovata. — Martaban (Dr. Brandis). 

22. Parashorea lucida {Shorea lucida, Miq., Suppl. Fl. Sumatr. 
487), differs from tlie former by the smaller more shining 
leaves, which are shortly acuminate. It has also the wings 
of the fruitbearing calyx shorter and broader, and the nuts are 
smaller and almost globular. 

A third species of Parashorea will be Shorea lo?igisperma, Exb., 
(DC, Ind., II, 618) which has the nuts longer than any of the 
foregoing two species, but nothing is known of it except the fruit. 

23. Shorea Siame?isis, Miq., Ann. Lugd. Bat., I, 214; DO. 
Prod., XVI, 631, is identical with Pentacme suavis, DO. 
(Prod. 1. c. 626) and the name has, therefore, to be changed in 
Pentacme Siamensis. The tube of the fruitbearing calyx remains 
unchanged, with all the 5 lobes wing-like enlarged, two of them 
about ^ shorter, the remaining 3 about 4 inch long, obovate- 
lanceolate, obtuse, very narrowed towards the broad imbricate 
base, glabrous ; nut ovoid, acuminate by the persistent style, 


24. DecaSChistia parviflora, n. sp. Suffrutex ? v. herba 
perennis, ramosus ; folia oblongo-lanceolata v. oblonga, longe 
petiolata (petiolo fere pollicari gracili puberulo), acuta, obsolete 
dentata, coriacea, supra dense puberula et scabriuscula, subtus 
albo- v. gilvo-tomentosa ; flores parvi, iis Urencs lobatce non 
absimiles, breve rigideque pedicellati, in axillis foliorum superiorum 
solitarii et racemos terminales formantes ; involucri phylla calyce 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. 67 

multo breviora, linearia, rigida, puberula ; calycis lobi e basi lata 
lanceolati, acuminatissimi, medio valde costati, 3 — 4 lin. longi, 
dense puberuli ; capsulse dense stupposo-tomentosse. — In the 
jungles of Kanbtiri, Siam (Teysmann in Hb. Bogor. 6979). — 
A very distinct species, not unlike in habitus to certain JJrenas. 


25. HelictereS plebeja n. sp. Fruticulus, partibus juni- 
oribus stellato-scabris, gemmisque canescente tomentosis; folia 
ovato-lanceolata v. ovato-oblonga, breve graciliterque petiolata, 
basi rotundata, circa 3 — 5 poll, longa, magis minusve regulari-den- 
tata, acuminata, membranacea, supra parce hispidula v. sub-glabra, 
subtus minute stellato-hispidula et scabra, junior a, rarissime 
etiam adulta, dense canescente-tomentosa ; flores parvi, flaviduli 
v. pallide lilacini, breve pedicellati ; cymi pauciflori axillares 
stellato -puberuli graciles ; calyx circiter 2^ lin. longus, parce 
stellato-pilosus ; petala calyce paullo longiora ; capsulse 8 — 10 
lin. longse, stellato-tomentosse et muricatee, carpellis mox separa- 
tis et. subulatis. — Arracan, frequent in the Pynkadu forests of the 
lower sandstone hills in Kolodyne valley, &c. 


26. BrownlOWia argentata, n. sp. Arbor parva ? parti- 
bus omnibus novellis argenteo-v. subcupreo-lepidotis ; folia ovata 
v. late ovata, 4 — 5 poll, longa, petiolis 5 lin. usque ad 2 poll, longis, 
lepidotis demum glabrescentibus suffulta, acuminata, basi rotundata 
v. subcordata, coriacea, supra glaberrima, subtus argenteo-lepidota 
et ferrugineo-punctata ; paniculse elongate, racemiformes, termi- 
nals et axillares, argenteo-lepidota3 atque glabrescentes ; flores 
2£ lin. circiter longi, breviuscule pedicellati ; calyx ferrugineo- v. 
argenteo-lepidotus ; carpella juvenilia lepidota. — Moluccas, Burii 
Okie (Teysmann in Hb. Bogor.). Atdn laut inc. 

27. Leptonychia glabra, T u r c z., in Bull. Mosc, 1858, 1, 222, is 
evidently the same plant as Grewia heteroclita, B x b., M. Ind., II, 
590, and will, therefore, have to be called Leptonychia heteroclita. 

28. Echinocarpus murex, B th., (Linn. Soc. Proc. v. Suppl. 72) is 
the same as E. Sigun, Bl., B\dr., 56. The only difference, 

68 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

which I can point out between the two is, that in the latter the 
prickles of the capsules are very crowded and in the former very 
lax and distant. C 1 o s, and after him B e n t h a m, describe the 
prickles of E. Sigun as subfoliate, but this is evidently a misprint 
in 01 o s' Treatise for " subfalcatis." 

29. Elceocarpus Grifjitltii (Jlonoceras Grimthii, Wight, III., 

I, 84). To this I add as synonyms : Monoceras trichanthera^ 
Griff., (Not.,Dicot. 518, t. 619, f. 3\M. odontopetalum, Miq., Suppl. 
Fl. v. Sumatra, 409, and M. Mopetala, Zoll. etCumm., in Bull. 
Soc. Mosc, XIX, 496. I am not quite sure about the identity of 
Monoceras leucobotryum, Miq., 1. c, which differs from the above 
simply by more coriaceous leaves and the densely silky-villose 
ovaries. Prof. M i q u e 1 says that the anthers are furnished with 
two bristles, but authentic specimens show only a single one. 

30. Elceocarpus floribundus, B 1., Bydr., 120; Miq., Fl. Ind. 
Bat., 1-2, 210. To this species belongs E. serratus t Ex b., Fl. Ind., 

II, 596, as a synonym. 


31. Erythroxylon Burmamcum, Griff., Not. Dicot., 468, 
t, 581, f. 3; to this belongs E. retasum, Bauer apud Teysm. 
et B i n n e n d. in Tydsch. v. Naturk. Ver. Ned. Ind., XXVII, 71. 


32. OxaliS (Biophytum) gracilenta, n. sp. Herba annua, 
delicatula, erecta, cauli nudo circ. 6-pollicari gracili, nonnunquam 
subacaulis v. caulescens ; folia abrupte pinnata, petiolis nliforniibus, 
foliola 5 — 8-juga, lutescente-viridia, tenera, oblique oblonga v. 
ovata, utrinque magis minusve truncata, mucronulata ; pedunculi 
axillares, plerumque 4 — 6, et foliis breviores, glandulosi, aj)ice 
incrassato umbellam paucifloram gerentes ; flores minuti, aurantiaci 
v. lutei ; sepala lineari-subulata, 3 — 5 nervia ; capsulse obovatae ; 
semina minuta, iis Ox. sensitives dimidio minora, tuberculata, rubes- 
centia. — Chittagong, frequent along the roads of the station, under 
the shade of trees ; Western Bengal, Sikkim-Terai, &c. 

The species is easily distinguished from Ox. sensitiva by its slen- 
derness and the uniformly and irregularly tubercled small seeds. 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants* 69 

In Ox. sensitiva the seeds are elegantly transversely tubercled- 
sulcate on the thickened blackish back, and less so on the convex 
and paler facets. 

33. Connaropsis Griffithii, Planch, apnd Hf., in Linn. Soc, 
Trans. XXIII, (1862), has to be changed into Connaropsis diversifolia ; 
for Bourea diversifolia, M i q., Suppl. Fl. Sumatr. (1860) 528, is 
undoubtedly the same plant. Prof. M i q u e 1 describes the ovary 
as consisting of 5 carpels, but I think, he mistook the 5 furrows for 
them. I have unfortunately no flowers to examine, and a 
withered flower-rudiment did not show me exactly the parts, but 
the arrangement of the pedicels and inflorescences, and the whole 
structure of the leaves clearly shews that the species is a Connaropsis, 


34. Luvunga Calophylla, n. ^.—Glabra ; folia larga, 3- 
foliolata, petiolo terete 8— 9 poll, longo; foliola 10 — 12 poll, lon- 
ga, 4 poll, lata, obovato-lanceolata, basi in petiolum brevissimum 
attenuata, breve acuminata, integra, marginibus sub-revolu- 
tis, chartacea, glaberrima, utrinque nitentia, costa subtus acute 
prominente, nervis lateralibus conspicuis ; flores cymosi ; cymse 
breves, glabra ; calyx truncato 5-dentatus, majusculus, glaber ; 
petala, stamina &c. desunt ; baccse imniaturse oblongae v. ovato- 
oblongse, styli basi coronatae, vesiculoso-papillosae. — Island Banca 
near Sumatra, at Jebtis (Teysmannin Hb. Bog. 3223). Lima- 
utan, inc. A very distinct species, with leaves much resembling those 
of Zanthoxylon euneurum, M i q. 

Luvunga sarmentosa (Triphasia sarmentosa, B 1. ?) is identified by 
Prof. Oliver with L. eleutherandra, but it differs from it consider- 
ably by the hairy filaments. I am not at all sure whether Blume's 
T. sarmentosa is really the same, as the present species, for B 1 u m e 
describes the floral parts to be trimerous. 

35. Atalantia (Pararnignya) citrifolia (Limonia citrifolia, Eoxb., 
Fl. Ind., II, 579). What Prof. Oliver has taken for Pararnignya 
citrifolia, R xb., is a perfectly distinct plant from the Eoxburghian, 
which has a very short style, perfectly unlike that of Oliver's 
plant, and the flowers of very small size. 

I cannot detect any distinctive characters of generic value 


70 On some new or imperfectly knoivn Indian plants. [No. 2, 

between Atalantia and Paramignya. The shape of the anthers, 
whether oblong or linear-oblong, can surely not be of very great 
importance. The torus is in Atalantia Missionis equally raised and 
stalk-like as in any true Paramignya. The general habit of both 
genera is exactly the same. A. rnonophylla certainly has a very 
peculiar calyx, but even this character becomes of less importance 
when we compare such forms as Sclerostylis, and others. 

37. Citrus Hystrix, D C, Prod. I, 539. f Lemon Papeda, E u m ph., 
Herb. Arab., II, t. 27 ; Limo tuberosus, EumpLl. cit. t. 26, f. 1 ; 
Zimoferus, Eumph.,1. cit. t. 26, f. 3 et t. 28 ; Citrus papeda, M i q.» 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 1/2, 530 ; Papeda Rumphii, Hassk., Cat. Bog., 216).— 
Arbuscula v. frutex ramosissimus, spinis brevioribus v. longioribus 
strictis axillaribus armatus, glaberrimus ; folia ovalia v. ovata, 
I£-2, raro 3 poll, longa, vulgo obtusa et retusa, subintegra, v. cre- 
nata, glabra ; petiolus 1-1J, saepius 2-3 poll, longus, foliaceus et 
saepius lamina ipsa major, obcordatus v. obovato-oblongus, basi 
simplex et re vera, petioliformis ; flores parvi, albi, pedicellis bre- 
vissimis glabris suffulti, fasciculos parvos axillares formantes v. 
subsolitarii ; calyx parvus, 4- v. 5-dentatus ; petala circ. 3 lin. 
longa v. paullo longiora ; ovarium obovatum, stylo crasso brevissi- 
mo terminatum, bacca obovata v. irregulari globosa, rugosa et 
tuberculata, subinsipida, cortice crassissima lutea. — Sumatra, Pria- 
man (Diepenhorst in Hb. Bogor. 1375.) Limau saring, inc. 

This is a well-marked species. It has very small flowers, usually 
4 or 5 stamens, and a very short style. The leaf-like petiole is not 
seldom larger than the blade itself. 

Great difficulty is experienced amongst the species of Citrus, and 
Prof. Oliver, from whom we should have expected the best eluci- 
dation of the same, has left the genus as he found it. The English 
and native names are for the present the best distinguishing marks 
and will remain so, as long as botanists fail to define their species 
properly. The difficulty to recognise the real limits of the species of 
Citrus, is I believe, due to the fact, that nobody as yet has at- 
tempted to study the wild growing forms before examining the 
cultivated ones. 

38. Limonia pentagyna, Roxb., Fl. Ind., II, 382, z=Pursera 
serratUy W a 1 L 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. 71 


39. Mallea suhcandens, T. e t B., (Natuurk. Tydsch. v. Ned. Ind. 
XXIY), does not differ specifically from Jf. Itothii, now Cipa- 
dessa baccifera, Miq., (Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. IV, 6). — It is chiefly 
founded on the somewhat scandent habit. It is a fact, however, 
that many erect species assume a climbing or scandent character, 
when transferred from a dryer to a moister climate, or when growing 
in dense moist forests. 

40. Didy mo chiton, B 1. This genus has been incorrectly identified 
with Dysoxylon* The distinctive characters are the following : — 

Dysoxylon. Calyx parvus, 4-v. 5-dentatus, alabastro jam apertua. 
Petala valvata, libera. Antherse 8 — 10, tubo stamineo denticulato 
v. obsolete denticulato inclusse. Ovarium 3 — 5-loculare. Cap- 
sula pyriformis, loculicide 3 — 5-valvis. Semina exarillata. 

Didymochiton. Calyx parvus v. magnus, 5 — 7-sepalus, sepalis 
manifeste imbricatis ; petala valvata, tubo stamineo lobato v. dentato 
fere usque ad \ partem adnata. Capsula globosa, baccaeformis 
et loculicida. Semina exarillata. 

Schizochiton. Calyx vulgo campanulatus, obsolete 4-raro 5-denta- 
tus, alabastro jam apertus ; petala valvata v, imbricata, cum tubo 
stamineo lobata v. dentata usque ad £ v. \ partem ipsorum longi- 
tudinis connata indeque tubulosa. Ovarium 3-4-loculare. Capsula 
vulgo pyriformis, loculicide 3-4-valvis. Semina complete v. incom- 
plete arillata. 

Hartighsea excelsa, J u s s., is a true Dysoxylon. Hartighsea mollissi- 
ma, Juss., and H. atigustifolia, M i q., are no Dysoxyla, but more 
probably belong to Didymochiton. 

41. Amoora Rohituha, (WA. Prod. I, 119), is probably not 
different from^L Aphanomyxis, Eoem. et Schult., which often 
ha*s the leaflets underneath shortly puberulous ; but as I have only 
fructificating specimens of the former, and no flowers, I do not 
venture to unite them at present. 

I restrict the genus Amoora to those species which have ternary 
petals ; I am not acquainted with any true Amoora with 5 petals. 

* Also Prof. M i q u e 1 in his annals which reached me only while fchess 
sheets were going through the press, has followed Bentham and Hooker 
in their identification of the genus. 

72 On some new or imperfectly knoim Indian plants. [No. 2, 

Monosoma, Griff., is Carapa obovata, and Dysoxylon Champion ii, 
H f. et T h. in Thwaites' Enum. PL Zeyl., is a species closely allied 
to it, and most probably the Carapa {Xylocarpus) carnosa, Z o 1 1. 

42. Amoora spectabilis, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. IV, 
37 = the male plant of Amoora cucullata, Roxb. 

43. Walsura trichostemon, M i q. 1. c, IV, 60 = Walsura villosa f 
WA., Prod. I, 120, (in adnot.) 

44. Heynea frutescens, T. et B., is a good species, not a variety 
of E. Sumatrana, Miq., in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. IV, 60. The 
latter is identical with H. quinquejuga, Roxb. 


45. Cansjera zkyphifolia, Griff., Not. Dicot. 360, t. 537 f. 1. — 
To this species Olax Sumatrana, Miq., (Suppl. Fl. Sumatra, 342,) 
has to be referred as a synonym. 

46. Gonocary um gracile, Miq., Suppl. Fl. Sum. 343 (1860), is 
in my opinion the same as Platea Griffithsiana, M i e r s, Contr. I, 97, 
t. 17. Prof. M i q u e 1 states that the former possesses 2 cells in the 
ovary and one ovule. Authentic specimens, however, show that the 
ovary is really one-celled and to judge from the sterile fruits, 2- 
ovuled. The abortive seed in the fruit is suspended from the apex 
just beneath the acumen, and there can be observed also the rudi- 
ment of the second superposed ovule. There appears to me to be 
also no doubt of Phlebocalymna, Griff., and Gonocaryicm, Miq., 
being identical. 

G. Lobbianum (Platea Zobbiana, M i e r s, Contrib. Bot. I, 97, t. 17), 
is a second species of this genus. 


47. Ilex daphnephylloides, n. sp— Arbor magna, novel- 
lis parce pubescentibus ; folia oblonga v. subovato-oblonga, petiolis 
circiter pollicaribus, tenuiter acuminata, basi saepius parum inse- 
quali-rotundata v. obtusa, integra, coriacea, 4 — 5 poll, longa, punc- 
tata, supra nitida, subtus glauca, transverse venosa et reticulata ; 
flores virescenti-albidi capitulum magis minusve densum axillare 
pedunculatum formantes ; pedicelli breves, minute pubescentes, 
crassi; pedunculus ^ — 1 pollicaris, apice incrassatus et dense 
bracteatus, puberulus ; calycislobi corollse adnati, minuti, rotundati, 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. 73 

pubescentes et dense ciliati ; petala 5, nonnunquam 6 — 7, oblonga, 
obtusa ; stamina 10, insequalia; antheree 5 interiores sessiles 
v. subsessiles et vulgo minores, 5 exterior es majores et filamentis 

insequilongis suffultse ; ovarium glabrum ; drupse — Sik- 

kim Himalaya, in the oak forests of Tongloo, &c. 


48. Evonymus Javanicus, B 1., Bydr. 1146, I am unable to 
distinguish from this E. Sumatranus, M i q., FL Ind. Bat. I 2,589, 
and E. Bancanus, Miq., Suppl. FL Sumatr. 513. 

49. Hippocratea anyulata, Griff., Not. Dicot., 473, t. 581, f. 1, — 
appears to be a new species of Evonymus which might be called 
E. Griffithii. 

50. Notliocnestis Sumatr ana, Miq., Suppl. Fl. Sumatr. 531. et Ann. 
Mus. Lugd. Bat. Ill, is the same as Gelastrus robustus, Eoxb., Fl. 
Ind. I, 626, and is also identical with Kurrimia pulcherrima, Wall. 
— As Roxburgh's name is the oldest, the tree will have to be 
named K. robusta. 

Is it possible that K. panieulata, A r n., is the same as Pyrosper- 
mum calophyllum, Miq.? The foliage of the latter resembles very 
much that of K. Zeylanica. 

51. Lophopetalum, W ght. — This genus appears to have been 
mixed up with true species of Evonymus, such as E. grandiflorus, 
and its generic characters became on this account rather unin- 
telligible. This also appears to be the cause that a new genus 
Kohoona, T h w., was proposed, which Mr. Thwaites has correctly 
placed in the Hippocrateacece. 

The genus might be divided into 2 natural groups, the one with 
fimbriate or lamellate petals and large flowers (Zophopetalum), the 
other with naked petals and small flowers (JToIcootia). 


52. Zizyphus Horsfieldii, M i q., Fl. Ind. Bat., I, 643, is evidently 
the same as Z. ylaber, Eoxb., Fl. Ind. Bat., I, 614. 

47. Zizyphus ornata, M i q., Fl. Ind. Bat., I, 642, is identical 
with Z. calophylla, Wall, (in Ex b. Fl. Ind.). 

74 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 


53. Cissus hastatus, M i q., in Suppl. Fl. Suinatr. 517, is the same 
as Vitis glaberrima, W a 1 L, in B, x b. FL Ind. (ed. prior) II, 476. 

54. Vitis pent agona, Yoigt, in Cat. Suburb. Calcutta, 28. (Cis- 
sus pentagona, E o x b., FL Ind., I, 408). This species is very frequent 
in the forests of Arracan, where I found it flowering. I add the 
description of the flowers to the short characteristic given in Eox- 
burgh's Flora, 

Flores parvi, flaviduli,, cymulas glabras simplices v. raro subcom- 
positas oppositifolias formantes ; pedicelli circ. 1-1£ lin. longi, crassi, 
glabri ; calyx truncatus ; petala 4, oblongo-lanceolata, cucullato- 
acuminata, lineani fere longa ; stamina 4 ; stylus breviusculus, 
simplex. — It is a very distinct species with glossy obtusely 5- 
angled and thick stems, and may be placed near V. repens, WA. 

55. Vitis elegatis, Kur z, in Nat. Tydsch. v. Ned. Indie, is the 
same as V. cinnamomea, Wall., inEox b. FL Ind. 


56. Schmiedelia aporetica (Ornitrophe Aporetica, Roxb., Fl. Iud. 
II, 264.) — Fruticulus 2-3-pedalis, novellis pubescentibus ; folia 
majora, 3-foliolata, petiolo 3-5-pollicari parce pubescente, foliola 
oblonga v. obovata, cuneata, lateralia sub-inaequalia, breve crasseque 
petiolulata, breviter acuminata, 6-8 poll, longa, remote irregularique 
serrata, membranacea, glabra, nervis subtus plus minus pubescen- 
tibus et supra dense fulvo-villosis ; flores parvi, flaviduli, fascicu- 
lati, pedicellis brevibus gracilibus glaberrimis, bracteis longis line- 
ari-subulatis hirsutis sustenti ; racemi robustiores, simplices, axil- 
lares, fulvo-villosi, petiolis breviores ; petala obovato-cuneata, 
emarginata, intus supra medio valde lanata ; nlamenta glabra v. 
basi lanata ; ovarium villosum ; drupae abortu vulgo solitaria3, 
raro geminse, pisi majoris magnitudine, globosae, miniatee, luci- 
da3. — Very frequent in the Forests of the lower hills of Arracan, on 
sandstone, up to 1200 feet. 

This species is easily recognised amongst the trifoliolate forms 
with pubescent rachis by the long linear-subulate bracts. 


57. Sabia f floribunda, M i q., Suppl. Fl. Sumatr. 521, is the 
same as Meliosma sirnpticifolia, B 1. 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. 75 


58. Mangifera sylvatica, Exb., Fl. Ind. I, 644. — Prof. M i q u e 1 
has incorrectly identified this species with M. Indica, L., from which 
it is at once distinguished by the very different white flowers, the 
disk, and the acuminated fruits. 

59. Mangifera Eorsfieldii, M i q., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1-2, 632, is the 
same as M. foetida, Lour. 

60. Semecarpus acuminatus, n. sp.—ArboT giabeni- 

ma ; folia cuneato-obovata v. cuneato-oblonga, basi angustata ob- 
tusa v. acuminata, |--1 ped. longa, petiolis glabris 1-2-pollicaribus 
acuminata, integra, subchartacea, utrinque glabra, subtus glauca, 
nervis tenuibus sed acute prominentibus venulisque laxis et con- 
spicuis reticulata ; flores parvi, pedicellis 1-2 lin. longis gracilibus 
glabris, racemulosi, paniculam terminalem ramosam gracilem et 
glaberrimam foliis breviorem formantes ; calycis dentes lati et 
acuti ; petala linea longiora, oblongo-lanceolata, acuminata ; discus 
fulvo-v. flavescente-hispidus ; ovarium glaberrimum ; nux oblique 
oblonga, latior quam alta, podocarpo carnoso ipsius magnitudinis 
miniato suffulta. — Yery frequent in the Forests of Arracan, on 
sandstone, up to 1000 ft. elevation ; also in Chittagong. 

61. Swintonia Griffithii, (Sw. sp., Griff, in Duch. Rev. Bot. 
II, 330 ; Walp. Ann. I, 200 ; Astropetalum sp. 2, Griff. Not. 
Dicot. 412). This species is very different from Astropetalum 
sp. 1, Griff., Not. Dicot. 411, t. 565 f. 2, b-d. The leaves 
are uniformily green and glossy, the pedicels 3 to 5 lin. long, 
petals about 2 lin. long, while the latter, which is identical 
with S. Schwenchii, T. et B., (in Cat. Hort. Bog. 230), has the 
leaves underneath glaucous and opaque, the pedicels only £ to 
1 lin. long and the petals hardly a line long. 

62. Robergia hirsuta, Exb., Fl. Ind. II, 455, (1832), is the same 
as Phlebochiton externum, W all., in Trans. Med. Phys. Soc. Calc. 
(1834) YII-2, 231, now referred to Tapiria hirsuta. 


63. Connarus monccarpus, WA., Prod. I, 143, (non Linn.), is 
not a Connarus, for it has a sessile follicle and glabrous panicles, 
and may most probably be the same as Rourea mntaloides. 

76 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2 

64. Rourea dasyphylla, M i q., Suppl. Fl. Suniatr. 528, is a syno- 
nym of Cnestis platantha, G riff., Not. Dicot. 434, to which also 
C. ignea and foliosa, Planch., belong. 

Cnestis flammea (errore typico flaminea) G r i f f, 1. c. 433, t. 608, 
f. 2, appears to be the fruiting state of C. platantha. 

What is Cnestis ramiflora, Griff., 1. c. 432, from Mergui ? It 
differs from the above in being a low shrub and in having the 
leaflets alternate and acute. 

65. Connarus Diepenhorstii, Miq., Fl. Suniatr. 529, is identical 
with Ttenioehlezna Diepenhorstii ; and Rourea acutipetala, Miq., 1. c. 
528, is the same as Tceniochlcena acutipetala. Both species are very 
different from T. Grijjithii. 

66. Troostwyckia singular is, Miq., Suppl. Fl. Surnatr., 531. As 
a synonym of this I have to note Hemiandrina Bomeensis, H f, 
in Linn. Trans. XXIII, 171, t. 28. Both are surely the same 
plant, and not only nearly allied, as suggested by Prof. M i q u e 1 
in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. Ill, 88. 


67. Ammannia (Rotala) dentelloides, n. sp.—Rev- 

buhe habitu Detitellte repentis virides, prostratse, 2-4 poll, altse, 
glabrae ; folia opposita, obovato-linearia v. linearia, basin versus 
attenuata, breve petiolata, 3-4 lin. longa, obtusa ; flores solitarii, 
sessiles ; calyx fructifer l£ lin. fere longus, viridis, 5-costatus, 
5-fidus, laciniis lanceolatis acuminatis sparse ciliolatis ; petala 
minuta, albida v. parum cyanescentia, eroso-ciliata ? capsula? 
1 nclusa3. — Frequent in Northern Bengal, as in Purneah, Kissen- 
gunge, Titalaya up to the Sikkim Terai, in dried up ponds and 
ricefields, shortly after the rains ; also in Behar, and Arracan in 
Kolodyne valley, Akyab, &c. 

In habit resembling A. pygmcsa, Kurz, which I found 
abundantly all over Bengal from Calcutta up to the base of the 
Himalaya, as also on the Eajmehal hills and in Pegu. The purple 
very differently shaped calyx, and the usually reddish stems and 
leaves of A. pygmcea readily distinguish this from A. dentelloides. 


68. Begonia Malaharica, Exb.. Fl. Ind. Ill, 648, and Casparea 

1870. J On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. 77 

oligocarpa, D C, Prod. XV/1, 276, are one and the same plant ; and, 
therefore, the name Beg. Roxhurghii, D C, 1. c, 398, may be the 
most appropriate one for it. 


69. Tryphera prostrata, B 1., Bydr., 549 ; D C. Prod. XIII-2, 424, 
is Mollugo Gtinus, A.Rich., Fl. Abyss. I, 48. 


70. Brassaiopsis palmata, (Panax palmatum, Roxb., Fl. Ind., II, 
74). This species is identified by Dr. S e e m a n n with B. Mainla, 
but this latter has quite different leaves and the younger parts &c. 
whitish-tomentose, while in B. palmata they are all of a rusty 
colour. The albumen is decidedly even and not ruminate. The 
fruits usually contain only a single, seldom 2 pergamaceous pyrenes. 


71. Lonicera (Lycesteria) gracilis, n. sp. Glaberrima, 

subscandens, ramis gracilibus, teretibus ; folia ovato-lanceolata v. 
oblongo-lanceolata, circ. 3-4 poll, longa, acuminatissima, membra- 
nacea, remote denticulata v. subintegerrima, subtus glauca ; spicse 
breves, axillares, solitarise, gracillimse ; flores distichi, virescente 
albidi, sessiles, in axillis bracteolarum solitarii ; bracteolee 
oblongo-lanceolatse, acuminatae, glaberrima3, ovario multo breviores ; 
corolla 6-7 lin. longa, infundibuliformis ; baccse glabrae, longitudi- 
naliter sulcato-striatae. — Sikkim Himalaya, in the sub-tropical 
forests of the Bunno valley towards the Phalloot, not uncommon. 
I thought at first, I might compare this species with L. glaucophglla, 
H f. and T h., but judging from the description only it differs 
in every respect. It is a Zegcesterm, a genus which, however, 
does not seem to me to differ from Lonicera. 


72. Lobelia dopatrioides, n. sp. Herba erecta, glaber- 
rima, simplex v. parce ramosa, £ ped. alta, caulibus succulentis 
obsolete angulatis ; folia inferiora, saepius suborbicularia v. oblongo 
obtusa et minora, superiora lanceolata v. rari p s oblongo-lanceoluta, 


78 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

in petiolum brevissimum attenuata v. subsessilia, ^-1 poll, longa v. 
breviora, acuminata v. sub acuminata, vulgo grosse serrata, herba- 
cea ; flores conspicui, pulcberrime ccerulei, longe" gracileque 
pedicellati, racemosi ; bracteolse lineares v. subulatae, pedicello 
4-5 lin. longo breviores ; corolla 2-2£ lin. longa : labii inferioris 
trilobi lobi oblongo-lanceolati, obtusiusculi, concavi, medio bigib- 
bosi et ibidem lineis 2 albidis notati ; calycis lacinise lineares, 
tubi corollae longitudine v. paulo breviores : filamenta basi 
puberula, antherse apicibus lanato-penicillatse. — Frequent amongst 
long grass along the borders of the left-bank of Kolodyne river, 
towards Tentroop, Arracan. 

This species is very nearly allied tu L. Griffithii, and may pos- 
sibly turn out to be a luxuriant state of it, but it has true leaves, 
and the flowers are much larger. 


73. Nelsonia tomentosa, Diet r. — This species is variously named 
by different authors. B e n t h a m adopts Rob. Brown's JV. 
campestris, but JY. origanoides, Eoem. et S c h u 1 1., fJusticia 
origanoides, Yhl.) and Justicia nummular iaefolia, Vhl., are both of 
much older date, and as the first name is comparatively the more 
appropriate one, it may with advantage be adopted. There are 
more such species, for which the oldest names have priority before 
others, more recently introduced into botanical literature. From 
the list of Dr. T. Anderson's Indian Acanthaceae I would 
now note the following : — 

Ebermaiera argentea, N E., is the same as E. lanceolata, H a s s k., 
to which also E. trichocephala, M i q., belongs. 

Ebermaiera velutina, N E., is E. incana, Hassk. 

Ifgijrophila spinosa y T. And., is H. longifolia (Barhria longi- 
folia, L.). 

Hemiagr aphis elegans, N E., is Hemiagr aphis Pavala (Ruellia Pavala, 

Strobilanthes scabra, N E., is S.flava {Ruellia Jlava, Eoxb.). 

Daedalacanthus tetragonus,T. And., is D. Salaccensis {Eranthemum 
Salaccense, B 1.). 

Lepidagathis hyalina, N E., is L. incurva, H a m i 1 1. 

18 70. J On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. 79 

Blepharis boerhaaviaefolia, J u s s., is B. Maderaspatensis, Both., 
(Acanthus Maderaspatensis, L.). 

Justicia peploides, T. A n d., is J. Vahlii, R o t h. (1821)=7 1 . qain- 
quangularis, Koen. apud Roxb. (1820). — 

Rhinacanthus communis, N E., is JR. nasuta (Justicia nasuta, L.). 

Graptophyllum hortense, N. E. is G. pictum, N. E., apud Grriff., 
Not. Dicot. 139 (Justicia picta, L.). 

Eranthemum crenulatum, Wall., is E. latifolium (Justicia lati folia, 
Vahl., Symb. II. 4.) 

Eranthemum Andersonii, Hf., Bot. Mag. t. 5771, is i?. Blumei, 

Asy stasia Parishii, T. A n d. is A. Neesiana, N. E. 

74. Acanthus longibracteatUS, n. sp.— Herba annua 
decumbens v. adscendens 1-1^- pedalis, caulibus teretibus petiolis- 
que 1-2-pollicaribus dense puberulis ; folia longe petiolata, ovato- 
v. elliptico-oblonga, utrinque acuta, basi subinsequalia, 5-6 poll, 
longa, membranacea, remote dentata et inter dentes curvatos 
minute setulosa, supra sparse hirsutula, subtus secus nervos sub- 
pubescentia ; spicae terminales, iis A. leucostachyi simillimee, 
rliachide pilosa ; bractese ad spicsc basin breves, lanceolate, acu- 
minate, integrae, florales f poll. longse, obovato-cuneatee, apice 
obtusissimse et spinoso-mucronatse, lateribus utrinque 2-3 dentibus 
spinosis munitse, pubescentes, 3-5-nervi8e ; bracteolee sequilongse, 
anguste lineares v. subulatee, pilosse, integrse ; calyx ultro poll. 
longus, adpresse pubescens et nervosus, segmentum inferius pro- 
funde 2-fidum, lobis lanceolatis acuminatis ; corolla circiter 1^ poll, 
longa, 5-loba, fauce minute adpresseque hispida, extus glabra et 
loborum margines versus subpilosa. — Pegu (Dr. Brandis.) 

75. Phlogacantlms insigniS, n. sp.— Suffrutex glaber 
caulibus subteretibus albis lineis 4 elevatis notatis ; folia cuneato- 
oblonga, breve acuminata, basi cuneata v. attenuata in petiolum 
brevem contracta, integra, membranacea, glaberrima, 7-8 poll, 
longa ; racemi terminales, petiolis circiter duplo v. triplo longiores, 
minute puberuli v. glabri ; bracteolse lineares, acuminate, sub- 
tilissime puberse, pedicellis bilinealibus duplo breviores ; [calyx 
basi paullo sphericus, segmentis linearibus acuminatis coriaceis 
puberis circiter 2 lin. longis ; corolla pollicaris, puberula ; tubo amplo 

80 On some netv or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

calycis longitudine, lobis lanceolatis acutis, superioribus breviori- 
bus, intus fauce et ad filamentorum insertionem tombacino-villo- 
sula ; capsulaa lignosse, lis Ph. thyrsiflorce siniillimse, pollicares, 
circa 10-sperma. — Pegu (Dr. Brandis.) 

76. Justicia flaceida, Kurz. — Planta annua, erecta, glabra, 1-2 
ped. alta, simplex v. parce ramosa ; folia cuneato-oblonga v. 
cuneato-elliptico-oblonga, sessilia cum basi rotundata auriculata, 
acuminata, integra, flaceida, membranacea, lutescente viridia, 7-10 
poll, longa, utrinque minute lineolata ; flores sessiles v. subsessiles, 
interrupte spicati, paniculam puberulam terminalem basi foliolis 2 
breviter petiolatis lanceolatis parvis supportam formantes ; bractea3 
bracteolseque minutye, lineari-subulatre, glanduloso-puberulsG ; 
calycis segmenta linearia, obsolete albido-marginata, minute 
adpresse pubescentia, circ. f-1 lin. longa; corolla pailide lutea v. 
testacea, circ. semipollicaris, extus parce puberula, tubo gracili ; 
labium superius oblongum, subintegrum ; inferius brevius, 3-lobum ; 
antherarum loculi inferiores basi curvato-corniculati ; capsula3 circ. 
semipollicares v. paulo longiores, parte sterili compressa quam fertilis 
oblonga acuta paulo longiore v. sequilonga, 4-sperma3, dum imma- 
turro parce glanduloso-pubescentes. — Pegu (Dr. Brandis). 

Resembling J. vasctilosa, but at once distinguished from it by the 
sessile leaves, &c. 


77. Gymnandra spectabilis. n. sp. Herba 1-2 pedalis 

glaberrima, caulibus crassis teretibus apicem versus foliatis ; folia 
radicalia non vidi ; caulina obovato-oblonga, obtusa v. obtusiuscula, 
sessilia v. basi attenuata semiamplexicaulia, crassa, glaberrima, 
nervis venisque subindistinctis, spicae elongatae, term in ales, dense 
bracteatae ; bracteas obovataB, sessiles, deorsum majores et grada- 
tim foliacese, acutatse, dentata3; tlores sessiles, bracteolis paullo 
longiores v. subsequilongi. — Rare in shady rocky ravines on the 
Phalloot, at about 13000 ft. elevation in Sikkim Himalaya. Evi- 
dently allied to 67. borealis, Pall., but this differs by the shape of 
the corollas, which are more than double the length of the 

78. Gymnandra globosa, n. sp. 9 Pi. VII, Fig. 1. Herb^. 

|U R2.. Jour :Asiat:Soc: Bengal, Vol: XXXIX, Pt: 2,1870. 



' m 


n SK>? ' ^v ■ 








\n4wn<fr* c,lnbosa, r Kx. 2. Sch**c sbcuchyutm. ZoZUnger-l , SteucL . 

1870.] On some neiv or imperfectly known Indian plants. 81 

4-6-pollicares, glaberrimse, caulibus aphyllis teretibus ; folia radi- 
calia longe petiolata, pinnatifida, segmentis lineari-oblongis obtusis, 
carnosula, glauco-viridia ; spicae terminales, abbreviate, globosa?, 
bracteata? ; bractea? ovato-oblonga?, f usque poll, fere longa?, 
obtusa?, nervosa?, chartacea? ; flores... ; eapsula? sessiles, 2-lin. 
longa?. — Western Tibet, Therichan Pass, at 15 to 16000 ft. eleva- 
tion, amongst slaty roeks, &c. (Eevd. Heyde.) 

This is a very distinct species, with large flowerheads,. in foliage 
resembling some of the fleshy-leaved species of Corydalis. Fig. 1 
represent the plant in natural size ; la, capsule, natural size ; lb, 
the same somewhat magnified. 


79. Gmelina Systrix, S c h u 1 1.* — Frutex scandens ? ramulis 
subangulatis, junioribus hispido-pubescentibus, ramulis brevibus 
oppositis axillaribus foliatis v. aphyllis saapius spinescentibus 
armatus, folia elliptico-oblonga, obtusiuscula, petiolis fulvo-pubes- 
centibus glabrescentibus gracilibus circ. 3-4 lin. longis suffulta, 
1^-2 poll, longa, glabra, chartacea, supra lucida nervisque utrin- 
que prominentibus per cur sa, subtus glauca ; spica? strobilina? in 
ramis rarnulisque terminales, breviuscula? ; bractea? magna?, lato- 
ovata?, pollicem longa? v. longiores, aeutiusculse, albida? ? venu- 
losse, plerumque 5 -nerves ; flores conspicui, lutei, sessiles ; corolla 
cum tubo pollic. circiter longa ; tubus gracilis ; limbi 5-partiti 
labium oblongo-lanceolatum, valde productum, acutum ; calyx sparse 
adpresse pubescens, truncato 5-dentatus. — Siam, Bangkok, in gar- 
dens. (Teysmannin Hb. Bogor. No. 5946.) 


so. Primula rotundifolia, W a 1 1., Fi. ind. II, 1 8.— Herba 

perennis, prolibus magnis dense albo-farinoso-tomentosis, nunc 5-6 
pollicaris, nunc 1-1|- pedalis ; folia cordato-rotundata v. late ovato- 
cordata, in speciminibus majoribus 3-3£ poll, longa et lata, obtusa, 
grosse dentata, dentibus nervis excurrentibus mucronatis, mem- 

* This is the name which I found attached to this plant somewhere in tho 
Library of the Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, but I am unable, at present, to 
give a reference to the work in which it occurred. 

82 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2 

branacea, supra glabra, subtus (praesertim juniora) dense sulfureo- 
farinacea ; petioli 3-4 v. 6-9 poll, longa, puberuli, juniores farinosi ; 
scapus pennse scriptoria crassitudinis, puberulus, usque pedalis et 
altior, nonnunquam etiam 5-6 poll, tantum alius ; flores verticillati ; 
involucri pliylla lineares pedicellis fructiferis circ. pollicaribus pube- 
rulis multoties breviora ; calyx usque ad basin fere profunde 5- 
partitus, laciniis oblongo-lanceolatis, aeutiusculis, uni-nerviis, sul- 
fureo-farinosis ; corollae hypocraterimorpha3 lobi ovati obtusi ; 
capsulse calyce fere duplo longiores. — Sikkim-Hinialaya, under 
shady rocks at the summit of Phalloot, at about 13500 ft. elevation, 
frequent in fertile black soil. Found only fruits in October. 

It is most probable that this species will range with Primula 
prolifera, Wall., (P. imper talis, Jungh.) and their allies but not 
in the section Aleuritia, where C h o i s y has placed it. 


81. LinOStoma Siamense, n. sp — Frutex scandens ? no- 
vellis tomentellis ; folia oblonga v. ovali-oblonga, 4-5 -poll, longa, 
breve petiolata, petiolis crassis tomentellis, basi acuta v. acutiuscula, 
apice obtusa v. raro subemarginata, mucronulata, integra, coriacea, 
supra glabra, v. in nervis parce tomentella, subtus fulvo-tomen- 
tella, nervis lateralibus parallelis confertiusculis ; flores... ; pani- 
culee laxse, fulvo-tomentella3, terminales ; folia floralia opposita v. 
subopposita, rarius alterna, chartacea, elliptico-lanceolata, 1-1£- 
poll. longa, petiolis brevissimis tomentellis fulta, utrinque praesertim 
in costa nervisque utrinque prominentibus puberula, obtusa, basi 
rotundata ; drupee ovales, pedunculis sursum incrassatis tomen- 
tellis ; nigrescentes, parce adpresse setosae, calyce chartaceo extus 
tomentello glabrescente incluste et perigonii laciniis dense fulvo- 
tomentosis coronataB. — Siam, Bookit Kathay near Kanburi. Biikit? 
(Teysmann in Herb. Bog. 5986.) 

This species is nearly allied to Lasiosiphon scandens, which latter 
cannot, however, be retained in that genus, differing very con- 
spicuously already in general habit. It forms, along with the above 
species, the genus Linostoma, a very natural group, and easily re- 
cognised at the first aspect by the two discoloured floral leaves 
above the base of the long slender peduncles. Prof. M i q u e 1 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly Jcnoivn Indian plants. 83 

in his Supplement to the flora of Netherlands India (Flora of 
Sumatra) has established a new genus of Thymeleace^, under 
the name of Psilcea. I have before me authentic specimens of 
the type species and lately, when in Burma, I met the same shrub 
growing abundantly in the pine forests of the Karen hills at eleva- 
tions from 3 to 4,000 ft. I cannot see how the species should differ 
from Linostoma pauciflorum, Gr r i f f. 

The following is a conspectus of the species of Linostoma, Wall., 
hitherto known to me. 

Subg. 1. Nectandra (Nectandra, Eoxb., Psilma, Miq.). Glab- 
rous, erect shrubs ; scales 10. 

1. L. pauciflorurn, Gr r i f f., {Psilcea Dalbergioides, M i q., Suppl. FL 
v. Sumatr. 355). — Leaves small, obovate, obtuse with a mucro. 
(Sumatra, Singapore and Karen hills in Burma). 

2 L. deeandrum, W a 1 1. — Leaves rather large, ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate. (Chittagong and Sylhet). 

Subg. 2. Linostoma. Tomentose, scandent shrubs ; scales 5, 2-cleft. 

3. L. scandens {Lasiosiplion scandens, E n dl.). Floral leaves coria- 
ceous, petioles inserted with a broad base to a knob on the pedun- 
cle, and reflexed. (Malacca and Burma). 

The floral leaves differ considerably from those of the following 
species, although the general habitus sufficiently agrees in both. 
They are much longer (about 2 inches long,) in a dried state, 
brownish (not whitish or straw-coloured), rigid, the veins and net- 
van ation very glossy above, opaque underneath. 

4. L. Siamense, Kurz. — Floral leaves thin, chartaceous, the 
petioles equal and not in the least thickened into a knob at the in- 
sertion. (Siam). 


82. Globba Arracanensis, n. sp.— Herba perennis 1-2 
pedalis, scapis foliatis ; folia lato-lanceolata, brevissime petiolata, 
5-9 pollc longa, glabra, subtus in nervo basin versus nonnunquam 
parce pilosa ; vaginae glabrae, sulcatse, lingula lato-producta trun- 
cate laevi ; panicula terniinalis, vulgo recurva, glabra, bracteis 
Ilato-ovalibus obtusis lilacinis leevibus usque 6 lineas longis munita, 
racemuli breviuscule pedunculati, bracteolis bracteis conformibus 
magnis involucrati ; corollae tubus brevis, albidus, lobi lilacini, 

84 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

labium bifidum, nunc intense aurantiacum, nunc (casu ?) latere altero 
lilacinum, altero aurantiacum, lobulis obovato-oblongis obtusis ; 
filamentum arcuato-incurvum, longum, lilacinum, nudum ; anther a 
elliptico-oblonga, non marginata, connectivo supra antheram lobuli- 
formi producto ; capsulae ovatse, calyce amplo 3-lobulato coronatae, 
lseves ; semina minuta, nigra, minute pubescentia, arillo basi 
parvo albo lacero instructa. — Very common in the Mixed Forests of 
the low sandstone hills of Arracan, in Akyab District. I found the 
flowers and fruits in October, 1869. 

This species so much resembles at the first aspect Globba spathu- 
lata, R x b., (Mantisia spathulata, S c h u 1 1.), that it might easily 
be taken for it ; but it has the panicles terminal on the leafy 
scapes, and no trace of those long subulate (not spatulate, as errone- 
ously described by Roxburgh) appendages on both sides of the 
filamentum, and a different anther. 


83. Hypoxis* orchioides, K ur z, in Mi q. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., 
IV, 177. — To this species I refer again Franquevillea major, Z o 1 1., as 
a synonym, although Prof. M i q u e 1 suggests that it rather belongs 
to H. aurea, Lour., than to the former species. My identification is 
based upon authentic specimens, and Prof. M i q u e 1 evidently 
mistakes the long slender tube of the perianth for a pedicel. 


84. Didymoplexis pallens, G- r i f f. — I have suggested in Dr. See- 
m a n n ' s Journal of Botany, 1866, p. 40, that this species may be 
identical either with Gastrodia Javanica or Hasseltii. I had since 
an opportunity of seeing B 1 u m e ' s Java Orchidece, from which is 
appears that none of them is identical, but that B 1 u m e himself has 
adopted Wight's Apleetrum as a distinct genus which, however, 
must give way to the older name of Griffith. 


85. Anosporum cephalotes fCyperus cephalotes, Vhl., Enuni., II, 
311). — To this belong Cyperus mo7iocephalus, Eoxb., Fl. Ind. I, 193 ; 

* Or, as some wish to write, Hypoxys. 

1870.] On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. 85 

Wall. Cat. S441.=Anosporum monocephalum,'N'E., in Linn. IX, 
287 ; Wight. Oontr., 92 etc. ; Boeck. inBot. Ztg. 1869, 23 etc., 
and Trentepohlia bifoliata, Boeck., inBot. Ztg., 1858, 249. — The 
genus Anosporum appears to be a good one, representing the genus 
Gy perns amongst Hypolytre^b. 

How Cyperuspallidus, Heyne (=C canescens, Yhl.) is referable 
to the genus Anosporum, as proposed by B o e c k e 1 e r, is by no 
means clear. 

86. Choricarpha aphylla, Boeck., in Flora, 1858, 20, is another 
ofBoeckeler's supposed novelties, and is to be referred to 
Lepironia mucronata, E. B r. 

87. Scirpodendron, Zip p. — I have lately obtained more fruc- 
tificating specimens of this genus, from which it is clear that also in 
the Javanese plant the drupes are 6 to 12 sulcate, so that there can 
be no doubt ofThwaites' Pandanophyllum costatum being really 
identical with Zippelius' plant, (See Journ. As. Soc. B. 
XXXYIII, 85). 

88. Fimbristylis cylindrocarpa. Wall., in K t h. Enum. II. 
222. — -To this belong Fimbr. abjiciens, Steud., F. Arnottii, 
(Thwait., Enum.) and F. schamoides, var. fi. monostachya, N. E., 
in W i g h t. Contrib. 97, as well as the superfluous genus Mis- 
chospora efoliata, Boeck., in Flora 1860, 113. 


89. Aneilema ochraceum, D al z. var. Griffithii {A. crocea, Griff. 
Not. Monocot. 235), — planta variabilis, nunc vix pollicaris et uni- 
flora, nunc 5-7 pollicaris florumque fasciculis axillaribus termin- 
alibusque, basi ramosa et procumbens ; caules crassi, glabri ; 
vagina supra ciliata ; folia oblongo-lanceolata v. oblonga, acuta ; 
flores nunc 3, nunc 1 lin. tantum in diametro, ochracei ; sepala 
et pedicelli dense puberuli ; petala orbiculari-oblonga, j-'l£ lin. 
longa, ochracea, in sicco cyanea ; filamenta stricta, fertilium 3 
alternantia longiora ; stylus striatus, violaceus ; capsula 3-quetra, 
sepalorum longitudine ; semina biserialia, perforata, pallida. — Ar- 
racan, very frequent on open grassy pastures round Akyab and 
in the Koladyne valley. Flowers and fruits in October. Also in 
pnasserim (Griff.)— 


86 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

I do not venture to separate this variety from Dalzell's A. 
ochraceum specifically, for there are no other differences except the 
pubescence of the sepals and pedicels. Some doubt may be raised 
against the identity of an Arracan with a Concan species, as the 
plant has not yet been found in intermediate stations, but I met 
with several other Concan plants in Arracan, amongst them also 
Smithia diclwtoma, D al z. 


90. Leptocliloa urceolata, R. B r. — A synonym of this species is 
JVastus humilis, Hass k., known only by name. Dr. Hasskarl 
had only sterile plants before him, when he proposed the name, and 
probably misled by the native name, Tjangkorreh diook, (Linoch- 
loa Tjangkorreh being called Tjangkorreh gede by the Javanese) 
brought his plant in connection with bamboos. I have seen the 
authentic growing specimens in the Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg. 

91. Bamhusa auriculata, Kur z,* in Cat. Bot. Gar. Calc. 79. — 
This species has been identified by Col. Muiiro with the common 
and well-known B. vulgaris, Wend 1., (B. T/iouarsii, K t h.). I do 
not know what may have been sent from the Botanic Gardens, Cal- 
cutta, under that name, but I feel certain that my plant has no- 
thing to do with that bamboo, except that both belong to the sec- 
tion Iscliurocldoa. I add here the diagnose from my manuscript 
on Indian Bambusace^. 

B. auriculata ; Arborea ; turionum vaginae virides, lateribus 
adpresse atrofusco-setosse, ore minute auriculato kevissinise et 
politse ; folia mediocriter petiolata, subtus scabrescentia ; vagiua3 
plus minusve sericantes, ore auriculo nudo polito intense viridi 
terminate, flores etc. incognita. Burma, Assam, etc. 

92. Bamhusa Rumpliiana (LeJeha Rumpliiana, Kurz, in Cat. 
Bogor. 1866, 20, B.lineata, Munro; B. Amahussana, Ldl., B. 
a^Ldl.; B.picta, Ldl.; B. hrava, Ldl.). Fruticosa, culm is 
simpliciter ramosis ; turionum vaginae patenter setosse, ore auri- 
culato rigide firabriatae ; folia vulgo largissima, spurie semiam- 

* The following remarks on Indian Bambusacece are for the present restricted 
to a few species only, particularly those in connection with which my name 
has been mentioned by Col. Munro in his Monograph of that tribe of 


1.870.] On some netv or imperfectly known Indian plants. 87 

plexicaulia, subsessilia ; foliorum vaginae ore longe rigideque fim- 
briatae ; spiculae saepe tortuoso-elongatae, sessiles v. pedicellatae ; 
florum hermaphroditorum valvula interior in angulis ciliata ; 
antherae luteae ; stigmata alba, purpureo-pilosa. (Diagn. in MS. 
Kurz). This is a very remarkable species which, will require a 
separate section being established for it. 

Sect. Leleba : Spiculae densiflorae, carinato-compressae, valvulae 
sursum deorsuinque breviores, flosculus summus hermaphroditus ; 
rhachillae omnes abbreviatae, persistentes ; lodiculae nullae ; an- 
therae apiculatae.— Grainen fruticosum, habitu valde peculiari ab 
omnibus Bambusis Indicis valde discrepans, foliisque maximis gau- 
dens ; turionum vaginae lamina membranacea discreta. (Zeleba 
[gen.] Eumph. et T eysmann).I had opportunity to examine all 
the Rumphian varieties without exception, some of which, as L. 
lineata and L. picta would form one of the most charming introduc- 
tions for the European hot-houses, as they have red, green and 
white striped stems, or have them beautifully mottled with the same 
colour e. 

93. Gigantochloa atter, K u r z. — Bambusa atter, HassL- The 
genus Gigantochloa cannot be retained, as I will shew on some future 
occasion. Col. Munro writes (in Linn. Trans., XXVI, 125), 
'■' Kurz, in his notes, identifies this species (Gig. atter) with B. 
aspera and B. Bitung, R o e m. et S c h u 1 1., but the latter &c." I do 
not understand this interpretation in which I am said to have iden- 
tified 2 such species, as those alluded to, which differ toto coelo ! 
As far as I am aware I have identified B. aspera with B. Bitung, 
but surely not those two with B. atter. The one is (sententia 
Munroana) a Bendrocalamus, the other a Gigantochloa. I give here 
the diagnosis from my MS. — 

B. aspera, Roem. et S c h u 1 1. Arborea, culmis canescente- 
tomentosis ad nodos valde incrassatos radicoso-annulatis ; turionum 
vaginae adpresse canescente setosse, ore auriculato rigide fimbriatae ; 
lingula fisso-fimbriata ; folia margine scabra ; vaginae foliorum 
albido-hispidae, ore parum producto hispido-fimbriatae ; valvula 
interior in angulis marginibusque albo-ciliata ; antherae luteae ; 
caryopsis mucronulata. — Indian Archipelago, from the Moluccas 
to Singapore. 

88 On some neu) or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

94. Oxytenanthera nigro-ciliata, M u u r o. — ki least 3 species are 
united by Col. Munro, of which perhaps only the Javanese speci- 
mens of Zollinger (sine mimero) really belong to B.nigro- 
ciliata, B ii s e. My Bambusa Andamanica also seems to have been 
merged into the same suite of species. I give, therefore, diagnoses 
of the true B. nigrociliata, B ii s e, and B . Andamanica, retaining 
a further elucidation of the various species for my revision of 
Indian b ambus. 

Bambusa (Oxytenanthera) nigro-ciliata, B ii s e. Arborea ; tu- 
rionum vaginae adpresse fusco-setosse, ore decurrenti-auri- 
culato flmbriatse ; lamina imperfecta patens ; folia subtus pu- 
bescentia, marginibus scabra ; vaginae adpresse fusco-setosae, 
ore minute auriculato rigide fhnbriatae ; spiculse 1-1£ poll, 
longse, curvatae, valvulis marginibus rigide fusco-ciliatis ; valvula 
interior in angulis a medio fulvescente v. albido-ciliata ; stigmata 
purpurea. — A large species, resembling B. atter so much that it 
is difficult to distinguish it, when out of flower, or destitute of 
young shoots. 

Bambusa Andamanica, K u r z, in And. Report. — Arborescens ; 
turionum vaginae adpresse atrofusco-setosae, ore minute auriculato 
nudae, aurieulis intense viridibus politis ; folia glabra, marginibus 
scabriuscula ; spicule pollicares, strictiusculae ; valvulis margini- 
bus rigide atrofusco-ciliatis ; valvula interior in angulis parce pilo- 
sula ; antherae purpureae ; stigmata alba. 

95. Melocanna gracilis, K u r z, apud Munro, is Schizostachyum 
chilianthum, {Chloothamnus chilianthus, B ii s e). The difference 
between Melocanna and Schizostachyum rests entirely in the fruit, 
and not in the absence of the upper palea, as suggested by Col. 

96. Melocanna Zollingeri, Kurz, = Schizostachyum Zollingeri, 
S t e u d. — Here is another mixture of at least 3, if not 4 well 
marked species. Had Col. Munro had an opportunity of observ- 
ing the growing plants, he would never have thought of uniting 
them. "What would the Javanese say, if they were told, that their 
bambu iratten, mayang, sirit kuda and bulu were all the same ? 

Schizostachyum Zollingeri, S t e u d., PI. VII, Fig. 2. Arborea, 
culmis 2-poll. crassis; turionum vaginas adpresse-setosee, ore 

S -KU R z._ Jcmr;Asiat;Soc: 

^l.Vol:XXXlX,Pt.. 2 , 1870 . 



1- Schoxos 

<-*—*-*<*«**».*, r«, w**^ 


1870.] On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. 89 

large aiiriculato longissime fimbriate ; lamina imperfecta erecta, 
ventricosa; foliorum vaginae glabrae, ore auriculato longissime 
(6-80 lin.) fimbriate ; spiculae 3-4 lineares, flosculo penultimo 
hermaphrodito ; valvula exterior n. berm. marginibus laevis ; 
lodiculae nullae ; antberse virescentes ; stigmata alba. 

Schizostachyum brachycladum, Kurz, PI. VI, Fig. 2. {Melocanna 
brachyclada, Kurz, in Cat. Bog. 1866, 20 ; M. Zollingeri j3. brachy- 
clada, Munro, 1. c. 134, — certissime non Kur z). — Arborea, culmis 
bracb. hum. crassis ; turionum vaginae adpresse setosae, ore minute 
auriculato fimbriatse, lamina imperfecta ventricosa ; foliorum vagi- 
nae albido v. fulvescente setulosae, ore auriculato longiuscule (4-6 
lin.) firnbriatae ; spiculae 4-6 lin. longae, flosculis duobus sum- 
mis bermapbroditis ; valvula exterior marginibus ciliata ; lodiculae 
ciliatae ; antberse purpureae, dein lutescentes nigro-inarginatae ; 
stigmata alba. — A bambii of a very peculiar babitus, growing to a 
beigbt of from 30 to 40 ft., witb tbe lateral brancbings very sbort 
and meagre, hardly 3-3^ ft. long. 

Schizostachyum longispiculatum, Kurz, PI. VI, Fig. 1 . (Melocanna 
longespiculata, Kurz, in Oat. Hort. Bog. 1866, 20 ; M. Zollingeri, y 
longespiculata, Munro, 1. c. 134, baud Kur z). — Fruticosa, culmis 
digit, crassis ; turionum vaginae adpresse albido-setulosoe, ore auri- 
culato setoso fiinbriatae ; foliorum vaginae glabrae, ore auriculato 
rigide-fimbriatae ; spiculae ultra pollicares, flosculo penultimo 
bermapbrodito ; valvula exterior fl. bermapb. marginibus lsevis ; 
lodiculae nullae ; antberae lutescente-virides ; stigmata purpurea. 
— An elegant dense sbrub, witb very long usually semiscandent 
slender stems. 

[PL VI, Figs. 1 and 2, sbew tbe upper parts of tbe sbeatbes of 
tbe young sboots of Schizostachyum longispiculatum and of Sch. bra- 
chycladum respectively — (botb natural size). Tbe leaf-sbeatbes 
above tbe sboots belong to tbe figures of tbe sbeatbes just below 
tbem. — PI. VII, Fig. 2, is tbe upper part of tbe sbeatbes of Sch. 

97. Melocanna? Kurzii, Munro, I.e. (Bomb, schizostacltyoides, 
Kurz, in And. Rej)OTt)=Teinostachyum schizostachyoides, K u r z, a 
species nearly allied to T. attenuatum, M u n r o. 

90 On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. [No. 2, 

98. Beesha elegantissima, Kurz, apud Munro, 1. c, 146= 
Schizostachyum eleyantissimum, Kurz. 


99. Sah inia vert ieillata, Eoxb., in McClelland Calc. Journ. 
of N. History, IV, 469, and S. elegans, Hassk., are both identical 
with Salvinia natans, Hoffm. 

100. Marsilea erosa, "Willd., a plant which grows abundantly 
in Bengal in dried-up rice fields &c, is a state of growth (not only 
a variety) of M. quadrifoliolata, L. Prof. Al. Braun attempted to 
distinguish amongst many other supposed species also these 2, 
considering among others as a distinctive character the form of the 
pedicels, whether they were more or less grown together, &c. I 
have observed that all my specimens of M. erosa, however small 
plants they were, with the leaflets very coarsely toothed, invariably 
turned within 3 or 4 weeks into robust and large specimens of 31. 
quad rifol lata, with quite entire leaflets, whenever put in deep 


101. Hemionitis Zollinger!, Kurz, in Tydsch. v. Ned. Ind. deal 
XXV, 400 — H. fronde membranacea dispari ; sterili ovali-oblonga, 
obtusiuscula, basi cordata, attenuata, repanda ; fertili subhyalina, 
stipitata lineari-lanceolata, undulata. — Hab. in Java, probabiliter e 
Banjuwangi in hort. Bogor. attulit Zollinger. — Caudex 
obliquus, crassus, radiculis crebris firmis obsitus. Frons dispar ; 
frondes steriles rosulatse, ovali-oblonga3 v. oblongae, obtusiuscula), 
basi quidquam attenuate cordata3 et crispataa, membranacea), 
laete virides ; stipites breves, paleis brunneis lineari-lanceolatis 
dense vestiti. Frons fertilis linearis v. lineari-lanceolata, acumina- 
ta, basi decurrente, stipitata, undulata, 2 poll, longa, 3-4 lin. lata, 
subhyalino-herbacea, lutescente-viridis ; stipes pollicaris, herbaeeus, 
pennse corvinaB crassitie paleis brunneis secedentibus adspersus. 
Sori subcontinui. (Kurz, 1. c. 400.) 

Mr. John Scott, in his list of higher cryptogams cultivated in 
the Bot. Gardens, Calcutta, quotes this species as an Acrostichum, 
sect. Gymnopteris, but a mere superficial examination of the plant 


Jour:Asiat-Soc:Be n gal,VcLXXXlXPt:H 



J?emz<rrwti*s Z oiling eri y Kurz 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. 91 

shews that it cannot be referred to that genus. It is, as a species, 
evidently allied to H. lanceolata, H o o k. 

[PI. V, Hemionitis Zollinger i, Kurz, Fig. 1, whole plant, 
natural size ; ; fig. la, a portion of the sterile frond, fig. 2 b, sl por- 
tion of the fruit-bearing under surface of the fertile frond, — the 
sori are removed. The 2 latter figures magnified.] 


102. Selaginella imbricatum (ought to be imbricata, as is also the 
case with S. semicordatum, aristatum, Sfc.), J. Scott, in the list of 
higher Crypt., 62, — is probably S. tenella, Spring. The var. a. 
nor male (loc. cit.) is the same as 8. Belangeri, Spring, and the 
var. /?. erectum (ibiden) differs in no way from S. Junghuhniana, 

A List of Birds obtained in the Khasi and North Cachar 
Hills, by Major Godwin-Austen, F. E. G-. S., Deputy 
Sujpdt. Topographical Survey of India. 

[Received 1st January, read 5th January, 1870.] 

The following list of Birds obtained in the Khasi Hill Eanges 
is here given, that it may prove useful to Indian Ornithologists, 
interested in the range and distribution of different species ; for it 
adds, as might be expected, very little to our previous knowledge 
of the Birds of India in general, thanks to the researches of B 1 y t h, 
J e r d o n and others. In the N. Cachar Hills, we have arrived 
at the confines of a Natural Province, the Indo-Chinese, where, 
, it may be expected, a great commingling of purely Indian, Hima- 
layan and Chinese forms takes place ; with many it is probably near 
the extreme western limit of the one, and the extreme eastern of 
the other. In the Burrail range, — so little known to us, and almost 
unknown to the Naturalist, — new species it was thought might be 
found, and this hope led me to enter on a pursuit I had never be- 
fore taken up. In possession of Dr. T. C. Jerdon's volumes 
on the Birds of India, this pursuit soon became one of intense 
interest, which relieved the monotony of the hours passed buried 

92 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. [No. 2, 

in the forests of that range, and the miles a surveyor daily march- 
es through them. To Dr. J e r d o n I owe many a pleasant hour, 
and much valuable information, that I should never have otherwise 
known, and I only trust that, as in my own case, the " Birds of 
India" may lead others in the same way, to first take an interest 
in, and then collect specimens in the regions they may visit ; only 
thus can we appreciate the labours of the many Naturalists who 
have worked before us. 

I have followed Dr. J e r d o n ' s classification throughout, and 
those birds not included in his purely continental Indian fauna, 
have been placed under the numbers of their nearest allies. In 
most cases, these birds are mentioned in the above work. I 
must here acknowledge the very great aid I have received from 
Dr. J e r d o n, who has named many doubtful species, and some 
that I had been unable to identify. 

All measurements taken from the fresh bird have been given, 
with differences of colour &c. noted. In the case of rare birds, a 
description has been added, for the information of those who may not 
be in possession of original Ornithological works. The present list 
contains 207 birds, and I hope to add hereafter, from time to time 
to it, and thus complete the birds of these Eastern Hills. Should 
circumstances prevent the carrying out of my present intention, 
such as the removal of the Survey to some other part of India, I 
only hope that some one else may take up the work and finish the 


Sub.-Fam, 'Falcokidje. 

17. Tinnunculus alaudariiis, B r i s s. 
Sub.-Fam. Accipiteinjs. 

22. Astur (Lophospiza) trivirgatus, Tern. 

A fine live specimen of this bird caught by the Nagas of Asalu 
was brought to me and was kept some time in confinement. The 
diurnal families of this order are not by any means numerous in tha 
North Cachar Hills, and I do not remember ever having seen the 
common kite. A large Eagle was occasionally seen near the high- 
er peaks of the Burrail, but never ventured within shot. 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. 93 

Sub.-Fam. Aquiline. 
34. Limnaetus niveus, Tern. 
39. Spilornis cheela, Daud. 

Sub.-Fam. Milvin^e. 

55. JTaliastur Indus, Bodd. 

Feet yellow, irides dull yellow, extent 47 inches. 

56. Milvus Govinda, S y k e s. 

This bird is not a visitant to Cherra, until rains begin to cease, 
early in September. 

58. JBaza lophotes, Cur. 

Only one specimen of this handsome bird was seen and shot at 
the head of the Jhiri, the country being all dense forest for miles. 
Length 14 inches; extent 30"; wing 9f " ; tail 5£" ; plume 2|"; 
tarsus \" ; spread of foot 2f-" ; irides inner circle madder brown 
shading off into pink grey. Primaries 3rd and 4th the longest. 
Family, Strigid^e. 

61. Strix Candida, T i c k e 1 1. 

Obtained on the border of the grass country near the Kopili river. 

75. Fphialtes Lempigi, H o r s f . 

Dr. J e r d o n, who saw this bird, pronounced it to be E. Lempigi, 
resembling the Malabar variety ; I had set it down as pennatus var. 
It certainly is a very rufous type of the former named species, and 
as these birds differ so much in plumage and size from various locali- 
ties, I give a description taken down before the bird was skinned. 

Above, chesnut rufous, feathers on top of head black shafted, bar- 
red black and dusky rufous on back, scapulars edged white on outer 
web with a subterminal black spot. Primaries distinctly barred 
with white and rufous, having narrow black lines bordering the 
white bars of the outer web, inner webs greyish black, breast a 
paler, but rich, tint of rufous, indistinctly spotted with black, — per- 
haps streaked would be most correct ; more white on belly, the under 
tail coverts being pure white ; legs rufous to end of tarsus, tail 
barred dusky on outer feathers, with fine black on the two central. 
Buff brown, feathers barred black and tipped brown. Irides light 
golden yellow, bill pale yellow, legs almost white or palish flesh 
colour. Length about 8 inches ; extent 18£'' ; wing 5 -8"; tail 3 J" ; 
tarsus 1-3". 


94 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sf-c. [No. 2, 

76. Athene firama, Tern. 

79. Athene cuculoides, Vigors. 


Fam. Hirtjndinid.e. 

82. Sir undo rustica, L. 

Breeding at Asalu in April in the high roofs of the Naga houses. 
The specimens shot were small, only 1 2 inches in extent. Jerdon 
mentions this bird as arriving early in July in Upper Burma ; 
they thus probably breed along the whole line of high hills from 
the Burrail and Patkoi ranges into North Burma etc. 

102a. Cypselus tectorum, Jerdon, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
Feb., 1870, p. 61. Differs from C. batassiensis, Gray, in being far 
darker with a shorter tail, the feet and claws of the latter species 
being also much stronger and larger. Dr. Jerdon, to whom I 
gave a specimen of this bird, pronounced it at once a different 

This little Swift was numerous in the Naga villages around 
Asalu in March and April, and was then breeding in the roofs 
of the houses ; a nest that I obtained was attached to the up- 
per surface of a kind of palm leaf, in the thatch of a house ; it is 
a neat very shallow construction of a fluffy grass seed, stuck to- 
gether with saliva, a feather or two intermingled with the grass. 
The eggs were two in number, pure white, resting against the 
lower side of the nest, which is just of sufficient depth to retain 
them, so that the parent bird can hardly be said to sit on her eggs 
in the nest, but rather hangs on to it, in apparently a most uncom- 
fortable position, and how the young when hatched remain with 
safety in the nest, it is difficult to understand, unless the power of 
hanging on by the claws is thus early developed. The nest is about 
2£ inches in diameter. 

On the Peak of Hengdon at the head of the Jhiri river, at 
an elevation of 7000 feet, the ridge on its west face being almost 
perpendicular for several 100 feet, a very large Swift was com- 
mon, flying with great velocity, it may have been Acanthylis cauda- 
cuta, Lath., but I was unable to bring one down ; they shot past 
like lightning and often well within shot. 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi kills Sfc. 95 

Family, Trogontdje. 

116. Harpactes Hodgsoni, Gould. 
Family, Meropld^e. 

117. Merops viridis, Lin., extent 11 J inches. 
Family, Coraciad.e. 

124. Coracias affinis, McClelland. 

Family, Halcyonid^e. 
127. Halcyon Gurial, Pearson. 
134. Alcedo bengalensis, G m e 1 i n. 

Not often seen in the higher hills, I obtained one at the head of 
the Jhiri. A large species was noticed once or twice in North 

136. Ceryle rudis, Linn. 

Family, Eurylaimid^e. 

138. Psarisomus DalliousicB, Jameson. 

This bird was common at the head of the Jhiri river, 20 or so 
together in the heavy jungle, and by no means shy. It is a smaller 
bird than the size given in Jerdon, though agreeing precisely in plu- 
mage ; it is a truly beautiful bird. Length 10 inches ; tail 4"; wing 
4"; tarsus 1*2"; bill at front 0*65", breadth 0*70", height 0'35". 

139. Serilophus rubropygia, Hodgson. 

I obtained two specimens of this bird, one having a fine collar of 
shining white. 

Family, Bucerotidje. 

146. Aceros nipalensis, Hodg. 

Whole body black with glossy green tinge on back and wings, 
only the tips of the four first primaries and end of tail, for 6 inches, 
white. Head well covered with long hairy black feathers, drooping 
backward down the neck, feathers above the tarsus, very long and 
slightly tinged with rufous ; nacked space on throat vermilion, 
heart-shaped, bounded on throat by a narrow grey black band, 
confined to the base of the lower mandible and side of neck ; 
around the eye blue, under eyelid pink ; eyelashes well developed ; 
beak curved and very pointed, no casque ; colors pale waxy yellow 
with two well marked black bars at base of upper mandible, the 
lower has a pale soiled appearance for about 1£ inches. 

Length 3 feet 6 inches ; wing 16 inches ; tail 1 foot 5 inches. 

96 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. [No. 2, 

Length of bill to gape 6| inches, girth 7£" ; foot from fore claw 
to hind claw 4£" ; tarsus 2f". 

146a. Rhyticeros plicatus, Latham. 

The whole of the head, neck, back, breast, and wing black, with 
a green sheen. Head finely crested with a j.lume of black hairy 
feathers, tail all white. The naked space on the throat -pole green 
and blue with an indigo band ; orbital skin dull red ; mandible pale 
waxy buff, casque small, irides pale brown, feet yellow, claws black, 
strong. Length 3 feet 2 inches ; extent 5 feet 2 inches ; wings 18£" 
inches ; tail 1", spread of foot including claws 5 inches ; mandi- 
ble 6£", its girth at base 8", depth 3"; this bird was shot at Garilo 
near Asalti where the hornbills were particularly numerous in 
January and February ; in May very few were to be seen. The 
Nagas are very clever bird-snarers and brought into camp great 
numbers of birds for sale, among them a few Hornbills, of other 
birds Barbets were particularly numerous. 

1465. Aceros ?, sp. indet. Yellow throated Black HornbiU. 
Whole of body and wings black with a tinge of blue ; neck, 
extending from over the eyes, and tail pure white. From the 
base of the upper mandible a line of reddish brown feathers 
commence, and widening and lengthening these cover the whole 
of the back, part of the head and neck, merging into a black 
line as it approaches the back. Orbital skin pink, eyelashes 
long, irides a bright red, like red seab'ng wax ; naked part of 
throat bright yellow ; casque small with seven indistinct ridges 
pale coloured — separated by black bars, base of both mandibles 
barred in same manner, the bars being narrow ; this thickening 
at base of the bill extends for 2^ to 3 inches. General colour of bill 
greenish white. Length 3 feet 9 inches, expanse 5 feet 4 inches ; tail 
1 foot 1 inch ; wing 19 inches ; bill to gape 9 inches ; depth 3§", 
casque 3£" 

146c. Anorhinus galeritus, T e m m. (Je r d o n B. of I, p. 252). 

A. carinatus, B 1 y t h, is the young of this species. 

The whole of the upper parts of a pale slaty grey, having in 

certain lights a greenish tinge, throat and sides of neck white, 

dull rufous on the breast and belly, thighs and under tail coverts. 

Primaries greenish black, tipped and barred white, a white spot 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. 97 

formed by the tip of the outer wing coverts, the base of primaries 
being also of this colour ; secondaries edged whitish, tail tipped 
white, centre feathers same colour as the back. Bill yellowish white. 
Length about 31 inches ; wing 13"; tail 13" ; bill to gape 4£" ; 
depth 2" ; measurements taken from stuffed specimen. 

Family, Psittacid^e. 

149. Palceomis rosa, B o d d. 

150. Palceomis schisticeps, Hodgs. 

152. Palceomis Javanicus, Osbeck. 

153. Loriculus vernalis, S p a r r m. 

Differed slightly from J e r d o n ' s description, the beak was 
bright red, not dark yellow, wing and tail dark green, the tinge of 
blue being very faint ; feet orange. 
Family, Pierce. 

155. Picus major oides, Hodgson. 

Breast and belly are decidedly buff yellow, not isabelline. Length 
9|" ; extent 15" ; wing 4£"; tail Bf ; bill If", spread of foot 2" ; shot 
on Hengdon Peak. 

157. Picus Macei, V i e i 1 1. 

Length 8 inches ; extent 13" ; tail 3" ; bill 1". 

163. Yungipicus rubricatus, Blyth. 

1 62. Yungipicus pygmceus, Vigors. 

166. Chrysocolaptes sultaneus, Hodg. Length 13 inches. 

173. Chryspholegma flavinucha, Gould. 

The lining of wings in this specimen is pale brown. 

174. Chryspholegma chlorolophus, V i e i 1 1. 

186. Vivia innominata, Burton. 

187. Sasia ochracea, Hodgson. 

Shot near Nenglo, Asalu hills, in February in scrubby jungle ; 
differs somewhat from J e r d o n ' s description and may be Picumnus 
abnormis, Tern. Rich ferruginous on breast, belly and nape, 
darker and greener tinge on back, linings of wings pale blue grey, 
irides crimson. 

Family, Megalaimid^e. 

191. Megalaima virens, B o d d, 

98 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills fyc. [No. 2, 

192. Megalaima Hodgsoni, B o n a p. 

At Asalu it is found at 3,600 feet. The specimens, I obtained, 
had the vent and under tail coverts of the same green as the lower 
breast ; bill fleshy pink, tip of upper mandible dark. 

195. Cyanops Asiatica, Lath. 

196. Cyanops Franklinii, B 1 y t h. 

196a. Cyanops cyanotis, Blyth. (Jer don, 1. c, I, p. 315). 

Has a crimson patch at back of occiput, no crimson at base of 
lower mandible as in the next species, in which it is orange. 
Family ■, Cuctjlid^. 

204. Cuculus striatus, D r a p i e z. 

Length 13 inches, wing 8" ; tail 6 J". 

209. Polyphasia tenuirostris, Gray. 

Length 9| inches ; extent 12£" ; wing 4£" ; tail 5 J" ; tarsus f ; 
biU at front £". 

214. Fudynamys orientalis, Linn., a female measured in length 
15 inches ; tail V '. 

215. Zanclostomus tristis, Less. 
218. Centropus viridis, S c o p o 1 i. 

Family, Nectarinid^. 

223. Arachnothera magna, Hodgson. 

225. JEthopyga miles, Hodgson. 

No scarlet in the tail feathers whatever, below the breast dull 
green grey, no tinge of brown, if tinged at all it is with yellow 
down the centre. Length 5 inches ; bill j 7 , wing nearly 2£". 

229. JEthopyga Nipalensis, Hodgson. 

231. jFthopyga saturata, Hodgson. 

Length 4| inches ; scapulars, interscapulars, side of neck and 
back maroon, a very marked band of yellow on the rump ; in all 
other respects it agrees with J e r d o n ' s description. 

23 la. Anthreptes — sp. — ? 

A single specimen was obtained at Teria Ghat and shown to me 
by Dr. J e r d o n in December 1869. Head and upper back rich 
metallic green fading on lower back, but strong again on upper 
tail coverts ; wing and tail black, the shoulder of the former has a 
tinge of blue, outer edges of centre tail feathers metallic green, 
ear coverts rich purple lake, with a streak on the side of the neck 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills 8fc. 99 

metallic magenta ; chin and throat rufous, or sienna ; rest of lower 
plumage bright canary yellow. Length 4*4 inches ; wing 2*05", 
tail 1*7" ; bill black, length at front '55" ; legs dark brown, 
tarsus '65". 

236. Bicceuni coccineum, S c o p o 1 i. 

241 . Myzanthe iynipectus, Hodgson. 

My specimens also have a black streak down the centre of the 
abdomen, commencing at the red patch on the breast. 

251. Sitta cinnamomeoventris, B 1 y t h, lateral tail feathers deep 
black, not the centre ones. 

252. Sitta formosa, B 1 y t h. 

Bill grey black ; lower mandible pale grey at base ; feet with 
pale yellow soles. I only obtained one specimen of this rare and 
lovely bird at Asalu, evidently as rare on this eastern side as in 

253. Dendrophila frontalis , Horsf. 
Family, Upupidje, 

254. ZTpupa epops, Linn. 

This is a rare bird on the Burr ail range. 

Family, Laniad^e. 
258. Lanius tephronotus, Vigors. 

262. Lanius arenarius, B 1 y t h. 

263. Tephrodornis pelvica, Hodgson. 
267. LLemipus capitalis, McClelland. 

Bill black, legs dark brown. Length 5 inches ; wing 2| ; tail 
2i" ; tarsus 0-45". 

269. Volvocivora melaschistos, Hodgson. 

270. Graucalus Macei, Lesson. 

Irides rich brown, not lake ; a narrow edging of pale gre'y on 
the primaries. 

271. Pericrocotus speciosus, L a t h a m, 9 obtained. 

272. Pericrocotus flammeus, Forster, 

273. P. brevirostris, Vigors. 

274. P. Solaris, Blyth. 

275. P. roseus, Vieillot. 
Length 7| inches ; wing 3£" ; tail 4". 
278 bis. Bicrurus lonyus, Hors f. 

100 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. [No. 2, 

280. Dicrurus longicaudatus, A. Hay. 

282. Chaptia tenea, Vieillot. 

Length 9| inches ; wing 5 " ; tail 4f" ; extent 14" ; tarsus f" ; bill 
at front £"• 

284. Edolius paradiseus, Lin. 

287. Artamus fuscus, Y i e i 1 1. 

First seen at Asalu in April, generally flying about leafless trees, 
in the clearer parts of the country. The birds were breeding in Ca- 
char in April and May, the young sitting out on the palm branches. 

290. Myiagra azurea, Bodd., both $ and ? obtained. 

291 . Leucocerca fuscoventris, Franklin. 

The five outer tail feathers tipped dull white, decreasing ; legs 
brown. Length 7f inches ; extent 8J" ; wing 3" ; tail 4£" ; bill in 
front f" ; tarsus f". 

294. Chelidorhynxliypoxanthd) Blyth. 

Under side of bill orange. Length 4j inches, extent 6^-", wing 
2£", tail 2£", legs umber brown. 

295. Gryptolopha cinereocapilla, Y i e i 1 1. 

A specimen obtained at Cherra was bright yellow. 

296. Hemichelidon fuliginosus, Hodg. 

In the young bird the head was spotted with white, a white circle 
round the eye, edge of secondaries and wing coverts pale fer- 
ruginous, finely spotted with various shades of white and dusky 
brown on breast, albescent on belly and lower tail coverts, feet 
feeble, wing measured 3 inches in my specimen. 

301. Eumyias melanops, Y i g o r s. 

308. Cyornis magnirostris, Blyth. 

The description of a female has only been hitherto made. Dr. 
J e r d o n to whom I showed my specimen pronounced it a male, 
and of which no specimen would appear to be in the Asiatic Muse- 
um, Calcutta, nor in the British Museum. I procured but the single 
specimen at Asalu, — the description is as follows : — 

S , — above dark verditer blue, paler and brighter over fore- 
head and eyes ; shoulder of wing, chin, throat, and breast rich 
ferruginous, fading to fulvescent on lower breast, white on belly 
and under tail coverts ; wings pale black, edged pale verditer. 
Beak long and straight, well hooked, rictal bristles rather short, 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Kliasi hills SfC. 101 

nareal well developed, irides dark brown. Legs pale flesh color, 
tarsus short, inner toe the shortest; claws moderate; length 6 
inches, wing 3-3", tail 2 1 /, tarsus T y, bill at front £". 

314. Niltava simdara, H o d g. 
Rather a eommon bird about Asalu. 

315. Niltava Macgrigorice, Burton. 

316. Niltava grandis, B 1 y t h. 
319. Siphia strophiata, H o dg. 
321 . Siphia super ciliaris, B 1 y t h. 
Obtained on Hengdan Peak, 7,000 feet. 
323. Frythrosterna leucura, Gmel. 

Family, MERULiDiE. 

327. Tesia castaneo-coronata, Burton. 

Hengdan peak, at 7,000 feet. This bird haunts thick and low 
brushwood, and is difficult to shoot in such cover ; it emits a loud 
rather musical note from time to time, as it hops from bough to 
bough. The description in Jerdon's work being short, I give a 
fuller. Hinder part of head and back olive green, the feathers 
showing grey below when ruffled, front of head and ear coverts 
bright rufous, under throat bright yellow fading and becoming of a 
green tinge on belly, side, and thigh coverts ; wing and tail green 
grey. Bill red brown, dark yellow below. Irides dark brown, legs 

328. Tesia cyaniventor, H o d g„ a dark streak from the eye over 
the ear coverts. Length 3f- inches, wing 2", tarsus | . 

329. Pnoepyga sqztamata, Gr o u 1 d. 

Tail of only 4 minute plumes and very short, tarsus 1 inch long, 
spread of foot l^", bill pink grey, eye large, irides dark brown ; 
length 3f inches, extent 6£", wing 2§" ; obtained on Hengdan Peak, 
7,000 feet, in thick underwood. 

330. Pnoepyga pusilla, Hod g. 

331. Pnoepyga caudata, B 1 y t h. 

332. Pnoepyga longicaudata, Moore. 

Obtained at Oherra Punji in July. The feathers are margined 
with black on the head and back of neck only, and with faint 
shafts, wings and tail dull rufous brown. Length 4| inches, wing 
2 , tail 2", tarsus 0-9", bill at front 0-5". 


102 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills SfC. [No 2, 

The exact locality for this bird appears to have been hitherto 
very doubtful ; Moore must have received his specimens from these 
Hills also. 

336. Brachypteryx Nipalensis, Hodg. 

337. Brachypteryx hyperythra, $ , J e r d o n and B 1 y t h. 
This bird was pointed out to me by Dr. J e r d o n as probably a 

male of the above species. A single specimen was formerly obtained, 
at Darjeeling and as the bird is very rare I append a description. 

$.— The entire plumage of a dull indigo, a white streak above the 
eye, extending from the base of the upper mandible. Primaries 
dusky black, tail black, wing 2*6 inches, tail 2", tarsus Mo". Shot 
at Asalu. 

338. B. cruralis, B 1 y t h. 
Wing 2-5 inches, tail 2", tarsus 1'3", bill at front -55*. 

343. Myiophonus Temminckii, Vigors. 
Called "Simtung" or " Smelling bird" by the Khasias, perhaps 

from being a coarse or dirty feeder. 

344. Hydrornis Nipalensis, Hodg. 
347. Hydrobata Asiatica, Swainson. 
351. Petrocossyphus cyaneus, Lin. 

358. Tardus chrysolaus, Temm. "^ J (^^cC^- 7/ / ^A 
$ Obtained at Oherra Punji. 
Whole upper part pale olivaceous, darker with brown on the 

head, a pure white supereilium, a dark band from base of lower 
mandible fading to side of neck, chin and throat white, breast 
pale buff, lower breast and belly white ; the buff color extends 
along the side under the wing. Quills dusky, olivaceous ; bill black 
above, yellow below. Irides dark brown, legs dusky yellow, sole 
of foot yellow. Length 9£ inches, wing 5", extent 14", tail 3£", 
tarsus 1-2*. 

The measurements of this specimen are much larger than those 
given in the " Birds of India" and the bird being rather rare I 
have added a description. 

361. Merula boulboul, Lath. 

364. Planesticus ruficollis, Pallas. 

Length 9^ inch, wing 5'3", tail 4*1", tarsus 1-3", bill at front 0-7". 
Supereilium paler than the rest of the ferruginous coloring. 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. 103 

365. Planesticus atrogularis, T e m. $ 

370. Oreocincla mollissima, Blyth. 

374. Paradoxornis gularis, H o r s f. 

Shot at Asalu in January. Bill dark yellow, legs slaty green. 

388. Alcippe Nipalensis, H o d g. 

This bird has a conspicuous white ring round the eye, not men- 
tioned in the description. Bill grey, feet pale fleshy pink, irides 
light brown. Length 5 inches, extent 6£", wing 2f", tail 2£", 
tarsus 0-8". 

391. Stachyris nigriceps, Hodg. 

Irides pale pink. Length 5 inches, extent 6£", wing 2*4", tarsus 

393. Stachyris rufceps, Blyth. 

Irides light red. Length 4£- ff , wing 2", tail 2", tarsus *10 ff , spread 
of foot If. 

394. St achy r is chrysaa, Hodg. 

395. Ifixornis rubicapillus, T i c k e 1 1. 

A bird which I have little doubt is this species was obtained in 
the Jatinga valley, near Parie Ghat in dense bambu and under- 
wood jungle; about 12 or 15 were together. The dimensions are 
smaller than those given in J e r d o n ' s book, and it differed in 
a few points. 

Bill blue grey, legs pale horny yellow, feet stronger yellow. 
Irides pinkish buff. Length 5 inches, wing 2*1", tail If, tarsus 

396. Timalia pileata, H o r s f. 

Lower tail coverts of the same pale ferruginous as abdomen, 
slightly tinged with olivaceous ; tail very distinctly barred. 
399. Pellorneum ruficeps, Swainson. 
Tail with every feather tipped whitish. 

401. Pomatorhinus Phayrei, Blyth. 

Length 9 inches, extent lOf", wing 3-4", tail 4J", tarsus 1-45", bill 
1*15". Irides pale yellow. This bird I noticed running up the 
boughs and hunting over them in the crevices of the bark with all 
the habits of a creeper or nut-hatch ; obtained at Cherra Punji. 

402. Pomatorhinus sehisticeps, Hodg. 
405#. P. M c Clellandi, J e r d o n. 

104 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. [No. 2, 

This bird was first recorded in my MS. List as P. erythrogenys 
of G o u 1 d, but differs from this species by its much shorter bill. 
It was named and sent to Gould by Dr. J e r d o n, who first 
discovered it in the Khasi Hills, but I believe it has never yet 
been described. I, therefore, give a description and measurements 
from the fresh specimen. 

Plumage generally dull throughout, back olivaceous with a 
brown tint, tail coverts rusty. Throat and breast white, the former 
dingy, upper part of breast spotted faintly with greenish brown. 
Irides pale yellow. Bill much curved, blunt, no notch ; legs dull 
brown, strong. Length 9 inches, extent 10", wing 3-2", tail 8J* 
tarsus H". Spread of foot 1 T 9 /, bill to gape P2". 

Obtained at Nenglo beyond Asalu, under the Burrail range. Dr. 
J e r d o n informs me, it is by no means rare near Debroghur, 

407. Garrulax leucolophus, Hard. 

412. Garrulax pectoralis, Gould. 

413. G. moniliger, H o d g. 

416«. Trochalopteron rufcapillean, Blyth. 

Shot on Hengdan peak. Back dull olivaceous, top of head rich 
madder brown, darker under the throat and ear coverts. Breast, 
back of neck and upper back finely mottled with scale shaped 
black brown spots, these spots smaller on the breast and belly. 
Thigh coverts olive green with a yellow tinge ; forehead, lores and 
round the eye grey. Primaries, secondaries and tail rich chrome 
yellow green, the first pale black on inner web ; four last secondaries 
edged with grey green at tip. Scapulars maronne brown. Irides 
grey, legs pink brown, under tail and inside wings green black. 
Length 10^ inches, extent 12f", wing 4^, tail 4|", tarsus If', 
spread of foot 2". 

420. T. squa?)iatum, Gould. 

421. T. rufogulare, Gould, ?? 

My specimen differs in being olive, intermingled* with black on 
the cap. Tail with broad black band, tipped rusty, outer edge of 
primaries pale ochre, faint rufous spot in front of eye, ear coverts 
pale rufescent. Bill grey, legs pale grey, orbital skin dark blue. 
Length 9 inches, wing 3-6% tail 4 J", tarsus I -45". 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. 105 

422. Trochalopteron phceniceum, Gould. 

422 a. Trochalopteron Austeni, Jerdon. 

This bird was pointed out to me as new by Dr. Jerdon 
to whom I handed it over to describe ; he has done so in 
the Ibis. To complete here the account of the bird, I give 
a description as well. — Above rufous brown, greenish upon the 
rump ; feathers of the tail and neck pale shafted, most marked- 
ly on the side of neck behind the ear coverts ; under the throat 
pale brown, gradually speckled on the lower breast with bars 
of whitish, each feather tipped with dark brown. The white bars 
increase in breadth towards the belly which is nearly all dusky 
white. Thigh coverts olivaceous, primaries black grey, outer web 
rich rufous brown, wing coverts same color, finely tipped white ; 
secondaries also tipped white ; four first primaries grey on outer*. 
web, gradually decreasing. Tail with two centre tail feathers rich 
rufous ; four outer terminating in dark grey, tipped with white nar- 
rowly. Legs pale pinkish grey, strong in form. Bill black, short 

and well notched. Irides umber. 

Length 9^ inches, extent 10 J", wing 4", tail 4£", tarsus 1 J", spread 

of foot £", bill at front *63" ; found in underwood on Hengdan Peak, 

Principal Trigonometrical Station of observation at head of the 

Jhiri river, 7000 feet; generally in pairs, uttering a harsh croaking 

call, and answering each other from time to time. 
427 a. Actinodura near Egertoni, Q o u 1 d. 
This bird differs from the above named in the crown and nape 

being ashy brown. Shoulder of wing and coverts olivaceous brown. 

Tail pale rufous brown, all the feathers distinctly barred. Beneath 

pale ruf escent, no ashy tinge and pale rufous on the neck and breast ; 

the principal point of difference is in the centre tail feathers, and its 

rather smaller size. Wing 3* 2 // , tail 4£ // . 

This bird was common on the high parts of the Burrail range, 

always seen hunting in the highest branches of the forest trees. 
430 a. Sibia gracilis, M c C 1 e 1 1. 
This bird was very abundant in the Burrail hills during the 

spring after March, generally in forest, I noticed it very busy 

after insects on the large flowering forest trees, the Simul or Cotton 

tree was a favorite. 

106 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. [No. 2, 

Fam. Brachypodid^e. 
446 a. Hypsipetes coneolor, B 1 y t h. 

447. H. IPClellandi, Horsf. 

448. Hemixos flavala, Hodg. 
Obtained in January at Asalu. 

449. Alcurus striatus, Blyth. 
451. Criniger flaveolus, Gr o u 1 d. 
451 a. Spizixos eanifro?is, Blyth. 

From Surarhn, near Cherra Punji, shot by Dr. J er do n who 
examined the stomach, and found that the bird is also an insect- 
feeder and does not live entirely on fruit. 

453 a. lxos flavescens, Blyth. 

Obtained at Asalu in April. 

456. Rubigula flaviventris, T i c k e 1 1. 

460. Otocompsa jocosa, Tern. 
460 a. 0. monticolus, M c C 1 e 1 1. 

461. Pycnonotus pygceus, Hodg. 

465. Phyllomis aurifrons T e m m. 

466. Phyllomis Hardwickii, J a r d. and S e 1 b y. 
469. Irena puella, Latham. 

472. Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin. 

474. Oriolus Traillii, Vigors. 

Family, Silviad2E. 

475. Copsychus saularis, T e mm. 

The wing has a white bar formed by the wing coverts and outer 
web of the last secondaries. 

477. Ifyiomela leucura, Hodg. 
483. Pratincola Indica, Blyth. 
497. Ruticilla rufiventris Vieillot. 
Length 5f" , extent 9", wing 4", tail 2£". 

505. Ruticilla fuliginosa, Vigors. 

506. Chcemoromis letccocephala, Vigors. 
Length 7£ inches, extent 11£", wing Sf-* tail 3". 

508. Ianthia cyanura, Pallas. 

509. Ianthia hyperythra, Blyth. 
524. Horomis flaviventris, Hodg. 

A dull yellowish ring round the eye, same color on breast, wings 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. 107 

and tail dull olive grey with, brown. Length 4f inches, wing 2", 
tail If", tarsus -J-". 

531. Orthotomus coronatus, J e r d o n and B 1 y t h. 

Irides dark brown, length 4f inches, extent 6", wing 1|", tail If", 
tarsus T \". One specimen shot at Oherra Punji in October. 

539. Cisticola schcenicola, Bonaparte. 

543. Drymoipus inornatus, S y k e s. 

Bill grey at base beneath, legs pink. 

549. Suya atrogularis, Moor e, 

$ with a black patch on the throat extending to breast which 
is whitish. 

561. Rhylloscopus affinis, T i c k e 1 1. 

563. Reguloides occipitalis, J e r d o n ; from the head of the 
Jhiri river, N. Cachar. 

Irides very dark brown ; bill above pink grey, below orange ; 
tarsus grey ; feet yellow. Length 4 inches, wing 2-2". 

565. Reguloides proregulus, Pallas. Obtained at Cherra Punji, 
in October. 

567. Reguloides viridipennis, Blyth. 

569. Culicipeta Burkii, Burton. Asalu in January. 

572. Abromis xanthoschistos, Hodg. 

Bill dark brown above, orange beneath, tarsus fleshy grey. 

575. Abromis poliogenys, Blyth. 

The loreal feathers tipped with greyish white was not seen in my 
specimen, obtained at Cherra Punji, in July. Two ill-defined 
broad dark grey streaks on the head, chin greyish white merging 
into pale yellow on the throat. 

584. JEnicurus maculatus, Vigors. 

585. Enicurus immaculatus, Hodg. 

Length 9 inches, extent 11§", wing 3f", tail 4|". Chin and throat 

588. Miicurus nigrifrons, H o d g s ? 

Obtained at Cherra Punji. — A young bird. 

Description. — Above black with a ferruginous tinge and a few 
scattered pale brown spots on the tips of the feathers of the head. 
Breast black with ashy brown tinge, centre feathers streaked 
with whitish, upper tail coverts, belly, bar on wing, tips of se- 

108 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills fyc. [No. 2, 

condaries decreasing from the last, the two outer tail feathers, and 
tips of the central ones, white. Pale ferruginous tint on the tips of 
the white feathers, forming the wing band. Length 7*5 inches, 
extent 10-75", wing 3*6", tail 3-5", tarsus 1-2", bill in front 0*6". 

590, Motacilla luzoniensis, S c o p o 1 i. 

592. Calobates sulphured, Bechstein. 

At Cherra in September ; this specimen had the white wing band 
very indistinct. 

596. P (pastes ay His, S y k e s. 

599. Corydalla Richardi, Vieillot. 

Obtained in October at Cherra. Length 7f inches, wing 3*7", 
tail 3", not fully grown, bill at front 0'55", hind toe and claw H". 

600. Corydalla rufula, Vieillot. 

601. Corydalla striolata, B 1 y t h. 

Obtained on Mahadeo Peak, Asalu ; outermost tail feathers 2-3rds 
white obliquely, — penultimate with a white spot on inner web at tip. 

605. Anihus cervinus, Pallas. 

Winter plumage olive brown, and two moderately pale wing 
bands. Length 6*5 inches, wing 3£", tail 2& , tarsus -9", hind claw 
•4", extent 10£*. 

Family r , Ampelid^e. 

609. Pteruthius crytliropterus, Vigors. 

Tail feathers are tipped yellow and the head dark ashy. 

611. Allotrius ce?wbarbus, T e m m. 

Obtained at Hengdan. Top of head, back, and tail bright olive 
green, white circle round the eyes, with another outer circle of 
grey extending behind to the nape ; ear coverts yellow green edged 
with a line of yellow ; a marked very dark grey line on side of 
neck, a patch of brown on each side of chin, centre being buffy 
white, fading rapidly into the canary yellow of the breast and 
belly ; wing and shoulder of wing grey. Bastard wing black. 
Wing coverts banded black and chesnut, 2 bands of each color ; 
tail same as noted in Jerdon's description. 

Length 4 inches, extent 6^", wing 2f", tail 1^", tarsus |", legs flesh 
colored, irides dark brown. In another specimen obtained at Cher- 
ra the wing bars were white, the under tail coverts bright 
yellow, and a whitish ring round the eye. 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. 109 

613. Leioptila anneetans, Bly th. 

Obtained at head of Jhiri river, close under the Burrail range. 

615. Leiothrix argentauris, Hodg. 

The redder color of the upper tail coverts marks the distinction 
between male and female. 

616. Siva strigula, Hodg. 

Irides red brown. Length 6 inches, extent 7f", tail 2£", legs and 
bill grey. I noticed that these birds, when feeding together along 
the tops of the forest trees, are particularly noisy, a chattering 

617. Siva cyanouroptera, Hod g. 

619. Minla castaniceps, Hodg. 

Tail pale slaty, chin and throat buffy white, primary coverts rich 
black, forming a spot on the shoulder. Length 4£ inches, extent 6", 
wing 21", tail 1^", tarsus T 9 ^", irides red brown, bill grey, legs yellow 

620. Minla cinerea, B 1 y t h. 

623. Ixulus flavicollis, Hodg. 

Feathers of the throat with dark shafts, forming a few faint 
streaks. Bill pinkish grey, legs pale yellow, irides brown. 
Length 5£ inches, wing 2-7", tail 2", tarsus £ . 

624. Ixulus occipitalis, B 1 y t h. 

625. Ixulus striatus, B 1 y t h. 

Head with feathers of anterior part scaly, pale, margined rufous 
brown on the occiput and -ear coverts, irides dark red. Length 5£ 
inches, extent 8", wing 3", tail 2", tarsus %". 

630. Erpornis xantholeuca, Hodg, 

At 5000 feet under Hengdan Peak, head of the Jhiri river. 

631. Zosterops palpebrosus, T e m m. 

Legs grey, — one specimen wing 2 , tail 1£ ; another specimen 
wing 1-jV, tarsus f", bill f". 

649. Machlolophus spilinotus, B 1 y t h. 

650. Melanochlora sultanea, Hodg, 

Tribe, Conirostres. 

Family, Corvidje. 

673. Cissa Sinensis, B r i s s o u. 


110 A List of Birds from the Kha&i hilU [No. 2, 

One of these birds kept by me at Clierra Punji sang a number of 
different bars, in a very loud key, one so piercing, it was quite dis- 
agreeable to be near it, — yet he would often twitter in a low very 
melodious way. These different calls never followed each other in 
succession, but after long intervals, and when he commenced a song, 
it was kept up for some time. On the sight of a fresh shot bird, its 
favorite food, he became extremely noisy, or to call attention to its 
wants on approaching the cage would make a gurgling noise in the 
throat. He hung the food about the bars of the cage, or stuck 
it away in corners. After about six months in confinement, he 
became very imitative, picked up the crowing of a cock, and was 
perfect at the cackling of a hen after laying. These birds never re- 
tain their lovely chrysophrase green colour in captivity, they soon 
lose it, and although the above bird moulted in confinement, the 
new feathers were a dull antwerp blue, with the slightest tinge of 
green on the head at first, which very soon disappeared. 

674. Dendrocitta rufa, S c o p o 1 i. 

Irides dark brown; called " Kashkussi" in Cachar. Length 17 
inches, wing 7", tail 10". 

676. Dendrocitta Sinensis, Lath. 

683. Sturnopastor contra, Lin. 

Irides pale yellow. This bird is as common in Cachar, as the 
Myna, A. tristis, next mentioned. The Cachar bird is S. superciliaris 
of Blyth. The white supercilium and white on forehead is very 
marked in the birds from this eastern side of India. 

684. Acrulot/ieres tristis, Linn. 

688. Temenuchus Malabarica, G m e 1 i n. 

693. Eulabes intermedia, H. Ha y. 

Family, Fringillid^e. 

694. JPloceus baya, Blyth. 

698. Munia rubronigra, H o dg. 

699. Munia undulata, Lath. 
735. Hcematospiza sipahi, H o d g. 

This bird is often captured by the Khasias at Surarim and 
brought in for sale. 

742. Propasser rJwdockrous, Vigors. 

1870.] A List of Birds from the Khasi hills Sfc. Ill 

A ? obtained on Maliadeo Peak, Asalu ; — there is some doubt 
as to whether it is the above species. 


Family, Tkeronid^e. 

773«. Crocopus viridifrons, B 1 y t h. 
776. Osmotreron Fhagrei, B 1 y t h. 

778. Sphenocereus sphenurus, Yi g o r s. 

The primaries and secondaries are also edged with yellow, very 
narrow on the former. 

779. Sphenocereus apicaudus, Hodg, 

781. Carpophaga, (sp. not determined), — There was no coppery 
gloss whatever on the back, rump, and upper tail coverts of a 
species from Asalu, these parts were of a dark neutral grey tint, tail 
dark indigo, — If inches from the end much paler, undertail coverts 
dirty white, irides pale grey. 

Sp. Length. Tail. Extent. 

1 18 inches 7" 27!" 

2 18" 7£" 30" 

I am sorry to say that no specimen was kept of this fine bird, it 
was very numerous in the forest above Grarilo (Chota Asalu) in 
January, and several were shot, being excellent eating, the skinning 
of one for a specimen was always postponed, and in February they 
had disappeared. Lieut Beavan observed Carpophaga insignis 
and this species at Molshai in the North Oachar Hills, and shot 
several of both, I am indebted to him for the following descriptions 
and measurements. 

No. 1, C. insignis, H o dg. — Above, head slate color, back wings 
and tail darker with a bronze tinge, under parts light slate, tail 
and wing feathers darker. Length 16-5, inches, expanse 29", 
wing 9-5", tail 6", tarsus 15", bill 1", centre claw 1- 9", hind 1-3". 
Bill breadth at base 0-4", breadth of lower mandible 0'5". Irides, 
dark red with gold specks apparent in the sunshine. Legs and 
feet pink, feathered half way down the tarsus. 






centre claw, 

hind claw. 

18-6 in. 


9 6" 





175 „ 







112 A List of Birds from the Khasi hills $c. [No. 2, 

No. 2 r Carpophaga, species (unknown). 

General color slate, head and under parts light, upper parts dark, 
pspecially the larger wing and tail feathers, extreme two inches of 
tail lighter than the rest, forming a transverse band. 

Sp. a. 

Bill one inch, soft and curved at tip, flesh colored, — upper com- 
pressed at base, lower the broadest, breadth "4", lower mandible 
in sp. a, 0-1", in sp. J, 0*6", nostril elongated, in which point it 
differs from JP insignis, Irides, light bluish grey. 

791#. Macropygia tusalia, H o d g. 

The bird I obtained on the top of Mahadeo differs somewhat 
from this species, there was no tinge of lake on the bill. Orbits 
were black not red as in M. tusalia, the inner circle of the irides 
yellow, in the colaration of the throat and lateral tail feathers it 
agrees with Columha leptogrammica of Temmink. Length 15£ 
inches, extent 21£", wing 10", tail 7£", tarsus T, bill Jf* legs and 
feet dull red, bill black. 

795. Turtur suratensis, G m e 1 i n. 

The female is not only smaller but decidedly of duller plumage. 

798. Chalcophaps Indicus, Lin, 

Of the Easores very few have been collected, and of the Gra]> 
latores, all obtained are so widely distributed and so wellknown 
that the record is of little value until more have been noticed. — The 
whole order is badly represented in these Hill ranges. 

1870. ] 1*3 

Additional Observations regarding some species oe birds noticed 

by Mr. W. T. Be an ford, in his " Ornithological notes from 

Southern, Western and Central India" — ^ Allak 0. Hume, 

Esq., C £., Commissioner of Customs, Agra. 

[Eeceived 11th January, read 5th February, 1870.] 

Tlie following remarks on Mr. W. T. Blanford's " Orni- 
thological notes, &c." which appeared in Part II of the Journal of 
the Asiatic Society for 1869, are submitted as an additional informa- 
tion regarding several species which Mr. Blanford has noticed 
in his paper. Some of the data had been collected many years 
previous, but they had not as yet been placed on record. 

I would premise in regard to the 3 species which, Mr. Blanford 
particularly notices in his introductory notes, viz. Salpornis spilonotus, 
Hirundo fluvicola and Cyornis Tickellice, that no one of these is by 
any means so rare as he supposes. 

As regards Salpornis spilonotus my collection contains specimens 
from Oudh, (collected by Mr. R.M.Adam, and another of my 
coadjutors, Mr. E. Thompson, I believe), from the north of the 
Saharunpur district or the Dhun, (collected by Mr. Gr. F. P. 
Marshall), from the foot of Mt. Abu, (collected by Dr. King), 
and from the neighbourhood of Murrie, (in a purchased collection). 

Hirundo ( Lagenoplastes) fluvieola 7 is the commonest of our swal- 
lows in Upper India, from the Tonse river, near Mirzapiir to the 
Sutledge near Ferozpur ; it abounds wherever there is water, 
cliffs or ruined buildings, against which it can plaster its huge 
mud, honey-comb-like, congery of nests. In Ajmere, at Ahmeda- 
bad in Guzerat, in Saugor in the Central Provinces, I have noticed 
numerous colonies, and I have been familiar with this bird, its 
nest and eggs for the last 20 years, although I did not know its cor- 
rect name, until shortly before the first volume of Dr. J e r d o n ' s 
work appeared. 

As for Cyornis Tickellice, I have received more specimens of it 
than of either rubeculoides or Jerdoni, all, however, from the Jhansee r 
Saugor and Hoshungabad divisions, and fully two years ago Mr. 
E. C. M u m sent me the nests and eggs of this species with the 
female shot by himself off the nest. 

114 Observations regarding some species of birds. [No. 2, 

Turning now to some of the species separately enumerated, I 
note : — 

18. Tinnunculus Cenchris. — This species may be at once discrimi- 
nated from T. alaudarius by the colour of its claws. These are 
black in the last named species, white or yellowish white in T. 

50. Circus cganeus. — It is impossible ever to confound this 
species with C. Swainsoni, the pure white upper tail coverts, at all 
ages and in both sexes, suffice, as Col. Sykes long ago pointed 
out, to separate the European Hen Harrier from the pale-chested 
Harrier. I have specimens from near Indore and have seen others 
from near Jhansee. 

53. Circus melanoleucus. — I agree with Mr. Blanford that 
this bird never occurs, except perhaps as an isolated straggler, in 
Northern or Western India ; my specimens, and all in fact that I 
have yet seen, were from lower Bengal, Assam and Tippera. 

56, bis.— Ililvus mclanotes ? I have or have had several speci- 
mens, young and old, of the large kite referred to by Mr. Blan- 
ford ; males with the wing 20 inches and upwards and females 
with the wing up to 22. The young, so far as plumage goes, 
correspond exactly with Gustav Radde's figure of the 
young of Milvus melanotes, and hitherto I have been inclined to 
identify our large Indian race with this species. In Part II of my 
u Rough Notes," I hope to discuss this question more fully. 

104. Dendrochelidon coronata, though locally distributed is by no 
means a rare or uncommon bird. It breeds freely, to my certain 
knowledge, in the sub-Himalayan track, below Kiimaon and Gurh- 
wal, in parts of the Mirzapiir district, in the Mandla district of the 
Central Provinces, (from which locality Mr. R. Thompson sent me 
an exquisite little nest), in the Nilgherries (whence also I have re- 
ceived its egg) and Ceylon, and many other localities too numerous 
to record here. 

95. Acanthjlis sylvatica. I also have never obtained specimens 
of this bird from the Central Provinces. I have them, however, 
from Conoor (Nilgherries) and Gfurhwal, in which latter locality 
they are common. 

631. Zosterops palpelrosus. — This species is anything but rare 

1870.] Observations regarding some species of birds. 115 

in Saugor, Central Provinces. I have, I find, five nests, and at least 
a dozen eggs, from that locality. 

85. Hirundo erythropygia. — It has not yet I believe been point- 
ed out, that while this species of mosque swallow belongs as a 
resident to the plains of India, II. daurica, which is the resident 
species of the Himalayas, — breeding freely for instance about the 
bungalows of Simla, — also during the cold season visits the plains 
reaching at least as far south as Agra. I quite agree with Gould 
in separating Cecropis rufula, daurica and erythropygia, although 
occasionally somewhat intermediate forms are met with in Syria 
and Northern India. 

86. H.fluvicola. — It is not at all unusual for this species to 
breed against high cliffs. To give one single instance, (and I 
could give fifty) visiting the river Chambal where the Etawah 
and Gwalior road crosses it, and following its course downwards 
to its junction, at Bhurrey, with the Jumna, one will meet with at 
least an hundred colonies of this species, all with their clustered 
nests plastered against the faces of the high clay cliffs which over- 
hang the river. I take this opportunity of noticing that the dif- 
ferences remarked by Mr. Gould in his Indian specimens are mere- 
ly due to sex and age. The presence, or absence (more or less 
entire) of the white marginal spot on the tail feathers is sexual, the 
white being always strongest in the old males, while the presence 
of strise on the head is a sign of immaturity. 

90. Ptionoprogne concolor. — I cannot (with very large series of 
each before me) concur in what Mr. Blanford says of the eggs 
of this species and L. fluvieola and H. rufieeps. The eggs of con- 
color are certainly not more spotted than those of rufieeps. So far 
as the character, extent and intensity of markings go, they are 
intermediate between those of fluvieola and rufieeps. The ground 
color is white, and they are all more or less thickly speckled, spot- 
ted &c, though rarely blotched, with diiferent shades of yellowish 
and reddish brown. Unlike those of fluvieola, which are as often 
pure white as not, these eggs are always pretty thickly marked, but 
the markings, though better defined and darker than those of fluvieola, 
i are neither so bold nor so bright as in rufieeps. As in both these 
I species, the markings are always most dense towards the broader 

116 Observations regarding some species of birds, [No. 2, 

end, where a more or less ill-defined zone, or irregular and partial 
cap is not uncommon. 

Again the nests are not, I should say " precisely similar" to those 
of the Indian wire-tailed swallow, but are deeper and smaller, 
coming to a well-defined point below. 

91. Ptionoprogne rupestris. — I quite agree with Mr. Blanford 
that this species is not confined to the higher Hills ; it is only the 
other day that I procured a pair at the Taragurh Hill, at Ajmere, 
a solitary rocky outlier of the Aravallis only some 3000 feet in 
height, but at the same time the only breeding places that I know of 
are some 8000 feet high in the Himalayas. Amongst the lower 
rocky ranges I have hitherto believed them (though in this I may 
err) to be only winter and spring visitants, retiring in India to colder 
and more elevated localities to breed in. 

293. Leucocerca leucog aster. — I have this species from as far 
north as Mt. Abu, to which locality, I may notice, G 'alius Soncrati 
also extends, as well as Cursorius Gallicus and Honiara Macqneeni 
from the North West. 

310. Iluscicapula super ciliar is, extends during the cold weather 
all over the plains of India. Mr. Brookes procured a specimen 
in Etawah I think, and I have one from the same locality, another 
from near Lucknow and several from Saugor. 

325. Urgthrosterna aeomaus. — The only specimen that I have of 
this species was also a female — and was shot along with an JE. 
maculata. I have not gone minutely into the question, but I would 
suggest that possibly acornaus is only the female of maeulata. 
Anyhow, all the specimens that I possess of the latter were 

323. ErytlirGsterna parva. — This is the only species in upper 
India. I am not sure if I have ever seen a true leucura from 
any locality, except perhaps Tippera. — I have several European 
specimens, and am perfectly certain that the huge series that I 
possess from all parts of Bajputana, the N. W. and Central Pro- 
vinces and Oudh, are one and all parva. 

268. Volvocivora Sykesi. — Not very uncommon about Saugor, I 
got the nest and eggs both of this species and of Graucalus Macei, 
this year for the first time, from this district. 


Observations regarding some species of hm 


257. Lanius erythronotus. — I wonder whether Mr. Blanford 
got hold of either Lanius caniceps or teplironotus. It is curious how 
often these three species are confounded, yet they are really 
very distinct, as the subjoined comparative table will show : — 


General colour 
of upper parts. 

Extent of rufous 
on upper sur- 

Colour of tail 

L. erythronotus, ... 

From 0-1 " 
to 0-3" in 

Somewhat pale 
ashy grey. 

Whole lower 
back, rump, up- 
per tail coverts 
and longer sca- 

Central tail 
feathers black,or 
blackish brown, 
laterals brown, 
with a grey tint. 

L. caniceps, 



Rump and up- 
per tail coverts 


L. tephronotus, ... 


Somewhat dark 
ashy brown. 


Central tail 
feathers deep 
rufous brown, 
laterals growing 
paler as they 
recede from the 
centre, all ru- 
fous brown. 

Besides this, caniceps has the middle portion of the abdomen right 
down to the vent white, while in erythronotus the lower portion of 
the abdomen, the feathers above the vent, are bright ferruginous. 

460. Otocompsa fuscicaudata. — This species extends northwards 
to Mt. Abu, where I found it very abundant; specimens there 
obtained are in every respect identical with those from Conoor 
(Nilgherries). In Oudh and in Bengal, this species is replaced by 
Otocompsa emeria, and east of the bay of Bengal by 0. jocosa — Mr. 
Blanford says, that he has never met with an Otocompsa in Cen- 
tral India ; I presume he means of the jocosa type, with red whis- 
kers, because 0. leucotis occurs, though rarely both, in Saugor and 

4G7. Iora Zeijlanica. — This species and typltia are one and the 
same species. I have more than 100 specimens from all parts of 


118 Olser rations regarding some species of birds. [No. 2, 

India, some from even as far east as Comillah in Tipper ah, and 
there is not the slightest doubt, I believe, that both forms repre- 
sent different sexes and stages of plumage of the same species. 
Mr. Blanford might, therefore, well kill a perfectly intermediate 

473. Oriolus Geylonensis.— None of the supposed specimens of 
this species, from Ahmednugger sent me by Messrs. Fairbank 
and Bruce were, in my opinion, Ceylonensis, — at least if Geylonensis 
be a good species. The chief distinctions supposed to exist be- 
tween melanoceplialus and Ceylonensis consist — 1st, in the black of the 
throat coining much further down on the breast of melanoceplialus, 
than of Ceylonensis ; 2nd, in melanoceplialus having the secondaries 
and tertiaries broadly tipped yellow, and the outer webs of the 
latter yellow, while in Ceylonensis only the tertiaries are tipped, 
and this only on the outer webs, with yellow. 

Messrs. Fairbank's and Bruce's Ahmednugger specimens, 
though somewhat intermediate, pertained rather to the melanoceplia- 
lus than the Ceylonensis type. As a matter of fact, I have shot good 
typical examples of both races in the same localities in the Bhabur, 
below Gurhwal, and in Oudh Terai, and I at present utterly dis- 
believe in Ceylonensis as a distinct species. Perhaps, however, I 
have never seen a true Ceylonensis, my museum unfortunately con- 
tains no Ceylon specimen. 

353. Oroccctes cinclorliynclius. — Stragglers of this species (and 
what is more remarkable of Oreocincla dauma) occur every cold 
weather in the plains of the N. W. Provinces and the northern portion 
of the Central Provinces. When our Avifauna comes to be more 
closely watched, a vast number of the Himalayan species, now 
considered to reside exclusively in the Hills, will be found to visit 
the plains during the cold weather. I killed a fine specimen of 
Ticliodroma muraria on the clay cliffs of the river Jumna, at Shere- 
gurh, some 20 miles due north of Jaloun. 

354. Geociclila cyanota. — Mr. Blanford may be right in con- 
sidering the olive tint on the back a sign of immaturity, but it is 
curious, that out of a large series of this species and citrina, no 
single male exhibits this peculiarity, but a large proportion of the 
females do. This may be accidental. 

1870.] Observations regarding some species of birds. 119 

488. Saxicola opistholeuca. — This species will not stand, the 
points relied on by Blyth, Strickland and Gr o u 1 d are not 
constant, as the examination of a large series shows. 

515. Acrocephalus brunnescens. I have specimens from numerous 
parts of India. The proportions of the primaries vary a good deal, not 
locally but individually, and the tone of coloration also varies greatly. 

645. Parns cinereus. — I have specimens from all parts of India, — 
from Cashmere to Oomillah, and from Kotgurh to Oonoor. Indivi- 
duals differ ; the species is one and the same ; Javanese specimens 
do seem to be persistently smaller ; I have not, however, seen a 
sufficient number of examples to make sure that this difference is 
really constant. 

604. Agrodroma sordida. — As I have pointed out in a paper 
which will appear in an early number of the Ibis, neither of our 
Indian birds known as A. sordida and cinnamomea, can well be 
identical with Ruppell's birds. It is needless to discuss the matter 
here, but if I am correct and with Eiippell's careful Latin and 
German descriptions of both, and his plate of sordida before me, I 
can scarcely be in error ; the Indian birds will stand, the supposed 
A. cinnamomea as A. similis, Jerdon, and the supposed A. sordida 
as A. griseo-rufescens, nobis. 

768. Alauda Malabarica ? Unless I am much mistaken (which 
I very likely may be) this bird of Mr. Blanford's is the true 
Spizalauda Deva. 

The Eev. Mr. Fairbank favoured me with three specimens 
of a lark killed at Khandalla, which he (or perhaps Mr. B 1 a n- 
f o r d) had named Alauda Malabarica. On examination, they proved to 
have hind claws only 0*4 in length, and the 1st primary 0-6 in length. 
It was quite clear that these were not true (restricted) Alauda. 
On closer examination there remained no doubt that these were the 
true Spizalauda Deva of S y k e s, although the dimensions somewhat 
exceeded those given by Jerdon. On comparing these with the 
Upper Indian race which I had hitherto confounded with Sykes's 
bird, and of which it is not impossible that Jerdon owing to a 
similar error, gave the dimensions, I found that conspicuous dif- 
ferences existed, rendering the separation of the Upper Indian 
race as a distinct species necessary. 











3 65 


2 16 






























120 Observations regarding some species of birds. [No. 2, 

I proceed to give some dimensions of the Southern and Northern 
Indian races, premising that to the latter I have given the specific 
name of simillima. 

length, wing, 1st prim, tail, bill at tarsus, hind toe and 

front, claw, 

8. Deva, 



S. simillima, $ 5 - 20 

(Northern $ 5*50 

India.) $ 520 

The plumage of the two species is of precisely the same character, 
but the colouring of the Upper Indian bird is paler and less 
rufous, and this is especially conspicuous in the outer webs of 
the first long primaries and exterior tail feathers, which are 
rufous buff in Deva, and pale fawn colour or yellowish white in 
simillima, and in the wing lining and rufous margins to the interior 
webs of the quills. Altogether the bird has a paler and sandier 
cast, so much so, that the first glance at the birds is sufficient to 
attract the attention of even a superficial observer to the difference. 
The crest of the adult Northern bird too is, I think, longer than that 
of the Southern, some of the feathers of the former measuring fully 
0*9" in length. This bird bears the same relation (so far as type of 
colour goes) to S. Deva, than A. gulgida does to A. Malabarica. 

Spizalauda simillima occurs throughout the upper portion of the 
N. "W. Provinces and Cis-Sutledge States of the Panjab, and I have 
specimens sent me from Jhansee ; but what the limits of its range 
are, I do not yet know, having until recently always confounded it 
with 8. Deva. 

I may here note that Capt. Mitchell of Madras sent me speci- 
mens of Alauda Malabarica from Ootacamund labelled A. gulgida ; 
accepting his name and noticing the striking difference in appear- 
ance between these birds and our northern representative race, I 
separated the latter, as A. gidgulcnsis, (ride my Catalogue), but 
subsequent careful examination has shown me that the Ootacamund 
birds are really A. Malabarica, while our northern race is the true 
A . gulgida of Franklin. 

From this it will appear that Mr. B 1 a n f o r d ' s bird, having 
the hind toe claw only 0-4, cannot be identified with Alauda Mala- 

1870.] Observations regarding some species of birds. 121 

barica, a restricted Alauda with a long hind claw. Of course the 
bird recorded by him as Spizalauda JDeva is the Spizalauda simil- 
lima, nobis. 

716. Emberi%a Huttoni. — This bird is common almost through- 
out Northern, "Western and Central India, wherever there are rocky 
hills. It abounds in the Salt Range, in the Panjab, and throughout 
the Aravalli range ; Taragurh at Ajmere and Mt. Abu, being 
amongst its most favourite resorts. I have it from near Mirzapur, 
from the Siwaliks and from the Saugor Division and Mr. 
Brookes has shot it in Etawah. Probably like Emberiza strio- 
lata, which I this year found breeding at Ajmere (see a separate 
paper on this species, which will appear in an early number of the 
Ibis) E. Huttoni is a permanent resident and not, as has been sup- 
posed, a visitant from the Himalayas. This is of course the bird 
referred to by S y k e s as E. hortulana. 

800. Pterocks fasciatus. — It is strange that I have never noticed 
the crepuscular habits of this bird. I have shot scores of it. One 
day, Mr. P. E. Blewitt and myself bagged over a dozen within a 
circle of half a mile at Tirkee in Goorgaon, not many miles from 
the famous sulphur springs at Soria. Only the other day I shot 
a pair not far from Kishengurh in Kajpiitana in bright daylight, 
as they came down to drink, and I have seen them at the water's 
edge in the mornings at least a dozen times. They are very com- 
mon in Upper India wherever there are low rocky hills with a 
little scrub jungle at the base, quite as common as P. exustus in the 
sandy open plains. I have shot both these species and arenarius 
in the same morning in the Goorgaon district, but alchata, our 
fourth. Indian species very rarely I think crosses the Indus, though 
it is abundant enough in the cold season at Hot Murdan and other 
trans-Indus Panjab posts, where it is known to sportsmen as the 
bronze-winged Sand-grouse. 

819 bis. Francolinus n. sp. — I do not doubt that the Cutch 
species is distinct, I propose to name it after my valued friend and 
contributor, Dr. Kin g, whose paper on the Birds of Goona is no- 
ticed more than once by Mr. B 1 a n f o r d. I had intended describing 
this species in the Ibis, but the only specimen I had, was such a 
vile rag, that I hesitated to do so, and in a weak moment, sent it to 

122 Observations regarding some species of birds. [No. 2, 

a brother sportsman in Kattywar, whence it had been received, to 
show the species of which I wanted specimens. Now, I am sorry 
to say, I can neither get the original specimen nor better ones out 
of my friend, and my only hope is, that seeing this notice, he may 
be conscience-stricken, and do me the favour of returning me my 
own bird, with a good series of the same species. 

P. S. — I take this opportunity of intimating my dissent to the 
propriety of elevating the Mahableshwar race of Alcippe poiocepliala 
to the rank of a distinct species. 

To the kindness of Mr. H. E. P. Carterl owe a noble series of 
the Nilgherry bird, and to the Rev. H. Bruce, two specimens of 
the supposed A. Brucei. 

I admit freely that, as a rule, A. poiocepliala is somewhat smaller 
than the specimens of Brucei which I possess, but some specimens 
of the former are fully as large. Brucei, to judge from the speci- 
mens before me, is certainly not darker as a rule, than the majority 
of poiocepliala, nor is it less ferruginous, and these three points are, 
what Mr. Fair bank in the original description which he sent me 
chiefly relies on. 

The fact is the shade of colour varies in individuals. Brucei is 
darker and less ferruginous, or lighter and more ferruginous than 
some, and absolutely identical in colour with other specimens of 
poiocepliala that I possess. 

The rounding of the tail, the wideness and firmness of the inner 
webs (other points insisted on by Mr. Fairbank) varies in 
individuals, and in these respects also, the specimens sent me of 
Brucei are intermediate between those now before me of the Nil- 
gherry bird. 

It may be said that Alcippe Nipalensis which I admit as a dis- 
tinct species, differs only very slightly in plumage from poiocepliala 
and this is true, but, the bill, legs and feet (the former conspicu- 
ously) of this latter, are invariably larger than those of Nipalensis, 
while they correspond exactly with those of Brucei. In the one 
case (and I speak after comparing numerous specimens), we have a 
constant and very material structural difference, while in the other 
there appears to be an absolute structural identity. 

1870.] 123 

On certain protracted irregularities oe Atmospheric pressure 
in Bengal in relation to the Monsoon rainfall oe 1868 and 
1869, —by Henry F. Blanford, Meteorological Reporter to 
the Government of Bengal. 

(With plate VIII.) 

[Eeceived 17th February, 1870. Read 2nd March, 1870.] 

When the Meteorological system, recently established in Bengal, 
began to afford trustworthy results, one of the first objects of 
enquiry that engaged my attention, was the variation of the 
monsoon rains. The year 1868 was marked by a rainfall in Lower 
Bengal (more especially at Calcutta and the S. Western part of the 
Gangetic delta) of almost unprecedented amount, while in the N. 
W. Provinces and the Panjab, the deficiency was such as to cause 
a very considerable failure of the crops and much consequent 
suffering. This year (1869), the rains have been comparatively 
light throughout Northern India, including Bengal, except in the 
districts to the North of the Pudma* river ; and it is fresh in the 
recollection of all residents in Northern India, that large tracts in the 
N. W. Provinces, Central India and the Panjab, have been pre- 
served from the imminent horrors of famine only by the timely 
rains at the very close of the ordinary monsoon season. My object, 
in the present communication, is to bring to notice certain peculi- 
arities in the distribution of the barometric pressure, which seem to 
throw some light on the causes, the proximate causes at least, of 
these notable and important variations. 

In watching the daily and monthly reports received from the 
Meteorological stations in Bengal, I early observed that sometimes 
for periods of several months, the barometric readings at certain 
stations, when reduced to the sea-level, shewed an apparently 
anomalous depression or elevation ; anomalous, that is to say, as 
not conforming to the general law of the barometric gradient for 
the time of year, as then known. I was at first inclined to suspect 
that the assigned elevation of certain of the stations might be erro- 
neous, or that, possibly, the barometric registers might be vitiated 

* The name given to the main stream of the Ganges below Rajmahal. 

124 Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal 8fc, [No. 2, 

by errors arising from faulty position or manipulation of the instru- 
ments. Accordingly I took every means in my power to verify the 
elevations, and either by personal inspection or otherwise, to satisfy 
myself that the instruments were properly placed and observed. 
The barometers had all been compared with the Calcutta standard 
before they were issued, and the errors thus ascertained had been 
applied as corrections to their readings. At stations that I visited,* I 
repeated the comparison with one or two mountain barometers which 
I carried with me, and which had been compared with the standard 
before my departure and were again compared on my return. In no 
case did the result of the second comparison differ from that of the 
first by more than a quite trivial amount. Some of the stations, f 
moreover, have been supplied with duplicate barometers since the 
peculiarities above noticed first attracted my attention, and in these 
cases, a comparison was made between the two instruments as soon 
as possible at the station, and their recorded errors thus made to 
furnish a check on each other. I mention these details because in 
this country the barometric variations are so small in comparison 
with those in Western Europe, that it is of the utmost importance 
in order that the conclusions based on their readings may be trust- 
worthy, that all merely instrumental errors be most carefully 
eliminated. Any confidence that my facts may lay claim to, will 
depend on the assurance that all ascertainable causes of error have 
been carefully ascertained and allowed for. 

These precautions then having been duly observed, and not 
having afforded any explanation of the observed anomalies, J the 
conclusion became legitimate, that they were real atmospheric phe- 
nomena and not apparent and instrumental only : and this conclu- 
sion was confirmed by the fact, that in some cases the same pecu- 
liarity was shewn by two or more neighbouring stations. Finally 
during the last cold weather (1868-69) I observed that certain 
stations which, during the S. W. monsoon, had shewn an excessive 
barometric depression, now exhibited an opposite tendency, an 
excess of atmospheric pressure ; and that this like the former pecu- 

* Dacca, Chittagong, Shillong and Monghyr. 
+ Saugor Island, Cuttack and Akyab. 

X With one exception. The elevation of Chittagong had been erroneously 
reported, as shewn by my verification. 

1870.] Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal, 8fc. 125 

liarity, affected not one only, but two or three neighbouring stations 
in different degrees, and lasted for some months. 

It was not, however, until another S. "W. monsoon had afforded 
me the means of comparing the barometric features of the same 
season in two consecutive years, that I could be justified in assuming 
any correlation between these local peculiarities of atmospheric 
pressure, and the variations in the rainfall. There has hitherto 
been very little systematic observation of the barometer in India, 
that is susceptible of comparative treatment, and very much 
remains to be done to ascertain the normal distribution of atmos- 
pheric pressure during our monsoons. To determine whether any 
local peculiarity is normal or abnormal, at least two registers for 
corresponding seasons must be compared. This has now been 
done for the SW monsoon, and I am justified in concluding, that 
the local depressions which I shall now describe, and which appear 
to me to be intimately related to those variations of the rainfall 
which I have already noticed, are peculiar to the year and not 

I take first of all the SW monsoon season (May to September) 
of 1868. The following table (extracted from my official report) 
gives the mean barometric pressure* of each of the monsoon 
months, at all the stations from which I have reports for the period 
in question. They are reduced to 32° Fahr. and mean sea level. 
May. June. July. Aug. Sept. 

Port Blair, ? 29-810* 29-835* 29-819*29-853* 

Madras, 29,800 '742* '756* -772 .792* 

Akyab, -850 -753 -756 -720 -797 

False Point, -736 -567 -562 -575 -654 

Cuttack, '754 -613 -615 -568 *735 

Chittagong, -802 -626 -657 -630 -740 

Saugor Island, .... '736 -522 '535 -475 -616 

Calcutta, '781 -570 603 -601 699 

Hazaribaugh, .... '720* -546* -509* ? ? 

* The means are obtained from the observations recorded four times daily 
viz. 4 a. m., 10 a. m., 4 p. m., and 10 p. m. on every day in the monch, 
except those marked with an (*) which are the means of the 10 a. m. and 4 
P. m. observations only. I have shewn, in the Report, that the means thus 
obtained are comparable to within '01 of an inch. 


126 Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal, fyc. [No. 2, 

May. June. July. Aug. Sept. 

Jessore, -761 -541* -584* ? -695* 

Berhampore, -777* -547* -590* -590* -715* 

Dacca, -831 -614 -636 *605 -739 

Monghyr, -701 -515* -542* '564* '679* 

Patna, -740* -549* -542* -574* *684* 

Benares, '747 -570 -573 -621 -710 

Eoorki, -694 *491 '517 '523 -658 

It will be observed that in June, (with the exception of the com- 
paratively distant stations, Monghyr and Eoorki,) and in August 
and September, (without exception as far as the table shews, 
Hazaribaugh being, however, wanting in these months,) Saugor 
Island shews the lowest mean barometric pressure. False Point 
also shews a low mean pressure, which is however, 0*1 above that 
of Saugor Island in August, and 0-03 to 0'04 in the other months 
after May. The Calcutta mean readings are from 0*045 to 0*12 
higher than those of Saugor Island throughout, and those of 
Cuttack (except in August when this station shews the lower mean 
pressure,) from 0-018 to 0*08 higher than those of False Point. 
There was therefore, a persistent barometric relative depression 
extending from Saugor Island to the SW. It was somewhat 
changeable both in intensity and position, but the minimum always 
lay nearer Saugor Island than any other station. The mean baro- 
metric gradient between Calcutta and Saugor Island (70 miles) 
was in 

May, one inch in 1555 miles. 
June, ,, ,, 1458 „ 

July, „ „ 1029 „ 

Aug. „ „ 555 „ 

Sept., „ „ 843 „ 

and it did not finally disappear until December. 

There was another area of barometric depression to the NW. 
and NNW. of the above, (as is shewn by Hazaribaugh and 
Monghyr) which would seem to be more regularly recurrent than 
that which lay about the Sand Heads, and is probably due to the 
elevated and hilly character of the country. In Jury the mean 
pressure at Hazaribaugh was lower than at Saugor Island. 

1870.] Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal, fyc. 127 

Saugor Island as has been already remarked was the lower in June, 
and in all probability in August also. 

Now the rainfall tables shew that the months of June and August 
were those of the heaviest rainfall in Bengal generally ; but the 
excessive falls were very local. In June the maximum was at 
Balasore and Contai ; in August at Hooghly and Kishnagur ; in 
both cases apparently, (certainly in the latter,) not at the place of 
greatest mean depression but at some distance (about 100 miles) 
to the north of it. This is shewn by the following table extracted 
from the general rainfall table in the official report — 
Rainfall in inches. 


Poori, 11-00 

Cuttack, 17-30 

False Point, 9-20 

Balasore, 36*20 

Saugor Island, 27-40 

Contai, , 34*43 

Midnapore, 22*80 

Calcutta, , 2661 

Howrah, 23*20 

Bancoorah, 15*25 

Hooghly, 15*80 

Burdwan, 8*20 

Jessore, 1 6*62 

Kishnaghur, 10*75 

Berhampore, 12*71 

Soory, 8-85 

Rampore Beauleah, 14-45 

Calcutta and Howrah received about the same quantity of rain 
in June and August, but in the former month they lay to the north, 
in the latter to the south of the area of greatest rainfall. In June 
the fall exceeded 20 inches over an area including Balasore, 
Saugor Island, Contai, Midnapore, Calcutta and Howrah. At 
Bancoorah, Hooghly and Jessore it was between 15 and 17, and at 
Cuttack rather more than 17 ins. In August the fall exceeded 20 
inches at Jessore, Kishnagur, Hooghly, Burdwan, Calcutta and 













































7 30 










128 Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal, Sfc. [No. 2, 

Howrah, and was nearly of that amount at Midnapore in one 
direction and at Berhampore in the other. 

In both months there was within these areas a focus of greatest 
rainfall, around which, the quantity diminished with the distance. 
This focus was about Oontai and Balasore in June, where the quan- 
tity registered was between 30 and 40 inches, and in August was 
situated about Hooghly, where the register exceeds 40 inches for 
this month. 

The resultant directions of the winds at Calcutta, Saugor Island, 
False Point, Cuttack and Jessore, as calculated from all the obser- 
vations in each month are given in the following table ; comparative 
prevalence being expressed by a number proportional to the whole 
number of observations taken as 100. 

May. June. July. August. Sept. 

Jessore, .. 58 S.19E. 56 8. 6W. 74S.22E. 27S.16E. 55 S. 12E. 
Calcutta,.. 80S. 5E. 75S.14W. 88 S .2E. 61 S.24W. 68 S. 18E. 
Saugor Id., 85 S. 5W. 77 S.29W. 72 S.12W. 45 S.37W. 37 S. 12W. 
False Pt., 81 S.24W. 60 S.47W. 68 S.55W. 58 S.87W. 40 N.83W. 
Cuttack,.. 70S.11E. 48S.35W. 47S.47W. 42S.79W. 18S.39W. 

Now on comparing in this table the mean directions for June 
and August with those of the other months, it will be observed that 
the former are characterized by a comparative excess of westerly 
elements. Thus at Calcutta, for example, the wind is East of South 
in May, July and September, but West of South in June and 
August. This general characteristic becomes very distinct when the 
anemometric resultants are laid down on a chart, [see Plate Till,] 
as wind arrows, the lengths of which vary as the figures expressing 
prevalence. At Jessore the August mean is an apparent exception, 
but the figure expressing prevalence, is so much reduced as to 
indicate a considerable deficit of Southerly and increase of Nor- 
therly elements.* A similar difference is shewn by the mean of 

A comparison of the June and August wind resultants with those 
of the same stations for any of the monsoon months of 1869 entirely 
bears out the above inference as to the unusual prevalence of a 

* The detailed table from which the mean resultant is computed shews 
this to be the case. 

1870.] Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal, 8fc. 129 

"Westerly element in the former, in other words of a deflection of 
the monsoon from its normal course towards the East. The winds 
do not indeed follow a spiral course around, and in to a place of 
minimum depression as they would do in a cyclone, but they are 
deflected from their normal direction to the Eastward, in all proba- 
bility to feed an ascending current over Lower Bengal. Hence the 
excessive rainfall already noticed at certain stations in Lower 
Bengal, and as a consequence, the deficiency experienced by stations 
to the NW. in the Ganges valley, with the predominance of 
Westerly winds which characterized the greater part of the monsoon 
of 1868 in the N. W. Provinces. Of these features the existence 
of a persistent barometric depression in the head of the Bay seems 
to offer a consistent explanation. 

I now pass to the monsoon of 1869, the barometric features of 
which differed considerably from those of the previous year, and 
which brought to the delta of Lower Bengal a rainfall somewhat 
below the average, while in the NWP. the deficiency of rain up 
to almost its close, was as marked as in 1868. 

May. June. July. Aug. Sept. 

Port Blair, 29-817* 29-770* 29-789* 29-810* 29-829* 

Madras, -733* -673* -717* '751* -777* 

Akyab, -782 -656 -701 -724 -804 

False Point, '763 -609 -626 -719 -748 

Cuttack, -710 -572 '626 -716 '733 

Ohittagong, '742 -600 -638 -731 -745 

Saugor Island, .. *705 -548 -566 -668 '704 

Calcutta, -680 '531 -566 -666 *708 

Hazaribaugh, .. -588 -481 '527 -624 '677 

Jessore, -669 -521 '554 '651 -701 

Berhampore, -665? '517? -562? -668 -709 

Dacca, '704 -566 -601 '684 '739 

Cachar, -752 -594 -630 -698 -761 

Monghyr, ? -482 -527 -596 -644 

Patna, -601 -494 '522 '619 -675 

Benares, -625 -505 -567 -641 -688 

Boorki, -560 '362 -510 -581 -663 

130 Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal , Sfc. [No. 2, 

The distribution of atmospheric pressure shown by this table is 
very different from that shewn by the table for 1868. The Saugor 
Island means are throughout equal to or higher than those of Cal- 
cutta, and those of False Point equal to or higher than those of 
Cuttack. Of the area of depression in the head of the Bay, which 
was so marked and constant during the monsoon of 1868, not a 
trace reappears. This season the seat of minimum pressure is 
transferred to Hazaribaugh and Monghyr,* and here it was persistent 
nearly to the close of the monsoon, deflecting the winds and apparent- 
ly determining the distribution of the rainfall, just as the Saugor 
Island depression of the previous year had done in the lower part 
of the delta. 

This depression first became marked in April, in which month 
the lowest mean readings are those of Hazaribaugh and Patna, 
Monghyr being wanting. In May the difference was greater and in 
June these three stations alone lay within the isobaric of 29'5. In 
June and July the pressure was about the same at Hazaribaugh 
and Monghyr, but in August and September it rose at the former 
more rapidly than at the latter station, and the barometric mini- 
mum lay above Monghyr. f Throughout the three first months of 
the rains, and indeed nearly to the end of September, the vapour 
bearing monsoon was then arrested in its normal course towards 
the N. W. Provinces by a persistent atmospheric depression in the 
region of the Curruckpore hills and Hazaribaugh, and it was not 

* In the abstract of the paper given in Proc. As. Soc. for January 1870, it was 
stated (p. 93) that in March, a slight depression appeared over a region inclu- 
ding Berhampore, Monghyr, &c, that in May it was intensified especially over 
the first named station and reached its lowest point in June, and that there 
was a mean difference of 014 of an inch between Calcutta and Berhampore. 
On re-examining the registers and laying down their barometric means of the 
stations for each day in curves, an instrumental error has been detected in the 
Berhampore register which affected it from the 15th April to the 15th July, 
and which caused the mean pressure to be recorded as rather more than 0*1 
too low. A corresponding correction has been applied to the register in the 
above table, but since the correction can be determined only for the beginning 
and end of the period, and is assumed to be the same throughout, the results are 
marked with a [?]. It results from this that the depression did not move 
westward as originally stated, but changed as now stated in the text ; and that 
the cyclone of June did not move dix-ect to the place of minimum pressure, 
though (as I am still of opinion) its course was probably affected by the exist- 
ence of the local depression. 

t Except Roorki which in this month was lower than any of the Bengal 
stations, but the barometer has not been compared and there is much reason for 
the belief that it reads low. 

1870.] Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal, Sfc. 131 

until the end of September that the contraction of this depression 
allowed the N. W. Provinces to receive their usual rainfall, as it 
would appear, by leaving the winds from the Bay to follow their 
normal course across Hazaribaugh and Chota-Nagpoor towards 
the Upper Provinces. 

In June the heaviest rainfall occurred at Julpigori (41-29 ins.) 
and Eungpore (36-7 ins). At the stations of Dinagepore, Pubna, 
Malda, Buxa, (Bhotan Doars,) and Groulpara more than 20 
inches were registered, while at Darjiling at which the average 
rainfall for this month is 27*50* ins., 19.85 inches only fell. At 
Calcutta the rainfall for the month amounted to 18*84 inches ; but 
of this, 1 1 inches fell in one day, during the Cyclone of the 9th 
June, the centre of which passed very near Calcutta. Berhampore 
received 21*74 inches of which 5*7 fell during the passage of the 
Cyclone and Eampore Beauleah, which was also near its track, 
18*05 inches, in all of which 6 inches fell on the day of the storm. 
It would appear then that the heaviest fall was to North East of 
the depression, the maximum being at 150 miles from the seat of 
greatest depression much as in August of the previous year. In 
the present case, however, the place of maximum rainfall was pro- 
bably determined by the proximity of the hills. 

That the winds in May and June were greatly influenced by the 
local barometric depression, and instead of blowing up the Ganges 
valley, drew in towards the depression with a tendency to circulate 
round it, is shewn by the following table, which exhibits also the 
increase of Easterly components in September when the rains 
reached the Upper Provinces. 

It may be noticed, however, that as in the previous year, the in- 
fluence of the local depression was sufficient only to modify and 
weaken, not to counteract that of the probably more extensive area 
of low pressure, which many circumstances lead me to believe must 
exist in Central India, as a normal phenomenon of the S. W. 

May. June. July. Aug. Sept. 

Cuttack, .... 79S 6°E 58S 3°E 58S 49°W 55S 19°W 30S 17°E 
False Point, . . 63S 15°W 53S 25°E 72S 67°W 63S 56°W 41S 39°W 
* Mean of 7 years. 

132 Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal, ice. [No. 2, 

May. June. July. Aug. Sept. 

Saugor Island, 82S 38° W 60S 32° W 74S 55° W 77S 47°W 68S 11°W 

Calcutta, 82S 7°W 70S 6°E 84S 5°E 80S 1°E 85S 23°E 

Jessore, 55S 11°E 72S 30°E 82S 18°E 70S 7°E 85S 35°E 

Dacca, 69S31°E 87S 45°E 93S 37°E 90S 9°E 60S 33°E 

Berhampore,.. 63S 43°E 57S 38°E 74S 52°E 64S 23°E 7oS 53°E 

Monghyr, 43N 89°E 63N 86°E 61S 89°E 22S 75 E 63S 84°E 

Patna, 84N 7°W 92N 3°W 71N 6°E 72S 29°E 

Benares, 58N 5°W37N41°E 27 E 14N 48°\V 56N 8°E 

Gya, ? 23S 84°E 42S 77°E 22S 1°E 7lS 78°E 

Hazaribaugh, 32S 27°W 40S 15°W 32S 18°E 32S 19°W 61S 42°E 

To sum up the principal facts brought out in the foregoing dis- 

In the monsoon seasons both of 1868 and 1869, there was an 
area in or on the borders of Lower Bengal, in which the atmos- 
pheric pressure was persistently low, and which was partially or 
entirely encircled by a region of relatively high barometer. It 
originated with the general redistribution of barometric pressure at 
the beginning of the S. W. monsoon in April, and became intensified 
with the first fall of the rains in June. In 1868 it retained its initial 
position with a slight variation throughout the monsoon season, the 
depression being most intense in June and August, after which latter 
month it gradually decreased in intensity, but did not disappear 
till December. In 1869 it contracted or retreated northward and 
as far as can be judged did not entirely disappear, although its 
influence was diminished until quite the end of the monsoon. Its 
position was different in the two years, being in the former in the 
N. W. corner of the Bay of Bengal, in the latter in the hilly 
country to the west of the delta. 

It influenced the vapour bearing winds from the south by deflec- 
ting them towards it, and necessarily by determining an ascending 
current, it produced an excessive rainfall to the north of its position, 
the maximum fall being at from 50 to 150 miles from the place at 
which the barometer was lowest. Finally it impeded the passage of 
the vapour-bearing winds to the N. W. Provinces, and thus deprived 
that region of a great part of its usual annual supply. 

1870.] Irregularities of Atmospheric pressure in Bengal, $•<?. 133 

Explanation of the Charts, PI. VIII. 
The Charts shew the mean isobarie lines, the resultant wind 
directions and distribution of that rainfall for each of the three 
months, June and August, 1868, and June, 1869. The two former 
data are obtained from registers kept at the stations : 




False Point 











Saugor Id. 





Port Blair 

in the case of the Charts for June 1869. A few of these are want- 
ing in the charts of the previous year. The rainfall data are ob- 
tained from a larger number of Stations. 

The isobarie lines are obtained by reducing to sea level the means 
of (in most cases) four observations daily, reduced for temperature 
and corrected to the Calcutta standard. The lines represent differ- 
ences of Y^ of an inch. To determine their position, the distances 
between each pair of neighbouring stations, lying on opposite sides 
of a line, were divided into parts proportional to the excess or defect 
of their mean readings on the even tenth, and the line was drawn 
through the series of points so determined. If the stations are 
very distant, or the exact course of the line for other reasons doubtful, 
it is represented by a broken line. 

The wind resultants are represented by arrows, the points of 
which indicate the position of the stations to which they belong. 
The direction of their flight indicates the mean motion of the wind, 
as deduced from the number of observations, and without regard 
to differences of velocity. The relative predominance of the resul- 
tant direction is indicated by the length of the arrow, taking f inch 
as the maximum or as representing exclusive prevalence. 

The distribution of rainfall is indicated by light dotted lines, 
each line corresponding to a difference of 10 inches of fall during 
the month. 


134 [No. 2, 

Observations on some Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Rep- 
tilia, — by Db. F. Stoliczka, Paleontologist of the Geol. 
Survey of India ; Hon. Secretary, Asiat. Soc. Bengal. 

(With plates IX— XII.) 
[Read and received 6th April, 1870.] 

The materials upon which the notes, recorded in the present com- 
munication are based, have been derived from various sources. 
By far the greater number of the specimens noticed had been 
collected on my last year's trip along the Burmese and Malayan 
coast, at Penang and near Singapore, as well as on the Nicobar and 
Andaman islands. Only a few specimens were received through 
a friend from Java, and from Upper Burma, but some of the sj^ecies 
from these countries are of great interest, as I shall have occasion to 
notice further on. 

As regards the Indian fauna proper, I have little to say. Dr. 
Day furnished me with some materials which confirm the dis- 
tinctness of the two species of Enhydrina figured by Russell, 
namely, his Hoogli-pattee and Valahadyen. My collectors have also 
procured in the Sutlej and Kulu valleys, and in the neighbourhood 
of Simla, some species which I did not wish to omit, because 
doubts had been expressed against the correct determination of 
some of them. I particularly allude to such species as B 1 y t h ' s 
Platyceps fasciatus, which is a Compsosoma, Dipsas multifasciata, 
Blyth, Comjjsosoma Hodgsoni, G until., Tropidonotus platyceps, 
B 1 y t h, with which Steindachner's Zamenis Himalayanus is 
identical, and to a few others. There is at present less occasion to 
remark much on the fauna of India proper, as it will shortly be 
published in detail by Dr. T. 0. J e r d o n in his forthcoming work 
the u Reptiles of India." 

However, the Amphibia and Reptilia of the Andamans and 
Nicobars had a special interest for me, because the fauna of 
these islands was as yet less known than that of other parts of 
India and Burma, and not only promised to yield some novelties, 
and to elicit the geographical distribution of several Malayan forms, 
but upon examination of some type specimens in our Museum, 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 135 

described from these islands, there appeared several doubtful 
points to be settled. I was, therefore, most anxious to obtain as 
large a material as was possible, and on two different occasions 
despatched my collector to those islands. With the very kind 
assistance of Capt. J. A v e r n, of the Steamer " Scotia," Capt. 
Eundell, Assistant Superintendent of the Nicobars, Th. Ad. de 
Eoepstorff, and Mr. Homfray, at the Andamans, I have 
not only procured nearly all the species which had been already 
recorded as occurring on these islands, and several others previously 
known from India, Burma, Penang and Java, but also a few as yet 
undescribed forms. It was to be expected that the Amphibien and 
and Eeptilien fauna of the Andamans and Nicobars will shew a 
great similarity to each other ; several species of lizards and snakes 
are common to both, and the whole fauna greatly resembles the 
Malayan, gradually passing into the Burmese fauna, both being in 
a great many points very closely related to each other. The detailed 
lists of species known to occur on the islands will exhibit this more 
clearly. They will not only shew the distribution of some of our com- 
mon Burmese and Indian species, but at the same time indicate the 
peculiarity of each of the small geographical provinces alluded to. 

The number of Amphibia as yet known is very small, and there 
cannot be the least doubt that many more species of frogs will yet 
be discovered on both the Andamans and Nicobars ; tree-frogs 
especially ought to be numerous in the damp jungles of the 
Andaman and South Nicobar islands. Of Lacertilia there are 
several peculiar species, and the genera mostly agree with Malayan 
forms, such as Tiaris, Ptychozoon, Cyrtodactylus, P/ielsuma, Peripia, 
Bronchocele, and others ; a few more are of Indian and Burmese 
type. Among the Ophidia, the genera are more generally distri- 
buted all over India, such as Python, Dendrophys, Gonyosoma, Comp- 
sosoma, Tropidonotus, Ptyas, Ablabes, &c. Most of the species from 
the islands belonging to these genera are also found in Burma, 
in the Malayan peninsula, and the neighbouring Philippine islands. 
One of the most marked features in the Reptilian fauna of the Nico- 
bars and Andamans consists in* the great number of Trimeresurus ; 
particularly at the Nicobars, where the jungle appears to swarm 

* HydropMdce, or the poisonous water-snakes, appear to be comparatively 
rare, they prefer sandy shores to those surrounded by coral reefs. 

136 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

with them. Those I obtained from the latter islands only belong to 
two distinct species, T. Cantori, Blyth, and T. mutabilis, n. sp., 
but the number of specimens, particularly of the former species, 
is very great. An idea of this may be formed from the fact that 
my collector procured, within a comparatively short time, some 60 
specimens of the former and about 30 of the latter species. For- 
tunately these vipers do not seem to be as dangerous as their allies 
usually are. I shall speak of their poisonous properties further on, 
when noticing the various species of the genus Trimeresurus. 

T. Cantori is also common at the Andamans, but T. mutabilis 
seems to be there much rarer. Beside these two, a third species 
is to be met with at the Andamans ; it was called T. porphyraceus 
by Blyth, and also does not appear to be common. It seems 
to be sufficiently distinct from either T. carinatus and purpureus, 
with which it has been considered as identical by different herpe- 

The following species* have up to the present been observed from 
the Andamans. 


1. JRana gracilis, Wiegm., var. Andamanensis. 

2. Bufo melanosticus, S c h n e i d. 


3. Hydrosaurus salvator, L a u r. 

4. Gecko stentor, Cant. 

5. „ verus, Men*. 

6. Plielsuma Andamanense, Blyth. 

7. Peripia Cantori, G ii n t h. 

8. Hemidactylus frenatus, S c h 1 e g. 

9. ,, maculatus, D. and Bib. 

10. Cy r tod acty his rubidus, (Puellula rubida, Blyth). 

* I will mark those species which have been recorded as occurring on the 
islands, but of which I have not seen specimens, with an asterisk (*). I may 
as well notice that the only species which have been described from these 
islands are those by Blyth, (see Appendix in M o u a t ' s Adventures and 
Eesearches among the Andaman islanders, &c, 1863, p. 364), by Theobald in 
his Cat. of Burmese Reptiles, and some others by Steindachner, published 
in the scientific results of the " Voyage of the Austrian Frigatte Novara," 
Amphibia and Reptilia, 1865. 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 137 

1 1 . Tiliqua carmata, S c li n e i d. 

12. JSinulia maculata, B 1 y t h. 

13. Tiaris subcristata, Blyth, (= Coryphylax Maximiliani, 
Fitz. apud Steindachner). 

14. Ptyas mucosus, L. 

15. Gonyosoma oxyeephalum, B o i e. 

16. Compsosoma melanurum, S c li 1 e g. 

17. Tropidonotus quincunctiatus, S c li 1 e g. (=T. Tytleri, Blyth, 
and T. striolatus, Blyth apud Theobald.) 

18. JDipsas hexayonotus, Blyth. 

19. Dendrophis picta, G-m. 

20. Zycodon aulicus, L. (=Tytleria hypsirhinoides , Theobald.) 

21. Cerberus rhynchops, S c h n e i d. 

22. Ophiophayus elaps, S c h 1 e g. 

23. Naja tripudians, M e r r. 

24. Trimeresurus porphyraceus, Blyth. 

25. ,, Cantori, Blyth. 

26. „ mutabilis, n. sp. 
27.* Caouana olivacea, E s c h. 

28. Chelonia viryata, S c h w e i g. 

29. Caretta squamata, B o n t. 

From the Nicobars the following are on record — 


1 . Itana gracilis, W i e g m., var. Nicoba/rienns. 

2. Eylorana JVicobariensis, n. sp. 

3. Bufo melanosticus, S c h n e i d., var., (==Bufo spinipes, Fitz. 
=i?. yymnauchen, B 1 e e k.) 

4.* Crocodilus sp. 
There is no doubt of the occurrence of a Crocodile on the Nico- 
bars. Capt. E u n d e 1 1 informed me that he obtained a small live 
specimen of one, but it unfortunately did not reach me in time 
before the steamer left ; it is most likely C. porosus, S c h n e i d. 
5.* Hydrosaurus salvator, L a u r., (recorded by Blyth). 
6. Ptychozoon homalocephalum, Kuhl. 

138 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

7. Hemidactylus frenatus, S c h 1 e g. 

8.* Tiliqua carinata, Schneid, (recorded by Steindachner). 
9. ,, oliv acea, G r a y. 

10. „ rag if era, n. sp. 

1 1 .* Euprepes (Zygosoma) macrotis, F i t z. (recorded by Stein- 

12.* Typhloscincus JSficobaricus, Fitz. (recorded by Stein- 

13.* Calotes mystaceus, D a u d. (recorded by B 1 y t h.) 
14. „ ophiomachus, Me rr. 

15.* Bronchocele cristatella, Kuhl, (recorded by Steindach- 

16. ,, jubata, ~D. and B i b. 

17. Tiaris subcristata, B 1 y t h. 

18. Ablabes Nicobariensis, n. sp. 

1 9. Bendroph is picta, Gmel. 

20. Lycodon aulicus, L. 

2 1 . Python reticulatus, Schneid. 

22. Pelamis platurus, L. (= bicolor, Schneid.) 

23.* Platurus laticaudatus, L. (recorded by Steindachner.) 
24.* „ Fischer i, Jan, ( „ „ ,, ) 

25. Trimeresurus mutabilis, n. sp. 

26. „ Cantori, Blyth, (= ? ? Trim, labialis, Fitz. 

apud Steindach ner, see further on ) 
27.* „ purpureas, Grray. This species is also recorded 

by Steindachner, but as he says that the specimens are in bad 
state of preservation, they may prove to be unicoloured varieties of 
T. mutabilis, though purpureus may also occur, but I have not 
as yet seen any specimens from the Nicobars. 

28-29, Blyth mentions fragments of Chel. virgata and imhricata, 
and very likely some more of the Pelagic species will be found. I 
have myself seen fragments of turtle bones and of their shells with 
the natives, but I would not venture to identify the species. 

Accidentally the number of species upon record from both groups 
of islands is the same, but the Nicobar fauna appears to be richer, 
especially in the Scincid^ and AgamidvE, and no doubt may more 
snakes will also be found. There were several species obtained by 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 139 

the Austrian expedition, which we have not yet received in Calcutta 
from these islands. The almost total want of CoLUBitiDiE on the 
Nicobars is remarkable. 

From Penang I have to add to the Amphibia a form which appears 
to be a third interesting variety of the very variable Rana gracilis, 
and two new species, Polypedates Hascheanus and Ansonia Penangensis 
(n. gen. et sp.). Among the Ophidia I procured a new Trimereswnis, — 
T. convtctus, — rather closely allied to the Himalayan T. monticola, 
G ii n t h., and a very interesting species of Mabouya, — 31. Jerdoniana 
— which I got on the little Pulo Ticlius, close to the northern shore 
of Prince of Wales island. 

I have also added a complete description of the rare Gecko Smitkii, 
Gray, a specimen of which was sent to me from Java, and that of 
what appears to be a full grown specimen of Tetrayonosoma efrene, 
Cant., from the island Banca. 

From Amherst, near Moulmein, I have recorded a new species of 
the rare genus Cantoria, and from Martaban a very interesting small 
Riopa. At the last locality, I also obtained Jerdon's Biplcpelma 
Camaticum, Caloula pulclwa, Gray, Hylorana Tyileri, T h e o b., 
Hinulia maculata, B 1 y t h, and some others. 

The following is a complete list of the species noted in the pre- 
sent paper ; the families are quoted, according to Dr. G ii n t h e r ' s 
work on " Indian Eeptiles." 



1. Eana gracilis, Wieg m., typical. 

„ ,, ,, var. Andamanensis. 

,, ,, ,, „ Nicobariensis. 

,, ,, „ „ pulla, (from Penang hill.) 

2. Eana cyanophlictis, S c h n e i d. 

3. Pyxicephalus breviceps, S c h n e i d. 

4. Polypedates Hascheanus, n. sp. 

5. „ maculatus, Gray. 

6. Hylorana Tytleri, T h e o b. (? = erythrea, S c h 1 e g). 

7. ,, Nicobariensis, n. sp. 

8. Ansonia Penangensis, n. gen. et sp. 

9. Diplopelma Carnaticum, J e r d. 

140 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

10. Caloula pulchra, Gray. 

1 1 . Buf o viridis, L a u r. 

12. ,, melanosticus, Schneid. ( = gymnanchen, B 1 e e k., 
= spinipes, F i t z. 



13. Phychozoon homalocephalun, K u li 1. 

14. Gecko guttatus, D a u d. 

15. ,, stentor, Cantor. 

16. „ Smithii, Gray. 

17. Phelsnma Andamanense, B 1 y t h. 

18. Peripia Peronii, Cantor. 

19. „ Cantoris, G ii n t h. 

20. Hemidaclylus frenatus, S c h 1 e g. 

21. ,, maculatus, D. & B. 

22. Cyrtodactylus rubidus, (Puellula rubida, B 1 y t h). 

23. ,, affinis, n. sp. 

24. Tiliqua carinata, Schneid., (Eup. rufescens, Schaw. 
apud Giinth er.) 

25. „ rugifera, n. sp. 

26. ,, olivacea, Gray. 

27. Mabonya Jerdoniana, n. sp. 

28. Hinulia maculata, B 1 y t h. 

29. Piopa lineolata, n. sp. 

30. Calotes mystaceus, D. & B. 

31. Bronchocele cristatella, Kuhl. 

32. „ Moluceana, Less. 

33. „ jubata, D. & B. 

34. Tiairis subcristata, B 1 y t h. 

35. Draco volans, Linn. 


36. Cylindrophis rufus, Laur. 

37. Ablabes melanocephalus, Gray. 

38. „ Eappii, G ii n t h. 

39. ,, collaris, Gray. 

40. „ Nicobariensis, n. sp. 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 141 

41. Ptyas mucosus, L. 

42. „ hexahonotus, Cant., (Xenelaqhis idem apud G ii n t h e r) • 

43. Compsosoma radiatum, E,-e i n v. 

44. „ melanurum, S c h 1 e g. 

45. ,, semifasciata, B 1 y t h, (Platyceps idem), 

46. ,, Hodgsoni, G u n t h. 

47. Tropidonotus quincuntiatus, S c h 1 e g. (T. Tytleri and 

striolatus, B 1 y t h). 

48. „ stolatus, L. 

49. ,, platyceps, B 1 y t h, (Zamenis Himalayanus, 

Stein d.). 

50. Gonyosoma oxycephaluin, B o i e. 

5 1 . Dendrophis picta, G m e 1. 

52. ,, caudolineata, G r a y. 

53. Chrysopelea ornata, Shaw. 

54. ,, rubescens, Gray. 

5 5 . Psammophis condanurus, M e r r. fPhayrea isabellina, T h e o b . ) 

56. Tragops fronticinctus, G ii n t h. 

57. Dipsas hexagonotus, B 1 y t h. 

58. „ multifasciata, B 1 y t h. 

59. Lycodon striatus, Shaw. 

60. „ aulicus, L. (Tytleria of T h e o b al d). 

61. Tetragonosoma effrene, Cant. (var.). 

62. Python molurus, L. 

63. ,, reticulatus, S c h n e i d. 

64. Hypsirhina plumbea, B o i e. 

65. Cerberus rhynchops, S c h n e i d, 

66. Hipistes hydrinus, Cant. 

67. Cantoria Dayana, n. sp. 

68. Bangurus cceruleus, S c h n e i d. 

69. Ophiophagus elaps, S c h 1 e g. 

70. Naja tripudians, M e r r. 

7 1 . Callophis intestinalis, Laur. 

72. Enhydrina Yalakadyn, B o i e, (=1$. Bengalenm). 

73. ,, shistosa, D a u d. 

74. Pelamys bicolor, S c h n e i d. 

75. Trimeresurus gramineus, Shaw. 


142 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

76. Trimeresurus erythrurus, Cant. 

77. „ carinatus, Gray. 

78. „ porphyraceus, B 1 y t h. 

79. ,, mutabilis, n. sp. 

80. ,, Cantoris, B 1 y t h. 

81. ,, convictus, n. sp. 

82. Halys Hymalayanus, G ii n t h. 

83. Daboia Russelii, Sliaw. 


84. Emys crassicollis, Bell. 


Fam. Eanidje. 

1. Bana gracilis, Wiegm. (G u n t h. 1. cit. p. 409.) 
This species is very common in the Sundarbans, all along the- 
coast of Arracan, near Rangoon, Moulmein, Tenasserim, the 
Welesley Province, Penang, and apparently also at the Andamans 
and Nicobars ; it usually does not hesitate to take to sea or brackish 
water, and is, as a rule, a true literal species. 

In specimens from all these localities the coloration is typical, the 
spots on the back,* the band between the eyes, and the spots on the 
lips are never absent, there is, however, no rule as to the presence or 
absence of the pale dorsal streak ; generally it is present and occa- 
sionally (on some specimens from Eangoon and Penang), almost as 
wide as the interspace between the eyes. The body of the largest 
specimen, I have collected at Akyab (Arracan coast), measured about 
2£ inches in length ; this specimen has four ruddy spots on the back 
between the shoulders, forming a cross. Specimens with the body 2 
inches long are comparatively very common. The external surface 
of the vocal region is black in the male. The length of the snout 
slightly varies, but it is usually conspicuously attenuated, apparent- 
ly more so in the males than in the females. In specimens with a 
narrower snout, the ridges of the vomerine teeth almost touch each 

* In young specimens there is only one transverse somewhat undulating 
dark band above the middle of the body ; the skin is generally distinctly 

1370.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 143 

other, in those with somewhat broader snout, the interspace between 
the dental ridges is more or less widened. As regards the pro - 
portions of the length of the legs compared with those of the 
body, the Arracan and Eangoon specimens are the most true to the 
type ; the legs being stout and the distance from the anus to the 
metatarsal tubercle equal to, or very little longer than, the length 
of the body ; the toes are half webbed, but in young specimens the 
webbing appears a little stronger, because the toes are thin and 
of moderate length, while in old ones, the fourth toe especially is 
much elongated, and more so in the males than in the females. 

In several specimens from the neighbourhood of Moulmein and 
some others, obtained near the coast at Penang, the distance between 
the anus and the metatarsal tubercle is conspicuously* more than 
the length of the body, the difference amounting to about ^th 
of the length of the body, the specimens are also a little more 
slenderly built, but no other specific difference exists, except 
that in some specimens, the toes are conspicuously slender and 
elongated, so as to make the webbing appear to be still less than in 
Arracan specimens. 

a. As variety AndamanensiS may be distinguished, the form 
occurring on the Andamans. I have examined four specimens from 
Port Blair. Of the smallest the body is about one-third of an 
inch long, of the two next above one inch, and of the fourth 2^rd 
inches. In all the specimens the snout appears a little shorter 
and more obtuse than in typical gracilis, and the hind feet are 
decidedly more slender, and proportionately longer than in that 
form. In the first specimen the difference is equal to yth 
of the length of the body, in the two of middle size it is -Jth 
in one and a little less than ith in the other, in the large 
specimen it is very nearly -|th ; one of the specimens has a thin 
vertebral streak, the others none ; the chin and breast are spotted 
with black, mostly conspicuous in those of median size. 

The rest of the characters and the coloration remains true to 
the type, except perhaps the webbing of the toes, appearing to 

* In one specimen, noted in the list of measurements as e, the feet are pro- 
portionately very long, but they are not slender to the same extent, as they are 
in the Andaman variety. 

144 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

be a little stronger than in most other specimens ; the web reaches 
to the tip of the third, but not to that of the fifth toe ; the 
fringe on the external edge of the fifth toe is almost obsolete. 
The tubercles which are in young specimens very distinct on the 
body, and above the eyes, become also nearly quite obsolete in the 
old frog. 

Although at the first sight the greater length of the legs and 
the obtuse snout appear to be striking differences, I don't think 
that they are sufficient to regard this insular form as distinct from 
the continental, particularly so, when we observe the changes in 
the length of the legs of the Arracan and Rangoon specimens, and 
those from the Welesley province. Possibly the above noted differ- 
ences may in time become better developed, and may then be 
considered as of specific value : that is — a local race may in time 
become a species. 

b. var. NicobariensiS. From the Nicobars, in the neigh- 
bourhhood of the Nancowri harbour, I obtained one peculiar young 
specimen. The body measures l£th inch, and the distance between 
the vent and metatarsal tubercle is slightly more than that of the 
length of the body, thus in this point coming up very near to the 
typical Arracan specimens, but it has the short snout of the var. 
Andamane?isis, and of the next variety from Penang. It differs, 
however, from both in the very slight webbing of the feet, the toes 
being considerably elongated and slender, the fourth equals in 
length to very nearly half the body, the disks are slightly swollen, 
and the web is almost only basal, it hardly extends to half the 
length of the toes ; the cutaneous fringe on the edge of the fifth toe 
is slight but distinct, and the tubercle at the base of the fourth toe 
obsolete. The skin is, like in other young specimens of gracilis, 
finely tuberculated, and the whole habitus and coloration identical 
with type specimens ; the lower side is finely mottled with dusky, 
as in Andamanensis. 

c. var. pulla. As a further variety of R. gracilis I regard two 
specimens which I obtained in a small pool of water at a height of 
about 2,000 feet on the Penang hill. One is only -fth, and the other 
|^th of an inch long ; they agree with the Andaman variety in the 
somewhat obtuse form of the snout, spotted chin and breast and the 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 145 

slenderness of the feet ; in the first the difference of the distance 
between the anus and the metatarsal tubercle, and that of the body 
is -§-th more of the length of the latter, in the second specimen it 
is nearly one-sixth ; but in both specimens the toes are proportion- 
ately shorter and more fully webbed ; the fifth toe has the cutane- 
ous fringe as distinct as in typical gracilis. The colour of the fresh 
specimens was a light brown with green spots, perfectly identical in 
distribution with those of gracilis, with which also the tubercles on 
the back entirely agree ; these two specimens have no dorsal streak. 

When viewed independently from other specimens, nothing would 
be easier than to regayd the above noted Penang small variety 
as a distinct species, for, in addition to the obtuse form of the 
snout, and the greater length of the legs noticed in the Andaman 
variety, we have in this a complete webbing of the toes. However, 
there is in any case, at present no sufficient reason for doing this. 
For I have already noticed that in young specimens of typical 
gracilis the toes appear stronger webbed than in old ones, and as the 
. two specimens from the Penang hill are evidently young ones, they 
may shew this development accidentally more, than perhaps other 
specimens in the same locality would do. Until this has been 
sufficiently ascertained, the other more constant characters consisting 
in the form of the body, and also the very characteristic coloration 
must be regarded as more important than the peculiarity of a 
known variable character. 

In all these varieties quoted above the constancy in coloration is 
most marked. I do not regard the more or less pointed or obtuse 
snout as a character of great importance, for it varies considerably 
in specimens of one and the same locality in different stages of age, 
and apparently also in the sexes. Neither would the reference to 
the greater or lesser length of the hind limbs appear to be very 
important, but that the webbing of the toes should vary so consi- 
derably as noted above, is really very remarkable ; and I would 
certainly have separated the Andaman and the small Penang form 
as distinct species — on account of shorter snout, longer limbs and 
stronger webbing of the toes, — had I not obtained from the Nico- 
bars, situated geographically between both, a form which has the 
short snout of the two last varieties, but the proportionately short 


Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

limbs of the type form ; on the other hand, however, a very slight 
webbing, distinct from all others ! 

I hope to be able to give illustrations of all these forms, as soon 
as I may be placed in possession of more extended materials which, 
I trust, will be sufficient either to confirm the present determination, 
or to shew that what I pointed out as varieties are in reality to be 
considered as distinct species. I can now only repeat that, whatever 
anxiety some herpetologists may feel regarding the consistency 
of the species in question, I cannot view those insular forms, on 
comparing them with hundreds of specimens which I myself 
collected in the Sundarbansj Arracan, E an goon and down the 
Tanasserim coast to Penang, as anything else but local varieties of 
one and the same species. I shall now only add the actual measure- 
ments of the principal forms. 

Measurement in 

Typical form, 


toes half webbed. 

= :§ 




Penang, the 

low land form, toes 

|th webbed. 



toes £th webbed. 

1-5 ^3 


o . 
o rs 














Length of body, . . . 



2 A 






Distance from 

vent to metatarsal 














near- 2 













Length of fourth 



Total length of 
hind limb, 














2 u 



The varieties from Moulmein and (i) Nicobariensis are almost 
identical in measurements. 

2. Rana cyanophlyetis, S c h n e i d. (G ii n t h. 1. cit. p. 406). 
This species has been collected by Dr. F. D a y in Orissa where it 
appears to be common. Specimens measuring up to 3 inches in 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 147 

length of the body are also not rare in the Sundarbans, and the 
species here principally lives in pools of water which is more or less 

3 . Pyxieephalus breviceps, S c h n e i d. (G- u n t h. 1. cit. p. 411). 
A specimen was obtained by my collectors in the forests above 

Kotegurh at about 7000 feet ; body measured 2£", the hind leg 2f". 

Fam. Polypedatid^:. 

4. Polypedates Hascheamis, n. sp. Pi IX, Fig. 3. 

Body moderately slender, anteriorly rather wider than posteriorly 
and depressed ; skin smooth or with few indistinct small tubercles 
except above the eyes ; snout moderate, obtuse, slightly longer 
than the distance between the eyes ; fore foot, when laid for- 
ward, exceeds the snout nearly by the whole length of the first fing- 
er ; the distance between anus and heel is slightly less than the 
length of the body ; tympanum round, smaller than the eye; the dorsal 
glandular fold is rather indistinct on the forepart of the body, but 
clearly traceable on the posterior half of it, a second glandular fold 
runs from the hind edge of the orbit above the tympanum to the 
upper arm ; toes slightly webbed in young specimens, but in the 
largest specimen observed they are about one-third webbed ; only the 
terminal disks of toes are conspicuously flattened and enlarged ; the' 
inner metatarsal tubercle is large and compressed the outer at the 
base of the fourth toe almost obsolete ; vomerine ridges very small 
and distant, but present even in the smallest specimens less than 
half an inch long. 

Colour above lighter or darker olive brown with few irregular 
small spots, (sometimes, though rarely pale, almost yellowish olive) . 
with a black band between the eyes, edged with light in front, 
followed by a W mark, the ends of which begin almost behind the 
eyes, a pair of somewhat indistinct blackish spots below the middle 
of the body ; sides of the front part of the body black, lips slightly 
spotted with white, a large white spot behind the angle of the 
mouth, sides of body mottled and punctated with white and black 
limbs with dark brown cross bands ; lower parts whitish olive 
mottled and finely punctated with dusky, especially on the sides 
about the fore and on the hind limbs. 

148 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

I found this species tolerably common all through the higher for- 
ests (about 1000 feet above sea level) in the island of Penang ; it does 
not seem to grow to a large size, for though I have seen hundreds of 
specimens in different places of the island, the largest I obtained, only 
measures -j--f' 'in length of body, the distance from anus to heel, is -*-§-" 
inches, the fourth toe T V and the total of hind limb 1 ^\ inch. The 
usual size of the specimens is only T ^, and nearly T 9 ^-, T ^g-, if inches in 
the other corresponding measurements. It is generally seen on the 
leaves of small bushes or on the ground between old leaves ; it is very 
active and on account of its very small size rather difficult to secure. 

I have great j)leasure in naming this species after my friend 
Alfred Hasche who has very kindly assisted me in my re- 
searches on the island. 

5. Polypedates maculatus, Gray, (Gr ii n t h. 1. cit. p. 428.) 

A variety of this species is not uncommon in Penang. Live speci- 
mens were of a yellowish brown colour with greenish tinge, the head 
much darker than the rest and with a distinct bluish tinge, the whole 
of the upper surface very minutely punctated with dark speaks ; a 
short blackish partially interrupted streak below the timpanoid fold ; 
all four feet with indistinct cross-bands, the hinder side of the 
femora blackish, spotted with white : the extreme edge of the upper 
lip white ; below uniform yellowish white. The skin in young 
specimens is very finely granular above, in old ones it becomes 
smoother, especially on the posterior half of the body. 

6. Rylorana Tytleri, T h e o b. PL IX, Fig. 1. 
Cat. Eept. Asiat. Soe., Museum, p. 84. 

(an idem Rylorana erythr&a, Schleg. Grunth. 1. cit. 

p. 425.) 
I have collected near Moulinein two specimens which I was 
first inclined to regard as a variety of H. erythroea. There is no- 
essential difference in the measurements of the two. 

a. full grown. b. young. 

Length of body, 2 inch. if mcn * 

Distance from vent to heel, .... ljf ,, nearly f-$ „ 

Length of fourth toe, .... -j-f ,, tV » 

Total length of hind leg, 3 T 5 F „ if „ 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia % 149 

The snout is somewhat narrow in the more fully grown specimen. 
The fourth toe is rather short, the web reaching to the tip of the 
third and fifth toe. The first toe has at its base a very prominent 
laterally compressed tubercle, and another considerably smaller 
tubercle is at the base of the fourth toe, the last is not mentioned 
by Griintheror Dum. and B i b r o n in the description of 
erythrcea. The upper glandular fold is as usually distinct, the lower 
begins above the base of the upper lip, is interrupted above the hu- 
merus, then bends downwards as a short fold and disappears without 
continuing along the side of the body. From the upper hinder edge 
of the tympanum also a short thickened fold runs to the humeral 
tubercle. This character also occurs on two other specimens of 
unknown habitat in the Asiatic Society's Museum, but in the one 
named Tytleri by Theobald, there seem to be, besides the short 
curved glandular ridge, slight traces of its lateral extension, it being 
broken up until it disappears on the posterior middle part of the 
belly. In this last specimen the toes are also fully webbed, and the 
fourth toe is little more than half the length of the body, as in typical 
erythrcea. The lower portions of the femora are distinctly granular. 

The Moulmein young specimen is dark brownish green above, 
black on the sides, the old one olive green above, blackish on the an- 
terior half of the sides, and mottled with black on the posterior ; the 
glandular folds are white, the upper lips with a white streak, but 
their edges are blackish ; the lower parts are pale mottled with black 
on the anterior half ; the hinder parts of the femora are also mottled 
or marbled with black, but the upper sides of both fore and hind 
limbs are brown banded. This last coloration is also never mention- 
ed in the published descriptions of erythrcea, though Schlegel's 
figure apparently seems to indicate it on the tarsal portion of the 
hind limbs. 

It would seem, without a comparison of typical specimens of 
erythrcea, rather difficult to state whether our Lower Bengal and 
Burmese specimens have to be specifically separated from erythrcea, 
or not, but with all the apparent very great similarity they really 
seem to me to be distinct. In Theobald's type, specimen* of 

* This is the Dacca specimen to which B 1 y t h alludes when he says of 
Hylorana (Lymnodytes) mowularia (Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, XXIII, 


150 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

H. Tytleri the measurements almost perfectly agree with those of 
erythrcea, the body is by nearly half the length of the snout longer 
than the distance between vent and heel, and the fourth toe is 
slightly more than half the length of the body. There are, however, 
two distinct metatarsal tubercles of which the one on the first toe 
is very prominent and large, and the legs are banded brown above. 
If these last characters never occur in erythrcea of the southern 
regions, the specific name Tytleri will have to be reserved for 
our form. The indistinct continuation of the lower glandular fold on 
the body cannot be taken into consideration, neither the somewhat 
elongated form of the fourth toe, for there can be no doubt that the 
two above mentioned specimens from Moulmein, and two others in 
the Museum, (either also from Lower Bengal or from Burma), are 
identical with Theobald' s Tytleri, and in all these, the lower 
glandular fold bends down behind the fore limb and then disap- 
pears ; the fourth toe also is slightly shorter than half the length of 
the body ; in other characters all the specimens entirely agree. 

Hylorana Nicobariensis, n. sp. Pi. IX, Fig. 2. 

In its slender habit resembling the last, but the snout is narrower 
and more obtusely rounded than in that species, its end very little 
projecting above the lower jaw; canthus rostralis rounded ; loreal 
region slightly excavated ; tympanum round, almost circular and 
little smaller than the eye ; skin in the males above, finely granular, 
more distinctly so posteriorly, lower side of the femora coarsely 
granular ; in the females the skin is smoother ; a distinct gland runs 
from behind the eye on each side of the upper edge of the back ; 
a second gland is indicated by two tubercles, one behind the angle 
of the mouth and the second posterior to it above the humerus, 
and in some specimens there is even a third much smaller tubercle 
present from which a short rim bends downwards ; all these glands, 
however, are much less distinct in very young specimens. 

p. 299), that it differs from erythrcea "by its shorter and stouter limbs and short 
anterior digits, &c." Gunther's somewhat sarcastic remark (1. oit. p. 425) 
on that point is uncalled for, because B 1 y t h ' s type of macularia is actually 2| 
in total length, and the distance from veut to heel only two, consequently less 
than that of the body, and the limbs are thus actually stouter and shorter than 
in the specimen described by G ii n t h e r, though both no doubt are the same 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 151 

The disks of the fingers and toes are well developed, on the latter 
the web reaches fully up to the tip of the third and fifth toes. The 
second and fourth fingers are sub -equal, and the third is about one- 
third longer than the fourth. Two metatarsal tubercles are present, 
the marginal one at the base of the first toe is elongated and later- 
ally strongly compressed, the other which is smaller and rounded 
is placed at the base of the fourth toe. The length of the body 
(measured in 8 full grown and 5 young specimens), is somewhat 
more than the distance between the anus and heel, and the fourth 
toe is shorter than half the length of the body. The following are 
the actual measurements of two of the largest specimens : 

<? ? 

Length of body, 2 inch. l|f inch. 

Distance from vent to heel, lif ,, 1 jf ,, 

Length of fourth toe, if ,, |-f ,, 

Total length of hind limb, 3 T ^g- „ 3 T 3 g- ,, 

In comparing these measurements with those given of the Moul- 
mein H. Tytleri, the two will be found to be almost identical. And 
this first led me to believe that the present species may only 
be a variety of Tytleri (f erythrcea), but the larger tympanum 
of Nicobariensis, the usual total want of the short downward bent 
lower glandular fold, the better developed disks of the fingers 
and toes, the greater length of the third finger, then the presence 
of two almost sub-equal tubercles at the base of the toes, a distinctly 
larger gape of the mouth, somewhat more distant ridges of vomerine 
teeth, &c, &c, are so well marked in all the specimens examined that, 
on comparing them with the corresponding characters of Tytleri, the 
conclusion seems fully justified that the Nicobar form indicates a 
sufficiently distinct specific type. 

Colour above olive greenish, much darker and almost black in 
some male specimens, upper glandular fold pale, upper lip whitish, 
lower glandular tubercles usually purely white ; sides of body includ- 
ing the loreal region black, which uniform colour, however, fades on 
the posterior part of the body and is sometimes replaced there by a 
few dark spots. Lower parts more or less mottled with black, some- 
times almost wholly black in the males, but yellowish between the 

152 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

thighs ; in the females, the lower parts are whitish, either uniform or 
only slightly dusky. Fore limbs with few indistinct cross "bands, a 
dark streak in front of the upper arm, and another one behind, as 
well as on the lower arm ; hind limbs above banded with brown, 
behind indistinctly mottled with dark and yellow. 

In coloration and in the development of the disks of the fingers and 
toes, &c, this species much resembles H. temporalis, Gr ii n t h., (1. 
cit. p. 425) from Ceylon. But in this species the hind limbs appear 
to be in proportion longer, the snout is much broader, the third finger 
shorter, and it is said to have " no glands behind the angle of 
the mouth." In Tythri the lower glandular tubercle commences 
between the tympanum and the upper angle of the mouth ; in Nico- 
bariensis that tubercle is situated behind and rather almost below 
the angle of the mouth. 

Fam. Ehinodermatidje apud Gf ii n t h e r. 

No maxilary or vomerine teeth ; ear and tympanum developed ; 
toes webbed j sacral vertebra dilated ; no paratoids. 

Ansonia, n. gen. 

Body slender, elongated, rather depressed, uniform in width ; 
sacral vertebra much dilated ; muzzle short, obtuse ; limbs long and 
slender ; fingers four long, smooth, free and peculiarly cylindrical ; 
toes five, not much developed, half webbed ; disks of fingers and 
toes slightly swollen, rounded. 

The great peculiarity of this genus rests in the slender form of the 
body and the great length and slenderness of the limbs, and especial- 
ly of the fingers. In the general character it more reminds of 
Phryniscus, than any of the genera of the Rhinodekmatid^e, referred 
to this family by Gr ii n t h e r, but it is readily distinguished from 
the former genus by the tympanum and open eustachian tubes. I 
have associated with this new form, the name of my esteemed 
friend, Col. Anson, the present Governor of Penang, who has 
shewn the greatest interest in my natural history researches 
during my short stay on the island. 

8. Ansonia Penangensis, n. sp. PL IX, Fig. 4. 

Body slender and long, almost with parallel sides throughout ; 
muzzle short and blunt in front, shorter than the interspace between 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Beptilia. 153 

the eyes ; the whole of the upper and lower skin, except on chin 
and throat, tuberculated ; tympanum distinct, smaller than the eye ; 
tongue elongated, elliptical, rather thick, entire ; fore limb as long 
as the distance between the hinder edge of eye to the posterior end 
of body, distance from anus to heel nearly as long as the body ; 
hand on the inner side with a large ball ; first finger shortest, then 
comes second, then fourth, and the third is longest, all are cylindrical 
and with slightly dilated and smaller disks at the end ; toes half 
webbed, rather short ; metatarsal tubercles indistinct, a large fiat 
one at the base of the first toe and a small slightly more prominent 
one at the base of the fifth toe ; in young specimens they are not 
developed. Above uniform ashy, marbled and reticulated with 
black ; sides of head and body, and the limbs with rather large pale 
orange or yellowish warts or spots, lower parts dusky with small 
white spots, especially on the sides of the belly and in front of the 
shoulders ; lower part of belly and the inner thighs of a beautiful 
rose colour in life specimens. The measurements of two specimens 
of different sizes are as follows : 

a. b. 

Length of body, ^ |f inches. 

Length of fore limb, (nearly) T ' ¥ \\ ,, 

Distance from anus to heel, ..(nearly) T \ ij ,, 

Length of fourth toe, T 3 g- T 5 ¥ ,, 

Total length of hind limb, !f 1 T 5 ¥ ,, 

I have only obtained four specimens of this interesting species 
on Penang, two near the great water-fall (above the Alexandra 
bath), and two in a narrow gorge about half way up the Penang hill. 
In both cases, the specimens were found flatly attached to the 
side of the rock above the water, and did not make the slightest 
attempt to escape when taken from it. This habitat seems peculiar, 
and corresponds with that of a new species which Dr. J e r d o n 
lately received from South India through Major Beddome 
(vide Proc. Asiat. Soc. for March, 1870, p. 85). In general form and 
style of colouring our species much reminds of Ixalus opistorhodiis, 
lately described by Dr. Gr u n t h e r from a Nilgheri specimen 
(Proc. Zool. Soc, 1868, p. 484, pi. 37, fig. 3.) 

154 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

9. Biplopelma carnaticum, J e r d., PL IX, Fig. 5. 

Frngystoma carnaticum, J e r d o n, Journ. Asiat. Soc, Beng. 
1853, XXII, p. 534. 

Body moderately stout with proportionate limbs ; snout short, 
obtuse, its length being equal, or hardly equal, to the width of the 
head between the eyes ; a front limb when laid forward exceeds the 
snout by half the length of the third finger ; length of body equal to, 
or very little less, than the distance between the anus and the 
metatarsal tubercle ; length of fourth toe equal to, or less than, half 
the length of the body ; skin on the posterior part of the femora 
extended as in Caloula ; fingers and toes with small rounded disks ; 
two metatarsal tubercles, the one at the base of the first toe is 
elongated and compressed, the other at the base of the fifth toe 
either a little larger, or scarcely smaller and rounded ; toes only 
webbed at the base, their length variable. 

Color above isabella or yellowish brown, with a dark bottle- 
shaped mark along the back beginning between the eyes with a 
tris-cusped edge, after which it contracts, then again widens, and a 
little below the middle of the body divides in two pairs of branches, 
of which the posterior extends to the base of the femora ; a trian- 
gular black mark about the anus, extending below ; on each side 
of the median brown mark are undulating longitudinal dusky 
streaks, these lateral portion of the back are sometimes, during life, 
tinged with rose colour, similar to Caloula pulchra ; limbs with 
brown cross bars, sides dark, purplish black, this color disappear- 
ing posteriorly, an oblique pale streak extending from the eye 
towards the shoulder ; below dull whitish, mottled with dusky, 
especially on chin and throat. 

This is, as Dr. Jerdon (Proc. Asiat. Soc, March, 1870, p. 85) 
remarks, a wide spread species. I am indebted to him for the 
identification of my specimens, their colouring being almost per- 
fectly identical with his original drawing from which the scanty 
notice of ling, carnaticum, published nearly 20 years ago in the 
Society's Journal, was taken. It was originally described from the 
Carnatic ; numerous specimens exist from Beerbhoom in the Asiat. 
Soc. Col. ; Dr. Jerdon obtained it in the Khasi hills, and I found 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 155 

three specimens under a large block of wood at Martaban (near 
Moulmein) in company with one small Caloula pulchra and young 
specimens of Bufo melanosticus. 

The measurements of my specimens are as follows : — 

a. b. c. 


Length of body, , -^r 1 1 inch. 

Distance from anus to metatarsal 

tubercle, -^ 1 1~ „ 

Length of fourth toe, . . , -J- -J- -^- ,, 

Specimen c has a pale median dorsal streak extending the whole 
length of the body, the two others have none. 

10. Caloula pulchra, Gray, (G- u n t h., 1. cit. p. 437). 

In spite of the dilated disks of the toes and fingers, this remark- 
able Batrachian is by no means arboreal in its habit. I twice 
observed it near Moulmein. It appeared after sunset about the 
same time as Bufo melanosticus, crawling on old wood and feeding 
on white ants. 

In external character both Caloula and Diplopelma are very close- 
ly allied, and young specimens of the former, in which the vome- 
rine ridge is not developed, can strictly speaking hardly be dis- 
tinguished from the latter, except by the slightly more dilated disks 
of the toes. I am even not quite certain whether the distinctions 
between the two are really such as to entitle them to generic rank, 
which doubt especially becomes apparent, when we compare the 
descriptions of the two other Burmese species of Diplopelma 
described by B 1 y t h ; in any case when kept distinct they should 
be classed close together in one family. 

Fam. Bufonidje. 

11. Bufo viridis, L a u r. (Gr ii nth., Cat. Bat. Brit. Mus. p. 58). 
Steindachner (Nov. Exped., Amph. p. 40) already recorded 

this species as occurring in Spiti. It is found throughout the Sutlej 
valley from Kotegurh upwards, but is always rare. At Kotegurh, 
between 6 and 9000 feet, it is occasionally met within localities 
where B. melanosticus also occurs, but further to east in Kunavar, 

156 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 2, 

the latter is not found, and in Spiti only B. viridis is met with, 
usually between 11 and 13,000 feet, though far from common. At 
the village Grieumal, I found a small specimen at about 15,000 feet, 
which is probably the highest locality from which a Batrachian was 
ever recorded. 

12. Bufo melanosticus, S c h n e i d, (Gr u n t h., 1. cit. p. 422). 
(Syn. Bufo isos, D. and B. = ? B. gymauchen, B 1 e e k., = B. spinipes, 

Younger specimens of this species are, as a rule, much more slen- 
der than old ones, and the same applies to the form of the para- 
toids ; they are dark ashy (rarely light brown) variegated with black. 
There are, however, very many variations to be observed in both 
the length of the body and of the paratoids. The width of the 
head also greatly varies. The species is said not to possess a rim 
on the inner edge of the tarsus, some specimens have it, how- 
ever, distinctly indicated, either as a short continuous fold, or as 
a row of somewhat enlarged tubercles ; this can be seen in speci- 
mens from about Calcutta, and I observed the same also in some 
of the younger and half grown ones from near Moulmein, Penang, 
Malacca, Singapore, the Andamans and Nicobars. Himalayan 
specimens from the Sutlej valley, and some of the specimens 
from the interior of the Andamans, and one or two from Moulmein, 
hardly possess a trace of it, but all these are of large size, having 
the tarsus particularly thickened and rounded. 

Steindachner (Amphibia der Novara Exped. p. 42,) 
justly, I think, questions the specific difference of Bufo isos, D. and 
B., (or ? B. gymnauchen, B 1 e e k.), from B. melanosticus, stating 
that in the latter, considerable variations exist as to the more or 
less complete webbing of the toes. I also find that it is impossible 
to attribute to this character within certain limits much specific 
value. The pure land forms, such as those from the Himalayas, 
from Upper Bengal, from the interior of the hills east of Moulmein 
and from the jungles of the Andamans, usually have the toes more 
elongated, and consequently they appear to be only moderately 
webbed. The webbing extends on the fourth toe to about half its 
length, and is further on only indicated by a minute ridge on either 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 157 

side. In many specimens from Lower Bengal, particularly in 
some from the Sundarbans, in some from Moulmein, Penang, Ma- 
lacca, Singapore, the Nicobars and in others from the Andamans, — 
that is, in such forms which are always found near the water, — 
the webbing appears stronger, principally on account of the toes 
not being so much elongated, or the webbing is in reality more 
developed ; but the transition from one form into the other is so 
gradual, that no specific distinction can be attached to it. 

Considering these differences in the webbing of the toes and the 
usual indication of a tarsal fold in authentic melanosticus, I can hardly 
see the reason for which Steindachner retained F i t z i n- 
g e r ' s JSufo spinipes from the Nicobars as a distinct species, (1. cit. 
p. 43). I have compared several specimens from Nancowry and 
Camorta, and cannot detect any specific distinction from melanosticus. 
The more slender form is only a character of young and middle age, 
though it is sometimes retained by specimens attaining a length of 
five inches. I have seen such specimens in abundance near Moul- 
mein, on the sea coast at Malacca and the Welesley province. 

The webbing in the Nicobar form is moderate, such as in some 
Andaman specimens, and the young from both islands are always 
rather dark ashy, much marbled with black, and the body is 
greatly elongated. My largest specimen from the Nicobars is 
2^ inches, and one paratoid gland is somewhat less than one-third 
the length of the body, which is as a rule also the case in specimens 
of melanosticus from other localities ; in Malacca specimens only it 
is sometimes nearly one-fourth ; these have also an equally slender 
and long body as those from the Nicobars. Gr ti n t h e r considers 
spinipes (Eecords 1867, p. 146) as identical with gymnauchen which 
he apparently acknowledges to be distinct from melanosticus, (see 
also Proc. Zol. Soc, 1868, p. 479). 

The largest specimen of melanosticus I saw, is from near Moul- 
mein, measuring 6^ inches in the length of the body. 

[To be continued in the next number.] 


Tig. 1. Hylorana Tytleri, T h e o b., 1, side view, the toes of the 
right hind limb shewn internally ; 1 a. upper view of the head ; 
1 b, interior of the mouth, shewing the tongue and the vomerine 
teeth, &c, from Moulmein. 

Fig. 2. Hylorana JSTicobariensis, n. sp. ; 2, side view; 2 a, head 
from above ; 2 b, interior of the mouth ; from the Nicobars. 

Fig. 3. Polypadates Hascheanus, n. sp. ; 3, view from above, 
3 a, anterior half of the body from the side ; 3 c, interior of the fore- 
3 d, interior of the hind limb ; the two last figures enlarged ; from 

Fig. 4. Ansonia Penangensis, n. sp. ; 4, 4 a, dorsal and ventral 
views, 4 b, side view of the head ; 4 c, front part with the mouth 
opened, shewing the form of the tongue ; 4 d, sacral vertebra with 
the coccygial style ; 4 e, interior of the toes of one hind limb, 4 f, 
interior of the left hand, the two last figures enlarged ; from 

Fig. 5. Diplopelma Camaticum, Jerd., upper view, from Mar- 
taban, near Moulmein. 

P. STOLIC ZKA, Jcmr;Asia.t: Soc:i5eng-al,Vol:XXXIX,Ft.2, 1870. 

JPl: IX. 

^«*# *. %0T 

1. HyUrcmjouTutUr-^TKeo-b. 3. PolypedaUs Ha*ch*a*»u* , rv. sp. 

2. „ mcolarvensiSrTvsp. A.Arvsorwcv FcTvaxvgervsvs, rv. g. tt sp. 

5 . Diphopdrrucv Carntdbuctxrnj, Jerdorv. 





Na III.—1870. 

Observations on some Indian and Malayan Amphibia and 
Beptilia,— ly Dr. F. Stoliczka. 
{Concluded from p. 157.) 
Fam. Geckotidje. 
13. Ptychozoon homalocephalum, Or e v.-var.-(Q u n th. 1. cit. 
p. 105). 

This species Las already been noticed by Steindachner 
from the Nicobars ; it is rare in Tenasserim, and has also been 
obtained in Pegu by Major Berdmore. In Penang* it is 
not uncommon. I only got one specimen at the Nancow- 
ry harbour on Camorta, near the new settlement ; it possesses 
some peculiarities. — The total length is 6£ inches, the body 
being half an inch longer than the tail. It is pale purplish 
brown, all over mottled and marbled with darker brown, partially 
with indistinct cross bands ; the flaps are purplish fleshy, with 

* Since writing these notes, I received a large collection of Amphibia and 
Reptilia from Penang and the Malayan country east of it, and I hope to 
be able to publish additional information about many species in a subsequent 
number of our Journal. [F. Stol.j 


160 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Br pf ilia. [No. 3, 

bluish, rather fine marblings. The shields on the flaps are consi- 
derably transversely elongated, rectangular. There is no flap in 
front of the femur, but it is continuous behind ; and the thumb and 
nail on the first toe are rather small and semicircular. Above, there 
is only one row of enlarged tubercles, beginning quite laterally about 
the middle of the belly and continuing on the tail ; this is segmented, 
the segments being indicated by cross series of two pairs of enlarged 
sub-conical tubercles ; 13 upper, 10 lower labials, the lower rostral 
is small, the first lower labials on each side being conspicuously 
larger ; the median pair of chin- shields is considerably elongated 
;and forms a suture, all the chin-shields along the labials are slightly 
enlarged decreasing in size posteriorly ; scales of belly small in 
about 20 longitudinal series, they are hexagonal ; 19 enlarged 
preanal scales in an angular series, only about the 12 median ones 
are partially pierced, the adjoining scales below the angle are con- 
spicuously enlarged, but the scales on the preanal edge itself are 
very small; most of the median sub-caudal s are considerably en- 
larged and in two rows, but are by no means regularly placed. 

14. Gecko guttatus, Dau d, (G u n t h., 1. cit. p. 102). 

This is a well known Burmese inhabitant. It is very common in 
the houses about [Rangoon, Moulmein, Amherst &c., and is also 
occasionally met with about Calcutta. Specimens taken in Dacca, 
and particularly those from the Khasi hills, are sometimes of 
different coloration, and the larger tubercles on the back vary in size, 
and number. In some specimens also, I have not counted more 
than 12 pre-anal pores, while in others the number rises to 32. 
Still more variable are specimens from the Arracan coast, and they 
constitute, as well as the Khasi variety, a local race. Good series 
of these Geckos are necessary for comparison. I am not certain 
whether the Arracan form does not exclusively belong to the next 
species, for unfortunately I have not kept many specimens. 

15. Gecko stent or, Cant. (G ii n t h., 1. cit. p. 102). 
Gecko Verreauxi, T y 1 1 e r, Jour. Asiafc. Soc , Beag. xxxiii, p. 516. 

This rare Gecko occurs, as noticed by Theobald (Oatal. Kept. 
Asiat. Soc. Mus., p. 29), also at the Andamans, and specimens of 
14 inches of which the tail measures 6 or 6^ inches are by no means 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptili®. 161 

uncommon. It lives on trees ; its general colour is ashy or pale 
brownish (without the green tinge of G. guttatus), with some dark 
brown markings on the posterior part of the head, the sides of the 
neck ; the hind feet, partially, and the tail are encircled with darker 
brownish bands separated by pale whitish ones. This is often a 
sign of immaturity in other allied forms. The scales or shields on the 
head are very much smaller and more flattened than in G. guttatus, 
and the same applies to the shields of the chin. On the back, the 
middle 4 series of enlarged tubercles alternate and are comparatively 
small ; they are separated by a rather broad interspace from the 
adjoining rows of considerably enlarged tubercles ; of these there are 
usually 4 rows on each side (rarely only 3), and particularly some of 
the innermost rows are enlarged, black or dark brown with white 
tips. On the tail, the two median rows of enlarged tubercles dis-' 
appear in about half the length, the other four tubercles which are 
sharply pointed and conical, continue on to the end. 

I have also observed specimens of this species near Akyab (Arra- 
can), and lately I saw a young specimen which was caught at Ohitta- 
gong. Thus we may look out for Gecko stentor also in Southern and 
Eastern Bengal. 

16. Gecko Smithii, Gray, (G- tint her, 1. cit. p. 103). 

The following is a description taken from an apparently nearly 
full grown specimen which I have received from Java. 

Above, blackish brown, lighter on the head, the front part of 
which has a greenish grey tinge, occiput with two V form rows of 
white spots, the first being accompanied in front by a blackish 
edge ; body with six transverse rows of white spots (the third im- 
perfect, not reaching on to the left side), the sixth consists of only 
3 distinct spots situated between the femora ; base of tail marked 
with one central and one lateral spot on each side, not extending 
below, then follow 7 distant white rings, the last being the smal- 
lest, occupying the tip of the tail ; feet spotted white. 

Below, chin whitish, breast and belly pale marbled with grey, a 
number of dark spots are more distinct at the sides than along the 
contre ; foet marbled like the belly ; tail dark, especially towards 
the end, in addition to the white rings scon above, there is between 

162 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 3 y 

each of the 1st and 2nd, the 2nd and 3rd and the 3rd and 4th one 
large white spot. 

The head is rather long in proportion to the body, covered 
with small flattened sub-equal granules, slightly varying in size 
on the posterior part of the body and especially at the sides ; 
there are 12 longitudinal rows round the body ; one row of su- 
perciliary shields is slightly enlarged, rostral shield large, followed 
by a pair of supra-rostrals, 16 upper-, 12 lower labials ; opening 
of the ear oviform almost vertical, broader below than above ; 
pre-anal pores 15; total length 5.8 inches, of which the tail is 
2-4 inch ; head 0*8 inch, femur 0*4 inch, total length of one 
hind limb 1 ■ 1 inch. 

I have not met with this species at Penang though it may 
occur there ; the only known specimen in the Fort Pit Museum 
is said to have been obtained at Penang. 

17. Phelsuma Andamanense, B 1 y t h (Gr ii n t h., 1. cit. p. 112). 
Gecko chameleon, T y t 1 e r, Journ. A. S. B., 1864, xxxiii, p. 548. 

This is, as Mr. B 1 y t h notes, in form and coloration a close ally 
to the Mauritius Ph. Cepedianum, differing from it by a longer snout ; 
there are only a few larger shields next to the lower anterior 
labials, but hardly as large as in Cepedianum. 

The type specimen has no femoral pores, and is evidently a 
female, but a row of slightly enlarged shields indicates their place. 
In male specimens an angular row of 28 — 30 femoral pores is pre- 
sent exactly as in the Mauritius species. In Ph. Andamanense, the 
subcaudals are enlarged ; there are eleven upper labials, the two 
last being very small, and 9-10 lower labials. 

The general style of coloration of both species is much the same, 
but the short mesial streak, beginning at the nape, appears charac- 
teristic of the Andaman form. When alive, the ground colour 
changes considerably from bright emerald green and a bluish tinge 
to almost dark brown bluish, with yellow, orange and reddish spots 
the lower parts are generally more or less bright yellowish. 

The usual size is five inches, of which the tail measures nearly 
one-half, but it grows up to six inches ; it is found also in houses, 
though usually only on trees which were no doubt its natural 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 163 

habitat before any bouses on the Andamans were constructed. I 
did not find tbe species to be common about Port Blair. 

18. Peripia Peronii, D. and B. (G ii n t h., 1. cit. p. 110). 

19. • Cantoris, G u n t h., (ibidem). 

Tbe former is tbe most common house Gecko all over tbe island 
of Penang, along tbe sea coast as well as on tbe top of tbe Penang 
hill, at an elevation of 2,500 feet. 

The young lizard is brown, with numerous rather large round pale 
spots all over the body, and each labial has a pale spot. Full grown 
specimens are pale ashy, sometimes almost white, all over densely 
and very minutely punctated with brown ; some indistinct round pale 
spots are usually traceable on the posterior part of the head and 
about the shoulders ; there are as a rule no brown spots on the 
labials, which are minutely punctated like the rest of the body,, 
though the ground colour is paler. 

In one specimen, captured on the Penang hill, the tail became 
injured. It grew afterwards particularly thick, short, with a sepa- 
rate short appendage above and another below on the side, no 
enlarged shields were formed below, in which character this speci- 
men would agree with P, Cantoris, but it has the two pairs of 
enlarged chin shields followed by a few smaller shields on either side, 
peculiar to P. Peronii. 

The former species, characterized by Giinther, I never 
met with on Penang, it must be extremely rare. But it is 
found at the Andamans, as noted by Theobald (Cat. Kept. 
Asiat. Soc. Mus. p. 30), though also very rarely. Col. T y 1 1 e r 
named it (characteristic of his particular desire of renaming 
species) Gecko Harrieti, (Journ. Asiat. Soc, Bengal, xxxiii, p. 
548). A specimen presented by Col. T y 1 1 e r to tbe Museum 
is 2*8 inches long, it has thirteen upper, and ten lower labials, but 
the last shields of both are very small ; central scales in forty-two 
series; the tail is depressed, and with minute spines on the edges of 
the front half. The general colour above is a sort of fawn colour 
with reddish brown and yellowish undulating transverse bands, 
between the shoulders, loins and on the tail interrupted by irre- 
gular blackish brown spots ; a brown band extends from the rostral 
through the eye to the shoulder, and is edged above with yellowish. 

164 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Peptilia. [No. 3, 

P. Peronii is also recorded by Mr. Theobald from Burma. 
The name Gecko pardus (Journ. A. &., B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 547) 
appears to have been applied to it by Col. T y 1 1 e r. 

The largest specimen of P. Peronii collected was six inches. In 
some specimens, I find the posterior plates on the toes are only 
angularly bent and not perfectly divided, what clearly indicates 
that the distinction between Gecko and Peripia is only of subordi- 
nate importance, and that the species included in the latter should 
strictly speakiug form only a section of the former. 

20. Hemidactylus frenatas, S chle g. (G ii n t h., 1. cit. p. 108) 
Geclco chaus and caracal, T y 1 1 e r, Jouvn. Asiat. Soc, Bengal, 1864, vol. 
xxxiii, p. 547. 

This common Indian species also occurs in Penang ; I only obtain- 
ed it on two occasions, both times on the pillars of the verandah ; 
it seems to have been expelled from the interior apartments by the 
much stronger Peripia Peronii. 

It is also found in Burma, in the whole of Lower Bengal, at the 
Andamans, where it seems to attain a larger size, and at the Nicobars. 
The thumb and inner toe are always particularly small but with dis- 
tinct claws ; the middle portion of the back does not usually have any 
enlarged tubercles, but sometimes there are two alternating rows of 
them, the three rows on each side are, however, pretty constant. The 
tail when reproduced, usually becomes smooth, without enlarged 
spines. In an Andaman specimen, the subcaudal plates are very 
considerably enlarged. Specimens from Rangoon have a very con- 
spicuous broad whitish band from the nostril continuing through 
the eye to above the ear ; it is bordered below by black. The 
Nicobar specimens are small and have mostly only 36-38 series 
of scales on the belly ; the thumb is almost obsolete, but there 
is no other specific difference. They were obtained on trees on 
Camorta, near the new settlement. The largest specimen I saw 
is from Moulmein, itmieasures 5^- inches with the tail 3 inches. 

21. Hemidactylus maculatus, D. and B. (Gr ii n t h., 1. cit. p. 107). 
Gecko Tytleri, T y t 1 c r, Joura. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xxxiii, p. 547. 

This is very common about Moulmein, The number of upper 
labials varies between 1 1 and 13, the last 4 or 5 being as usually very 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 165 

small; the lower labials vary from 8-10, and 9 is the most usual 
number, in the Tenasserim specimens at least. When the tail is 
reproduced, the spines don't grow again. The colour is sometimes 
uniform dark brown, sometimes pale with dark spots and broadish 
streaks, which usually have a tendency to arrange themselves in 
5 longitudinal rows on the body. The blackish eye-streak is ac- 
companied above and below by a light grey or pale yellowish band. 
In the brown varieties, the head above is generally spotted with 
pale. The usual size of Tenasserim specimens is 4 and 5 inches, 
of which the tail measures slightly more than one half. 

I have also obtained specimens of this species near Port Blair 
(Mount Harriette) on the Andamans. 

About Calcutta this Gecko is generally seen inside houses, while 
H. Coctcei is usually seen on the outer walls. There are, however, 
certainly two quite distinct forms which appear to have been 
regarded as Coctcei : The one is a small species rarely growing to a 
greater length than 6 inches, it has some enlarged tubercles on the 
back and the claw on the thumb is almost perfectly obsolete. The 
other species is much larger, but has no enlarged tubercles, and the 
claw on the tumb very distinct. I have seen specimens of this 
last measuring fully 1 inches, it is during life greenish with distinct 
transverse bands, lighter in front and dark posteriorly. I am now 
engaged in collecting all the Geckotidce about Calcutta and hope to 
be able to trace the differences indicated more clearly. There are 
certainly 4, if not 5 , distinct species of Hemidactylus alone in and 
on our houses ; and perhaps some other genera will be found re- 
presented. They are extremely useful animals, for they destroy 
a very large number of obnoxious and molesting insects in the 
house, and should always be carefully protected against injury. 

22. Cyrtodactylus ruhidus, B 1 y t h, sp. 

Puellula rubida, B 1 y t h, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1860, xxix, p. 109. 

„ „ apud Giint he r, 1. cit. p. 1.18. 

„ j, Theobald, Cat. 1. cit. et auctormn.. 

Gecko tirjris, T y t 1 e r, Journ. Asiat. Soc, 186i, xxxiii, p. 546. 

Body rather depressed, with numerous small and larger tuber- 
cles ; head large in front, covered with equal, somewhat squarish 

1G6 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Beptilia. [No. 3, 

sub-granular shields : tail round with larger tubercles near the 
base and gradually disappearing towards the end which is curled ; 
toes and fingers free, slender with a few sub-tubercular shields 
at their bases, and with narrow shields on more than the front 
half; claws short but sharply curved ; ten upper and lower labials ; 
the nostrils are superseded by a somewhat larger shield, and there 
are several small shields posterior to the rostral which is rather low 
and broad ; four enlarged chin shields, the lower rostral reaches 
between the first pair ; sub-caudals not enlarged. The preanal 
pores are situated in the male in a short fold between the femora, 
there are three or four on each side at the internal edge of the fold. 
In the females, this fold is either obsolete, or slightly indicated, but 
the pores are always absent. 

Ground colour above light, or rarely darker, brown with a fleshy 
tinge about the head and with two generally distinct marks, one on 
the nape beginning from the eyes, the other across the shoulders ; rest 
of head on the top spotted, with some dark streaks in front and on 
the sides ; bod} 7 dark spotted and striped ; tail when perfect cylin- 
drical with numerous broad blackish rings, somewhat confluent 
below ; when reproduced it is thicker, shorter and of a more uni- 
form brownish color with small blackish spots ; below uniform 
whitish pale fleshy, or sometimes even purplish. The usual length 
of specimens is about five inches, but it grows up to six indies 
and perhaps more, the tail exceeding the body by about one-fifth 
of its length. The species seems peculiar to the Andamans ; I 
found it on trees, but Col. T y 1 1 e r mentions that it also occurs 
under stones where it no doubt searches after insects. 

The above description of the species taken from fresh specimens 
collected by myself, shews that the character of Mr. B 1 y t h 
Pwllula has to be cancelled, and that wo have in the present 
lizard a typical Cyrlodactylm, as characterized by G r a y in his 
Catalogue of Lizards, p. 173. I am inclined to retain this genus 
as distinct from Gymnodactylus, which it otherwise closely resembles, 
but while the species of this last genus are house-Geckoes the 
Cyrtodactyli are typical tree-Geckoes, and their tail is rounded 
instead of flattened, the situation of the preanal or femoral pores is 
also very peculiar and distinct from Gymnodactylus. 

1870.] Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. 167 

Having carefully examined my fresh specimens, I was of course 
reluctant to see what it may be that has caused Mr. B 1 y t h to 
give such a different characteristic of his Puellula. On examining 
his originals the deception became clear. Evidently the speci- 
mens have been put in very strong spirit, or this had partially 
evaporated, and was refilled with perhaps double the strength. 
The skin of all specimens consequently shrunk along the back and 
on the sides, as well as between the femoral region, and these 
ridges had become so stiff and permanent, that it is by no means 
surprising they were taken as natural dorsal crest, and as folds on 
the side of the belly. However, a careful examination of these 
specimens shewed that the ridges are irregular, and in some places 
broken up so that there could be not the least doubt as to their 
being accidental. In fresh specimens nothing of all this exists, 
and the species is, as already noted, a typical Cyrtodactylus. 

In external appearance and coloration, C. rubidus greatly resem- 
bles Gymn. variegatus, B 1 y t h, from Moulmein (0- ii n t h., 1. cit., 
p. 1 1 6), except that in this species the femoral pores are differently 
situated, the tubercles on the back and the scales on the belly are a 
little larger, the sub-caudals enlarged and the tail depressed, as in 
other Gymnodactyli. 

I do not see Mr. Theobald's argument — Cat. Kept. Asiat. 
Soc. Museum, p. 32 — where he retains G. variegatusj under the 
genus JVaultinus (vide Gray's Lizards, p. 169), for it does not 
agree with that sub-genus in the form of the tail, nor in the posi- 
tion and distribution of the preanal pores. 

23. Cyrtodactylus affinis, n. sp. PI. X, fig. 1. 

Body rather depressed, covered with smaller and numerous en- 
larged sub-trihedral tubercles, each of which has 3-5 grooves ; 
shields of head small, those in front slightly enlarged and flattened ; 
rostral very large, reaching posteriorly to the top of head and 
grooved, a small shield above each nostril but not in contact ; 
upper labials 12, very low ; opening of the ear moderate, verti- 
cally elongated ; lower rostral very large, sub-triangular, reaching 
backward ; eleven lower labials ; a few of the chin shields next to 
the rostral are squarish, very litttle larger than others, but none 


168 Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. [No. 3, 

are elongated ; the scales of the be